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Shewing the occasion and design of it; 








VOL. I, 







A CLEAR and familiar explication of the 
holy Scripture for the service of common 
readers is of benefit to religion in general, 
and to the Protestant religion in particular. 
For the trutli of this I need only appeal to 
the experience of those families, or private 
persons, that have profited by the labours of 
divines in this way. I am so much an enemy 
to keeping the unlearned in ignorance of 
these writings, which are the only rule of faith, 
that I esteem no performances beyond those 
that tend to make every one's principles in 
religion his own. The history and doctrines 
of our blessed Saviour in the four Gospels 
are adapted to the understandings of all peo- 
ple with such exactness of judgment, and so 
happy a perspicuity of style, by the Para- 
phrase of Dr. Clarke on those books, that 
I no sooner read that work, but I wished it 
in every house ; and desired nothing more 
earnestly, than to see the remaining parts of 

VOL. I, 


the New Testament put by him into people's 
hands in the same condition of clearness and 
simplicity. His unavoidable engagements 
gave him no leisure to do this. And it was 
by his encouraging my inclination to attempt 
it, that I ventured to carry on what he began, 
with an exactness few can pretend to, and a 
success I can never hope for. Yet I promise, 
to my utmost, to follow his example, in seek- 
ing for the sense of the sacred writings with 
the most unprejudiced mind, and giving it 
with a sincere regard to plainness, and what 
I take to be truth. 




B 2 



THE FOUR GOSPELS are indeed a sufficient account 
of the life and death, the doctrines and religion of the holy 
Jesus. But neither would the actions of his life have been 
confirmed to succeeding generations, as facts sufficient to 
build a religion upon, nor could his doctrine or his death 
have extended their noble effects any further than the little 
corner of Judaea, (and that but to one generation of men,) 
had he barely lived and preached and died. A religion 
designed for the whole world, must be propagated to all, 
after it had been communicated to some, This must be 
done by persons qualified and endowed with proper and 
equal powers for so great a work 5 with powers to convince 
the present age of its facts and doctrines, and to convey 
them with full testimony to future generations. 

This is enough to satisfy the Christian reader of the 
necessity, usefulness, and particular advantage of this book 
to the Christian church, as well as of the four Gospels. It 
contains a history of the propagation of our most holy re- 
ligion for the first thirty years after our Lord's ascension. 
And when you have duly considered the three principal 
parts of which it consists, viz. the miraculous abilities con- 
ferred 'upon the apostles and primitive disciples ; their 
preaching of this religion first to the Jewish land; and 
then the progress they made in it through several large 
tracts of the Gentile world ; you will, I hope, attain the pro- 
per advantages of this divine history, for building your- 
selves up in your most holy faith, in these following con- 
clusions and observations. 



First, That these miraculous endowments of the Holy 
Spirit upon the Apostles and first Christians, are an ample 
and complete confirmation of the truth of the Cospel his- 
tory and religion. 

Secondly, That though we have left us in this book an 
account chiefly of the travels of but two apostles, viz. St. 
Peter and St. Paul, (and but a brief and short abstract of 
them neither,) yet the indefatigable labours, sufferings, and 
pains we find them to have taken, are a sufficient intima- 
tion and assurance of the same industry and application of 
all the other Apostles, that were dispersed into other parts 
of the w r orld, for demonstrating and establishing the Chris- 
tian religion. 

Thirdly, That the historical accounts we have of the tra- 
vels, miracles, and successes of the rest of the Apostles from 
the best ecclesiastical writers, though they be not of the 
same divine authority with those of this book, nor all of 
equal credibility; yet, in the main, have a great degree of 
historical and probable truth : and, 

Lastly, That whatever the depraved and miserable 
estate of ignorance and error of the far major part of the 
world may now be, yet the Divine goodness and providence 
was not at first wanting in bestowing on them all the means 
of true and saving religion by his Gospel. 






An account of some passages between Christ and his apostles after his 
resurrection. Of ivhat passed at his ascension. The election of 
Matthias into the apostleship. 

1 rjpHE * former 1, 2 rpHE Gospel which I, Luke, wrote A. D. 33. 

treatise have I -"- some time ago, (for your in 

made O Theophilus, s tr action, most excellent Theophilus,) 

n both 1c do "and contains an account of the life and doc - 

teach ° ' tr * ne °^ ^ esus tne Messiah and Saviour 

2 Until the day in °^ man kind > m which I was as full and 
which he was taken Particular f as I thought needful for the 
up, after that he instruction of a Christian convert : be- 
through the + Holy ginning from the birth and preaching 

* Ver. .1. The former treatise, Tov <bt^5tov Xoyov j or, the former 
part, viz; St. Luke's Gospel, and this of the Acts, seeming to have 
been but two parts of one and the same book, and probably pub- 
lished together. See Appendix to the Paraphrase on 1 Tim. in 
imitation of Mr. Locke's manner. " Sunt enim Acta hfoeps ejus 
" operis Xoyoq, cujus infirov Xoyov ipse suum agnoscit evangelium. 
" Acta postea ab evangelio divulserunt, quibus commodius visum, 
" ob locorum faciliorem expeditioremque invicem comparationem, 
" evangelistas separato codice complecti, et ab actis secerni." 
Dodwell, Dissertat. in Iren. 1. 

f Ibid, rhpi irdrrm must be thus limited j see John xxi. 25. 

% Ver. 2. He through the Holy Ghost. It being not by ex- 
positors clearly determined to which part of the sentence these 
words are to be connected, i. e. whether Christ is said to have 
been taken up by the Holy Ghost, or to have chosen and com- 
manded his apostles by the Holy Ghost ; I have therefore ex- 
pressed both meanings in the paraphrase . But indeed m»\vi^eU hot 
being not so good Greek as biu^dpims &», I take the latter to be 
the true sense, and the construction of the words seems to deter- 
mine it so. 





A. D. 33. of John the Baptist, his forerunner, sent 
to prepare the minds of men for the re- 
ception of his religion ; and ending at 
the day of his ascension, when he was 
taken up into heaven by the power of 
the same * Holy Spirit that conducted 
him through the whole course of his 
ministry, and in the * choice of his 
twelve apostles, who were to be the 
witnesses of what he had done and 

3 To which apostles (as I there re- 
lated, Luke xxiv.) he shewed himself 
alive immediately after his resurrection, 
convincing them of the truth of it by 
many the most undeniable proofs, for 
forty days together ; by eating and drink- 
ing, and discoursing with them, in his 
wonted manner, about the nature and 
success of his religion, which they were 
to preach to mankind. 

4, 5 At the last of which times of his 
meeting and conversing with them, (be- 
ing the day f on which he ascended,) he 
ordered them not to begin the work of 
preaching the Gospel immediately, but 
to stay at Jerusalem, till he should send 
down upon them those gifts of the Spi- 
rit, which God had long before pro- 
mised to his church, Joel ii. 28. and 
which (said he) you have heard me se- 
veral times speak of, and engage to ful- 
fil in you, in words to this effect, viz. 
That % as John the Baptist made his 
disciples by the significant ceremony of 
plunging them in water, so you shall be 

Ghost, had given 
commandments to 
the apostles whom he 
had chosen 5 

3 To whom also 
he shewed himself a- 
live after his passion 
by many infallible 
proofs, being seen of 
them forty days, and 
speaking of the things 
pertaining to the 
kingdom of God. 

4 And, being as- 
sembled together 
with them, com- 
manded them that 
they should not de- 
part from Jerusalem, 
but wait for the pro- 
mise of the Father, 
which, saith he, ye 
have heard of me. 

5 For % John truly 
baptized with water 5 
but ye shall be bap- 
tized with the Holy 
Ghost not many days 
|| hence. 

* See the foregoing note. 

f As some of our best commentators think, though it be not 
absolutely certain. 

% "Ot* being rendered by that, connects the sense of the two 
verses. Or it may be no reference to any particular former 
speech, but a general recapitulation of former promises now re- 
newed ; and then our translation stands good. 

|| Viz. at Pentecost, which was ten days after Christ's ascen- 



6 When they there- 
fore were come toge- 
ther, they asked of 
him, saying, Lord, 
wilt thou at this time 
restore again the 
kingdom to Israel ? 

7 And he said un* 
to them, It is not for 
you to know the times 
or the seasons which 
the Father hath put 
in his own power. 

8 But ye shall re- 
ceive f power after 
that the Holy Ghost 
is come upon you : 
and ye shall be wit- 
nesses unto me, both 
in Jerusalem, and in 
all Judea, and in Sa- 
maria, and unto the 
uttermost f parts of 
the earth. 

consecrated as my apostles in a manner a. D. 33 

much more solemn, by a miraculous , 

effusion of the Holy Spirit; and this I 
will perform about ten days hence. 

6 Jesus saw the greater occasion for 
giving this order, and repeating this 
promise to his apostles, from the com- 
mon prejudice and false notion they still 
were possessed of, concerning the tem- 
poral grandeur of his kingdom ; or at 
least that his kingdom was presently to 
come ; which they shewed plainly, by 
asking him, whether, after his resur- 
rection and ascent into heaven, he in- 
tended to gather the Jewish nation from 
its dispersion, and raise it into a pow- 
erful state ; as they expected the Mes^ 
siah would do. 

7, 8 To which question Jesus gave 
them this reply. There are indeed 
great things spoken by the prophets, 
concerning the restoration and flourish- 
ing estate of the Jewish church, * under 
the Messiah ; but the particular time 
and manner, in which God shali please 
to accomplish these things, is one of 
those secrets which he has reserved to 
himself, Deut. xxix. 29. In the mean 
time let this satisfy you, that you shall 
be the chief officers under me, in erect- 
ing and governing my kingdom : the 
Holy Ghost, which I have promised, 
shall endow you with such J power, that 
you shall give miraculous evidences of 
the truth of my religion, shall conquer 
the prejudices, and gain the belief of 
mankind, and shall extend these con- 
quests not only over this city and the 

* See Dan. vii. 13, 14. 

f Ax'^eo-Se Svvxfuv, Ye shall receive power. The word power 
seems here to be emphatical, as respecting the disciples' notion of 
having temporal power under Christ. Ye shall receive power 
indeed of a much more excellent kind. 

I "Ewj sV^aVa rws y*5,-. See ver. 1. and Luke xxiv. 47, 48, 49. 




A. D. 33. Jewish land, but to the most distant 
parts of the Gentile world, 

9 These are some of the last words 
that Jesus spoke to his disciples upon 
earth, which as soon as he had ended, 
and given them his blessing, Luke xxiv. 
50. there came from heaven a cloud of 
glory, which took him up from the 
ground, and gradually carried him out 
of their sight. 

10, 11 To which I now add another 
remarkable circumstance, that while the 
disciples were beholding his glorious 
ascent, with the utmost amazement and 
concern to be parted from him, (and yet 
perhaps with some hopes that he would 
soon return to them again,) two of the 
angels that attended him came down, 
and stood near to them, in human form, 
and in bright and glittering apparel, 
and spoke to them in this cheerful and 
comfortable manner. " It is vain, O 
(i ye disciples of Jesus, to look any 
" longer after him, whom ye can now 
6i no longer see. But be not disco u- 
(i raged at his departure; observe the 
" rules he has given you ; wait his pro- 
" mise ; and courageously discharge 
" your duty ; and be assured, that, to 
" your eternal honour and happiness, 
" you shall one day see this same Jesus, 
(i your Master and Saviour, come again 
a in the same glory and majesty, to the 
" solemn and final judgment of all the 
" world." 

12 These transactions of Christ's as- 
cension were done at Bethany, on a part 
of the Mount of Olives, (as I related 
Luke xxiv. 50.) from whence the dis- 
ciples now returned to Jerusalem, be- 
ing about seven or eight furlongs dis- 
tant, and there waited, according to his 
order, for the promise he had made 

13, 14 During their stay in which 
place, they constantly attended the 

9 And when he 
had spoken these 
things, while they 
beheld, he was taken 
up, and a cloud re- 
ceived him out of 
their sight. 

30 And while they 
looked stedfastly to- 
wards heaven, as he 
went up, behold two 
men stood by them 
in white apparel ; 

11 Which also said, 
Ye men of Galilee, 
why stand ye gazing 
up into heaven ? this 
same Jesus which is 
taken up from you 
into heaven, shall so 
come in like manner 
as ye have seen him 
go into heaven. 

13 Then returned 
they to Jerusalem, 
from the mount call- 
ed Olivet, which is 
from Jerusalem a sab- 
bath-day's journey. 

13 And when they 
were come in, they 




went up into an up- 
per room, where a- 
bode both Peter, and 
James, and John, and 
Andrew, Philip, and 
Thomas, Bartholo- 
mew, and Matthew, 
James the son of Al- 
pheus, and Simon 
Zelotes, and Judas 
the brother of James. 

14 These all con- 
tinued with one ac- 
cord in prayer and 
supplication with the 
women, and Mary 
the mother of Jesus, 
and with his brethren. 

15 And * in those 
days Peter stood up 
in the midst of the 
disciples, and said, 
(the number of the 
names together were 
about an hundred and 

16 Men and bre- 
thren, this Scripture 
must needs have been 
fulfilled, which the 
Holy Ghost by the 
mouth of David spake 
X before concerning 
Judas, which was a 
guide to them that 
took Jesus. 

17 For he was 
numbered with us, 
and had obtained 
part of this ministry. 

stated worship of God in the temple ; A. D. 33. 

and at other set times met together for , 

their more private devotions, in an 
upper convenient and private apartment, 
where they were used to assemble for that 
purpose along with the women that fol- 
lowed Jesus, and with Mary the mother 
of Jesus, and his other relations and dis- 

15 And * now being to give an ac- 
count of several transactions of these 
apostles and first disciples of Jesus 
Christ, after his ascension into heaven, 
I shall begin with that of their choice 
of an apostle in the room of Judas, 
which was done at one of their assem- 
blies f before mentioned, consisting oft Ver - 13 » 
about six score, St. Peter moving them 14, 

to it, by speaking to them in the follow- 
ing manner. 

16 My fellow apostles and fellow dis- 
ciples, you well know those prophetic 
expressions of David, (Psal. xli. 9. lxix. 
25. cix. 8.) which are most eminently 
fulfilled in the traitor Judas, both as to 
his office, his crime, and his punishment. 

17 For as in the first of those pas- 
sages, it was said of Achitophel, Mine 
own familiar friend in ivhom I trusted, 
which did eat of my bread, hath lift up 

* Ver. 15. At this verse I take the history of the Acts properly 
to begin, the foregoing part of the chapter being either a recapi- 
tulation of, or addition to, his Gospel history. 

+ Ver. 16. Note, The true rendering of this verse seems plainly 
to be this: It is fit that this Scripture should be fulfilled concerning 
Judas— which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before 
(viz. concerning other persons, and now perfectly applicable to Ju- 
das's case.) 





. his heels against me ; so was Judas chosen 
into the nearest place of trust by our 
Lord, and was our fellow apostle ; but 
betrayed him for a sum of money. 

18, 19 Of which he had no other ad- 
vantage, but to return it back to them 
that gave it him, and in the utmost 
horror and distraction of a guilty mind, 
to go and hang himself; and falling 
down from the place * he did it in, his 
body broke, and his bowels gushed out. 
Which wicked fact, and exemplary fate 
of Judas, is so notoriously known to all 
the inhabitants of Jerusalem, that the 
field purchased by the chief priests with 
that money, is to this day vulgarly 
called, The field of blood f . 

20 Thus the violent and unnatural 
end of this man is a perfect and dread- 
ful completion of the second expression 
of the Psalmist; Let his habitation be 
desolate, and let no man dwell in his 
tents. The last is, and his office let 
another take. 

21, 22 Which it is plainly our duty 
now to complete, by choosing a fit per- 
son in his place, our Lord designing 
the number to be twelve, by his own 
first choice, and the Holy Ghost thus 
directing it in such plain words. But 

18 Now this man 
purchased a field with 
the reward of iniqui- 
ty, and falling head- 
long, * he burst asun- 
der in the midst, and 
all his bowels gushed 

19 And it was 
known unto all the 
dwellers at Jerusa- 
lem 5 insomuch as 
that field is called in 
their proper tongue, 
f Aceldama, that is 
to say, The field of 

20 For it is writ- 
ten in the book of 
Psalms, Let his ha- 
bitation be desolate, 
and let no man dwell 
therein : and his 
bishopric let another 

21 Wherefore of 
these men which have 
companied with us, 
all the time that the 
Lord Jesus went in 
and out among us, 

* The sense of the word a^riy^ccTo (he hanged himself) in St, 
Matthew, being not absolutely determined by interpreters, nor the 
manner of Judas's falling down and bursting agreed upon, I have 
expressed it in the paraphrase, with as little addition to the text as 
I could. Only I observe, that our translation of a7rwy£«To, more 
exactly answers to the death of Achitophel, 2 Sam. xvii. 23. 
whom the best interpreters allow to be the type of Judas. 

f In the Syriac NDl^pn (Chakeldama) , which was the language 
of Judea at that time, with a very little mixture with the Chal- 
dean. That this Syro-Chaldaic was the vulgar language of Pales- 
tine in our Saviours time, and of the affinity between those two 
tongues, the reader may see Father Simon's Crit. Hist. N. Test. p. 
55, 56. 




22 Beginning from 
the baptism * of John, 
unto that same clay 
that he was taken up 
from us, must one be 
ordained to be a wit- 
ness with us of his re- 

23 And they ap- 
pointed two, Joseph 
called Barsabas, who 
was surnamed Justus, 
and Matthias. 

24 And they pray- 
ed, and said, Thou 
Lord, which knowest 
the hearts of all men, 
shew whether of 
these two thou hast 
chosen : 

25 That he may 
take part of this mi- 
nistry and apostle- 
ship, from which Ju- 
das by transgression 
fell, that he might 
go f to his own place. 

2G And they gave 
forth their lots ; and 
the lot fell upon Mat- 
thias, and he was 

he must be one that constantly attended A. D. 33, 

upon the person, and knows all the dis . 

courses and transactions of Christ, from 
the very first steps that John the Baptist 
made toward his religion, by preparing 
men for it by repentance, to the very 
day of his ascension : that so he may 
be able to concur with us, in exactly 
teaching the same doctrines* and giving 
a clear testimony to the same facts, 
especially that of Christ's resurrection, 
as the chief and greatest argument both 
to Jews and Gentiles. 

23 To this proposal of St. Peter the 
whole assembly agreed, and accordingly 
nominated two persons thus qualified, 
Joseph and Matthias. 

24, 25 And because they had not as 
yet the particular guidance and direc- 
tion of the Holy Ghost for such pur- 
poses, they therefore referred their 
choice to God, by solemn and earnest 
prayer, beseeching him as the infallible 
Searcher of the hearts, temper, and qua- 
lifications of all men, to point out to 
them which of the two was the person 
most proper and worthy, for the dis- 
charge of so great and weighty an office, 
which Judas had lost by so notorious a 
transgression, and was gone f to receive 
the punishment due to such a crime. 

26 And the particular manner they 
requested of God to assist and direct 
their choice in was by lot, a method he 
had been wont % to use among his peo- 

* Either John's baptizing his own disciples, or else his baptizing 
of Jesus, which latter Grotius takes to be the proper beginning of 
the Evangelical state and history. ; But the phrase being the 
same here, as in Matt. xxi. 25. rather seems to denote the former; 
and St. Luke having been so particular in his account of John 
Baptist's birth, preaching, and baptism, I have chosen to express 
it accordingly in this place. 

f Eij toVov tov i'<W, emphatically to his proper place, a place more 
fit for him than the apostleship. 

X See Levit. xvi. Numb. xxv. 59. Josh. xiii. 2 } 6. Judges xx. 9. 
1 Chron. xxiv. 5. Prov. xvi. 33. 




A. D. 33. pie in his designation of things and per- 

sons to several uses and offices ; which 

lot falling upon Matthias, he was chosen 
into the vacancy, and made the twelfth 

numbered with 
eleven apostles. 



The descent of the Holy Ghost on the apostles. The manner and cir* 
cumstances of it. The amazement it put them into. The calumny 
raised upon it by the Jews* St. Peter's vindication of it. The effect 
which his discourse had upon many of them. Three thousand bap- 

1 npHE day was now come in which 
■*■ Jesus was to fulfil the great pro- 
mise of the Holy Ghost to his disciples : 
the day of Pentecost, so called from its 
being the fiftieth day after the Passover *, 
(and the very day of the year on which 
the law given by God from Mount Si- 
nai, with so much glory and terror :) 
and he did it accordingly at an assem- 
bly of the whole hundred and twenty, 
for the worship of God, and the cele- 
bration of this great feast of weeks, in 
the following manner. 

2, 3 They first heard a strange and 
unusual sound from above, somewhat 
like that of a strong wind, which came 
upon the room where they were assem- 
bled, and in a wonderful manner filled 
and shook it, {thereby signifying the 
strength and power of that Spirit that was 
coming on them, for enabling them to fill 
the whole earth ivith their doctrine;) 
arM then upon every one of the com- 
pany sat the shape of a cloven tongue, 
(to signify the particular gift of several 

1 AND when the 
•** day of Pente- 
cost was fully* come, 
they were all with 
one accord in one 

2 And suddenly 
there came a sound 
from heaven, as of a 
and it filled all the 
house where they 
were sitting. 

3 And there ap- 
peared unto them clo- 
ven tongues, like as 
of fire, and it sat up- 
on each of them. 

* The Jews reckon their days from sun-set to sun-set, and so 
the morning, or time toward noon, was the middle, or rather con- 
cluding part of each day ; now this meeting of the disciples be- 
ing about nine in the forenoon, the day was said to be fully come ; 
or, as some think, it was fully come, when the day-light perfectly 



4 And they were 
all filled with the 
Holy Ghost, and be- 
gan to speak with 
other tongues, as the 
Spirit gave them ut- 

5 And there were 
dwelling at Jerusa- 
lem, Jews, devout 
men, out of every na- 
tion under heaven. 

6 Now when this 
was noised abroad,the 
multitude came toge- 
ther, and were con- 
founded, because that 
every man heard them 
speak in his own lan- 

7 And they were 
all amazed, and mar- 
velled, saying one to 
another, Behold, are 
not all these which 
speak Galileans ? 

8 And how hear 

languages,) which were bright like fire, A. D. 33, 

(to signify the clear light and knowledge 

that ivas now to be imparted to their 
minds, and the vigorous energy of the 
Spirit to enable them to spread and preach 
it to others. 

4 And the effects were fully answer- 
able to each part of these figurative re- 
semblances, for they were now every 
one of them endowed with many extra- 
ordinary abilities and divine powers, 
but particularly that of speaking what 
the Spirit dictated to them, in different 
languages which they had never learnt *. 

5 The Divine wisdom made choice of 
this time, to confer these miraculous 
powers upon the disciples ; as for several 
others, so for this particular reason, that 
as every man of the Jewish religion, of 
what country soever, was obliged to ap- 
pear at this feast at Jerusalem, this uni- 
versal resort might give the best oppor- 
tunity of observing, examining, and pub- 
lishing such a wonderful event through 
the many and distant regions whither 
they were shortly to return. 

6, 7 ? 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 Accordingly as 
soon as they heard the report of so 
marvellous a thing, there was a vast 
concourse of people about the place, 
the strangers of several countries espe- 
cially, were in the utmost degree of 
astonishment, to hear such a number of 
plain and illiterate people, speaking to 
each of them the language of his par- 
ticular country, with so much readiness 
and freedom ; and upon discoursing 
with one another about the great num- 
ber of different languages of Europe, 
Asia, and Africa, thus all so wonderfully 

* And thus as the division and variety of languages was once 
made a punishment, and wrought confusion among mankind ; 
now by a wise turn of events, the same variety was made a means 
of collecting and uniting them into one religion and blessed so- 



CHAP. 11. 

A. D. 33. attained, and spoken by such men as 
— — - they knew had never learnt any of 
them, and withal the great and admi- 
rable * things they delivered about the 
dispensations of God to his people ; 
they could not but conclude the hand 
of God to be in it, for effecting some 
great and extraordinary design, though 
they were much at a loss to know what 
it should be. 

13 But some Jews of the town, that 
Were prejudiced against Jesus and his 
disciples, and not understanding any of 
these foreign languages, maliciously and 
ignorantly gave it out among the com- 
mon people, that the disciples were 
drunk, and so babbled at random such 
gibberish as drunken men are wont to 

14, 15 To which false suggestion 
the twelve apostles (as chief over the 
rest) gave a sufficient confutation, by 
appointing Peter to represent to them, 
that whereas it was now but nine o'clock 
in the morning, the time of the morning 
sacrifice, to which all the Jews thought 
themselves in conscience obliged to 
come fasting, it was a most uncharita- 

we every man in our 
own tongue, wherein 
we were born ? 

9 Parthians, and 
Medes, and Elamites, 
and the dwellers in 
Mesopotamia, and in 
Judea, and Cappado- 
cia, in Pontus, and 

10 Phrygia, and 
Pamphylia, in Egypt, 
and in the parts of 
Libya about Cyrene, 
and strangers of 
Rome, Jews and pro- 

11 Cretes and Ara- 
bians, we do hear 
them speak in our 
tongues the wonder- 
ful * works of God. 

12 And they were 
all amazed, and were 
in doubt, saying one 
to another, What 
meaneth this ? 

13 Others mock- 
ing said, These men 
are full of new wine. 

14 But Peter, stand- 
ing up with the ele- 
ven, lift up his voice, 
and said unto them, 
Ye men of Judea, and 
all ye that dwell at 
Jerusalem, be this 
known unto you, and 
hearken to my words. 

1 5 For these men 

* Probably the miracles, resurrection, and ascension of Christ. 




are not drunken, as 
ye suppose, seeing it 
is but the third hour 
of the day. 

16 But this is that 
which was spoken by 
the prophet Joel, 

17 And it shall 
come to pass in the 
la?t days, (saith God,) 
I will pour out of my 
Spirit upon all flesh : 
and your sons and 
your daughters shall 
prophesy, and your 
young men shall see 
visions, and your old 
men shall dream 
dreams : 

18 And on my ser- 
vants, and on my 
hand-maidens 1 will 
pour out in those 
days of my Spirit, and 
they shall prophesy : 

19 And 1 will shew 
wonders in heaven 
above, and signs in 
the earth beneath, 
blood, and fire, and 
vapour of smoke. 

c 20 The sun shall 
be turned into dark- 
ness, and the moon 
into blood, before 
that great and nota- 
ble day of the Lord 

21 And it shall 
come to pass, that 
whosoever shall* call 

ble and absurd thing to suppose such a A- D. 33. 

number of them should dare to come in 

a debauched temper to such a divine 
service, especially upon so solemn a fes- 
tival as this was. 

1 G That, on the contrary, the strangers 
of so many different countries, now pre- 
sent, being able to testily the truth of 
these great performances, could not but 
see and acknowledge them to be a most 
eminent and full completion of that fa- 
mous prophecy of Joel iii. 28. 

17, 18 Wherein God promised, that, 
in the times of the Messiah, he would 
bestow the gifts of the Holy Spirit, in its 
several kinds and highest degrees, upon 
some of all ranks, ages, and sexes of peo- 
ple in his church, for the propagation and 
encouragement of Ids true religion. 

]<.), 20 And withal, thai for the terror 
and condemnation of such as would not be 
convinced by this wonderful effusion of his 
Spirit, he would cause the most affrighten- 
ing prodigies to appear in the air and 
earth, destroy the Jewish towns by tfcj 
fire, and great numbers of their people by 
the sword of their enemies ; and produce 
mighty changes and revolutions, both in 
their government and religion, as so many 
signs and symptoms of the total and final 
destruction of that obstinate nation. 

21 But that, on the contrary, he 
would have a special eye of providential 
mercy upon a U. that embraced* and 

* Ver. 21. Call on the name of the Lord, i. e. believe and em- 
brace his religion. This is, no doubt, the sense of the phrase in 

VOL. I. C 




A. D. 33. obeyed the religion of his Christ, by res- 

citing them from the present calamities 

of these fatal wars, and crowning them 
vjith eternal glory in another state. 

22 Having thus repeated to them 
both the promises and threats of this 
famous prophecy, Peter earnestly call- 
ed upon them all lo consider seriously 
and without prejudice how exactly the 
former of them were accomplished in 
the person, miracles, resurrection, and 
ascension of Christ; and in these pow- 
ers of the Holy Ghost upon his apostles 
and disciples. 

c 28 As to the miracles of Christ, they 
were so full an evidence of his being a 
divine person, the Saviour of Israel, 
and all so plain and well known to be 
matters of fact ; that to crucify, and in 
so tumultuous a manner to murder such 
a person, must have been the highest 
act of wickedness and impiety in you, 
though on God's part it was a most 
wise and merciful instance of his love 
to mankind to permit you so to do, as 
the prophets foretold you would. 

24 God has still further demonstrated 
him to be the person in whom this 
great promise is completed, by raising 
him from the dead; and indeed it Was 
impossible he should, like other men, 
continue long in a state of death, 
whether you consider the superlative 
u*gnity of his person, or those plain 

on the name of the 
Lord, shall be saved. 

C Z2 Ye men of Isra- 
el, hear these words j 
Jesus of Nazareth, a 
* man approved of 
God among you by 
miracles, and won- 
ders, and signs, which 
God did by him in 
the midst of you, as 
ye yourselves also 
know : 

23 Him, being de- 
livered f by the de- 
terminate counsel and 
foreknowledge of 
God ye have taken, 
and by wicked hands 
have crucified and 
slain : 

24 Whom God 
hath raised up, hav- 
ing loosed the pains 
of death : because it 
was not possible that 
he should be holden 
of it. 

this place, as also in chap. ix. 14, 81. xv. 1~. and xxii. 16. 
of this book. In chap. xix. 13. and iii. 6. it signifies invoking 
his power, and making use of his authority. In chap. vii. 59. it is 
directly praying to him. And for a full view of the acceptation of 
it in the rest of the New Testament, the reader may see Dr. Clark, 
in Script. Doct. Trin. p. 132. 

* Ver. 2*2. A man approved of God. Or, much rather, diroh- 
hiypivov diro t« 0s«, demonstrated by God, viz. to be the true Messiah. 

f TaVov t*j u^uru'.n /%A f — hhrot, maybe thus rendered, Him ye 
have taken and crucified, who was given {to you as a Savwur) by 
the determinate counsel of God. 




25 For David speak - 
eth concerning him, 
1 foresaw the Lord al- 
ways before my face, 
for he is on my right 
hand, that I should 
not be moved. 

26 Therefore did 
my heart rejoice, and 
my tongue was glad ; 
moreover also my 
flesh shall rest in 
hope : 

27 Because thou 
wilt not leave my 
soul in hell, neither 
wilt thou suffer thine 
holy One to see cor- 

28 Thou hast 
made known to me 
the ways of life ; 
thou shalt make me 
full of joy with thy 

29 Men and bre- 
thren, let me freely 
speak unto you of the 
patriarch David, that 
he is both dead and 
buried, and his sepul- 
chre is with us unto 
this day. 

30 Therefore be- 
ing a prophet, and 
knowing that God 
had sworn with an 
oath to him, that of 
the fruit of his loins, 
according to the 
flesh, he would raise 
up Christ to sit on 
his throne : 

31 He seeing this 
before, spake of the 
resurrection of Christ, 

prophecies concerning him, a most par- A. D. 33. 
ticuJar instance whereof is that of Da-— — — 
via, Psal. xvi. 8, &c. 

25, 96, 27, 23 Wherein he brings in 
the Messiah, the Son of God, expressing 
the fullest confidence, hope, and assurance 
in the Father, with the most unspeakable 
contentment and satisfaction under his 
sufferings for mankind; as having from 
him the absolute promise and power of a 
glorious and speedy resurrection, thereby 
to triumph for ever over death, and over 
all Ids and our spiritual enemies. 

29 Now (saith Peter) it is very plain, 
that this expression of not leaving his 
soul in hell, nor hisjiesh to see corruption, 
could never be meant of, nor any way 
fulfilled in, David's ovwiperson t who } you 
all know, long since died, and lies yet 
in his grave, which you can shew to 
this very day. 

30, 31 And therefore as David was 
an eminent prophet, a type of the Mes- 
siah, and had an express promise from 
God, That Christ should be born of his 
seed and family; il cannot but be con- 
eluded, he was, as such a prophet, ac- 
quainted with this resurrection of 
Christ, and so meant this of Christ only. 




A. D. 33. 

3<2 Now that (rod bath thus raised 
up our Jesus, the third day after you 
had crucified him, before ever his body 
had time to putrefy, we all solemnly 
testify, who saw him, conversed, eat and 
drank with him forty days after, till his 
ascension into heaven. 

33 So that this marvellous gift of lan- 
guages you see us now endowed with, 
is not in the least owing to any power 
of our own, but is the effect of that 
Holy Spirit which Jesus promised to 
send us from the Father ; and being 
now ascended into heaven, and invested 
with all power and majesty, he has ac- 
cordingly fulfilled it. Which ascension 
of his we also solemnly testify, having 
seen it ourselves at the Mount of Olives. 

34, 35 And that the Messiah was 
thus to ascend, and be glorified, as well 
as to rise from the dead, is most evident 
from another prophecy of David re- 
lating to him, Psal. ex. 1. wherein God 
the Father is brought in as inviting his 
Son the Messiah, To come and take 
upon him the highest degrees ofheavenFu 
majesty and glory, and see the conquest 
over sin, and Satan, and death ; the noble 
effects and reward of his sufferings for 
mankind. For it is clear beyond con- 
tradiction, that to sit on God's right- 
hand, and for an absolute and final con- 
quest over all his enemies, is what can 
no way be applied to David's person, 
though once a powerful prince; and 
then, as he calls the person of whom he 
spake this, in an emphatical way, his 
Lord, he must be understood as speak- 
ing of Christ. 

36' Wherefore seeing all these clear 
and eminent prophecies are thus so 
punctually and wonderfully accom- 

that his soul was not 
left in hell, neither 
his flesh did see cor- 

32 This Jesus hath 
God raised up, where- 
of we are all wit- 

33 Therefore be- 
ing by the right hand 
of God exalted, and 
having received of 
the Father the pro- 
mise of the Holy 
Ghost, he hath shed 
forth this which ye 
now see and hear. 

34 For David is 
not ascended into the 
heavens : but he saith 
himself, The Lord 
said unto my Lord, 
Sit thou on my right 

35 Until I make 
thy foes thy footstool. 

36 Therefore let 
all the house of Israel 
know assuredly, that 



God hath made that 
same Jesus, whom ye 
have crucified, both 
Lord and Christ. 

37 Now when they 
heard this, they were 
pricked in their heart, 
and said unto Peter, 
and to the rest of the 
apostles, Men and 

we do ? 

what shall 

38 Then Peter said 
unto them, Repent, 
and be baptized every 
one of you in the 
name of Jesus Christ, 
for the remission of 
sins, and ye shall re- 
ceive the gift * of the 
Holy Ghost. 

39 For the promise 
is unto you, and to 
your children, and to 
all * that are afar off, 
even as many as the 
Lord our God shall 

40 And with ma- 
ny other words did 
he testify, nnd exhort, 
saying, Save your- 
selves from this unto- 
ward generation. 

plished in this very Jesus, whom ye A. D. 33. 

crucified, let nil the Jews be fully ■ 

assured, and I beseech them to lay 
aside their obstinate prejudices, and be 
convinced, that he is their true Messiah, 
the Saviour of mankind, and the Lord 
and Governor of God's church and peo- 
ple. For if, after such ample testi- 
monies given them, they still continue 
in their unbelief; they must expect all 
the terrors and curses annexed to these 
prophecies to be fulfilled upon them. 

3/ At this earnest and weighty dis- 
course of Peter, abundance of those 
Jews, that were either concerned in, or 
had consented to, the death of Jesus, 
were struck into relenting and concern, 
at the guilt they saw themselves in- 
volved in; and begged of him and the 
other apostles to tell them how they 
should obtain the pardon, and avoid 
the terrible consequences of it. 

38 Peter answered, That the con- 
dition of their pardon was a sincere re- 
pentance and amendment of life, an 
entrance into the religion of Christ by 
baptism, and a careful observance of 
the rules and precepts of it ; which 

if they would sincerely do, they should See chap, 
not only be pardoned for what they had vm - 16 ' 
already done, but should also partake of 
this great promise of the Holy Ghost, 
according as God should see any of 
them fit and proper to bestow it on. 

39 Assuring them at the same time, 
that God intended the benefits and ef- 
fects of this great promise to the whole 
Jewish nation; to them first, and after-* See chap, 
ward to as many of the Gentile world vi "' 16 - 

as should hear and believe the Gospel. 

40 With these and such like dis- 
courses, Peter kept the company a good 
while, all tending to convince them of 
the truth of Christ's religion, to press 
them to receive and profess it, as the 
only means to escape those terrible 

c 3 



CH\P. II. 

A. D. 33. judgments that were coming upon the 
. obstinate nation of the Jews. 

41 And all that were really affected 
at what he said, were baptized, upon a 
hearty profession of their repentance 
and future resolutions, to the number 
of about three thousand. 

42 Who constantly attended the 
preaching of the apostles, and with 
them exercised all the * solemn duties 
of their religion. 

43 What was already done, surprised 
all sorts of people with astonishment, 
which was increased still more, when 
they saw the apostles proceed to do 
many other kind of miracles, beside this 
of speaking so many languages. 

44, 45 In the mean time those that 
were newly converted, assembled and 
conversed chiefly with the apostles, and 
among themselves ; and were so raised 
above the love of temporal things, that 
many of them made a free, voluntary, 
and total renunciation of their goods 
and estates, and resigned them into the 
apostles' hands, to be distributed to the 
poor Christians as they saw occasion. 

46 And all of them, after the apostles' 
example, attended the stated service 
of the temple, and lived and conversed 
at one another's houses with the utmost 

41 Then they that 
gladly received his 
word were baptized : 
and the same day 
there were added unto 
them about three 
thousand souls. 

42 And they con- 
tinued stedfastly in 
the apostles' doctrine 
and fellowship, and 
in * breaking of 
bread, and in prayer. 

43 And fear came 
upon every soul : and 
many wonders and 
signs were done by 
the apostles. 

44 And all that 
believed were toge- 
ther, and had all 
things common f. 

45 And sold their 
possessions and 
goods, and parted 
them to all men as 
every man had need. 

46 And they con- 
tinuing daily with 
one accord in the 
temple, and breaking 

* It being not determined by the learned, whether xXac-tj t« a^y, 
breaking of bread, he here, and in ver. 40. meant of the Eucharist 
or no, I have expressed it so as to leave the reader to his own 

f Ver. 44. K*t e^ov aVavr* xoiva, And had all tilings common. This 
expression here, and in chap. iv. 32. is taken by some good in- 
terpreters not to signify an absolute renunciation of all right and 
title to what was their own ; hut only a liberal and prudent dis- 
tribution. But the case of Ananias, chap. v. seems plainly to de- 
termine the contrary 3 it was an absolute, though not an imposed, 
but a voluntary one. 




bre^ad from house to 
house, did eat their 
meat with gladness 
and singleness of 
heart ; 

47 Praising God, 
and having favour 
with all the people. 
And the Lord added 
to the church daily 
such as should be * 

friendship, hospitable kindness, and A. 0.33. 

liberality; and met together, in that 

particular upper room before mentioned, 
chap. i. 13, 14. at stated times, for ce- 
lebrating the Lord's supper. 

47 By these acts of a loving and 
charitable temper, expressing the great 
sense they had of the divine mercy, in 
thus freely pardoning and receiving 
them into the Christian covenant, and 
behaving themselves with such pru- 
dence, piety, and modesty, as to be 
generally well esteemed of; and, with 
God's blessing, to persuade and in- 
fluence many others daily to come in 
and embrace the Christian faith, who 
were thereby delivered from the guilt 
and impending destruction of their ob- 
stinate nation *. 


Peter and John miraculously cure a lame man in Solomon's porch. 
Peters discourse to the Jews thereupon. 

1 lyOW Peter and 
John went up 
together into the 
temple at the hour 
of prayer, being the 
ninth hour. 

2 And a certain 
man, lame from his 
mother's womb, was 
carried, whom they 
laid daily at the gate 
of the temple which 
is called Beautiful, to 
ask alms of them that 
entered into the tem- 

3 Who seeing Pe- 
ter and John about to 

1 npHE same day that Peter made 
-*- that successful discourse to the 
people, chap. ii. he and John went up 
together to the temple service, which 
was at three o'clock in the afternoon. 

2 And going in by Solomon's porch, 
called the Beautiful gate, from its 
largeness and magnificence above the 
rest, there lay a poor man that was 
a cripple from his birth, and was 
brought by his friends every day, and 
laid to beg at this gate, through which 
the greatest numbers went into the 

3 Who begged of them as they went 
in to give him something. 

* Ver. 47. Tow* crafopW, not such as should be saved in a Chris- 
tian sense in general only, but the saved, i. e. from that unto- 
ward generation, ver. 40. 

c 4 




A. D. 33. 

4, 5 The two apostles bade the man 
look upon them, and observe their 
faces, as they did his ; (that he might 
be sure to know them again, and tes- 
tily what they had done to him.) He 
did so, anci fully expected they would 
bestow something on him. 

6 Then Peter told him, that as for 
money, they had none to give him, but 
something that was much better. In 
the name *, and by the power and au- 
thority of Christ Jems, (said he,) get up 
and walk, as sound as other men. 

7, 8 At the same time giving him his 
hand, to help him up ; upon which all 
the sinews and joints of his feet, where 
the lameness lay, came to their full 
strength, so that the man nimbly leaped 
up, and could use his feet every way ; 
and so followed them into the temple, 
to return God thanks for so great and 
unexpected a mercy. 

9, 10 Where the people saw him in 
perfect health, and knowing him to be 
the very same person that used every 
day to lie begging at the porch, and 
had lain there but just before ; they 
were perfectly astonished to see him all 
of a sudden among them at the service. 

1 1 When service was ended, the 
man still kept close to Peter and John ; 
and as they were together in the porch 
where he was cured, the people came 

go into the temple, 
asked an alms. 

4 And Peter fast- 
ening his eyes upon 
him, with John, said, 
Look on us. 

5 And he gave heed 
unto them, expecting 
to receive something 
of them. 

6 Then Peter said, 
Silver and gold have 
I none ; but such as I 
have give I thee : in 
the name of Jesus 
Christ of Nazareth, 
rise up and walk. 

7 And he took him 
by the right hand, 
and lift him up ; and 
immediately his feet 
and ancle- bones re- 
ceived strength. 

8 And he leaping 
up, stood, and walk- 
ed, and entered with 
them into the temple, 
walking,and leaping, 
and praising God. 

9 And all the peo- 
ple saw him walking, 
and praising God. 

10 And they knew 
that it was he which 
sat for alms at the 
Beautiful gate of the 
temple : and they 
were filled with won- 
der and amazement 
at that which had 
happened unto him. 

11 And as the lame 
man which was heal- 
ed held Peter and 
John, all the people 

* Ver. 6". In the name, and by the power of Jesus Christ. See 
chap. ii. 21. The name of Jesus is here emphatical : in his, and 
none but his name. 




ran together unto 
them in the porch that 
is called .Solomon's, 
greatly wondering. 

12 And when Peter 
saw it, he answered 
unto the people, Ye 
men of Israel, why 
marvel ye at this ? or 
why look ye so earn- 
estly on us, as though 
by our own power or 
holiness we had made 
this man to walk ? 

'13 The God of A- 
braham, and of Isaac, 
and of Jacob, the God 
of our fathers, hath 
glorified his Son Je- 
sus ; whom ye deli- 
vered up, and denied 
him in the presence 
of Pilate, when he 
was determined to let 
him go. 

14 But ye denied 
the Holy One, and 
the Just, and desired 
a murderer to be 
granted unto you. 

15 And killed the 
Prince of life, whom 
God hath raised from 
the dead ; whereof 
we are witnesses. 

16 And Ins name, 
through faith in his 
name, hath made this 
man strong, whom ye 
now see and know : 
yea, the faith which 
is by him, hath given 
him this perfect 
soundness in the pre- 
sence of you all. 

17 And now, bre- 
thren, I wot that 

about them in vast numbers, full of A. D. 33. 
wonder and amazement. 

\ c 2 Which gave Peter another op- 
portunity of speaking to them, to this 
effect. It is strange (says he) that after 
what you have already seen and heard 
of us, you should have no better ap- 
prehensions of what is now before you; 
that you can still imagine this cure to 
be the effect of any secret art or human 
power in us, or that God should have 
conferred this gift upon us on account 
of any worthiness in us above all other 

13, 14, 15 Know then, that we are 
all eye-witnesses of the resurrection and 
glorious ascension of that very Jesus of 
Nazareth, the Son of God, the Messiah 
and Saviour of the world, whom you so 
unjustly accused before Pilate ; who, 
conscious of his innocency, would have 
only scourged, and so released him, had 
it not been for your outrageous clamour 
and tumult, and the violent prejudice 
that made you so irrational, as to ask 
the life of a common robber and a mur- 
derer, rather than that of the most holy 
and innocent person that ever lived. 

16 And we now declare to you, that 
the power by which we have so won- 
drously and perfectly restored this man, 
whom you all knew and saw a cripple, 
was given to us by the same Jesus, and 
we are his faithful disciples, as com- 
missioned to be his apostles : by whose 
authority and power alone it is that we 

17? 18 We cannot indeed be so un- 
charitable as to think, that either you of 



CHAP. Ill, 

A. D. 33. the multitude, or even the chief priests 

of your great council, committed that 

act of crucifying our Jesus, absolutely 
against conscience, or that you reallv 
knew him to be your Messiah; you did 
it by the ungoverned sway of sinful 
passions and prejudices, against the 
meanness of his person and appearance; 
and God, by permitting you so to do, 
has most wisely suffered you to become 
the instruments of accomplishing the 
prophecies concerning the death of 

19, 20 Wherefore if ye will now 
still be wrought upon by the evidences 
and warnings of us his apostles, so as 
(sincerely to repent, amend your lives, 
and embrace and live up to his religion, 
God hath such a compassion to these 
your prejudices, that he will not only 
forgive you what is past, but make this 
Jesus (by whose miracles and preaching 
ye would not be converted) your Sa- 
viour and Deliverer, both from the pre- 
sent judgments that are coming on the 
Jewish nation, and from the terrible 
punishments he shall come to inflict, at 
the great day of final judgment, upon 
all wicked and obstinate unbelievers. 

21 He is now in heaven, there to 
remain the Lord and Head of his church 
upon earth, to see the whole dispen- 
sation of the f gospel-age perfected 
in the accomplishment of all the pro- 
phecies concerning it ; and then shall 
come again to the solemn trial of all the 

22, 23 Among which numerous pro- 
phecies, let me refer you particularly to 
the plain words of your great prophet 

through * ignorance 
ye did it, as did also 
your rulers. 

which God before 
had shewed by the 
mouth of all his pro- 
phets, that Christ 
should suffer, he hath 
so fulfilled. 

19 Repent ye there- 
fore, and be convert- 
ed, that your sins may 
be blotted out, when 
the times of refresh- 
ing shall come from 
the presence of the 

20 And he shall 
send Jesus Christ, 
which before was 
preached unto you. 

21 Whom the hea- 
ven must receive, till 
f the times of restitu- 
tion of all things, 
whichGod hath spok- 
en by the mouth of 
all his holy prophets 
since the world be- 

22 For Moses truly 
said unto the fathers, 
A Prophet shall the 

* I wot through ignorance ye did it. So our Lord says, Luke 
xxni. 34. Father, forgive them, for they know not (i.e. are nut aware 
of) what they do. 

f Ver. 21. Till the timet of restitution. See note on Rom. v. 13. 



Lord your God raise 
up unto you of your 
brethren like unto 
* me ; him shall ye 
hear in all things, 
whatsoever lie shall 
say unto you. 

23 And it shall 
come to pass, that 
every soul which will 
not hear that Pro- 
phet, shall be destroy- 
ed from among the 

24 Yea, and all the 
prophets from Samu- 
el, and those that fol- 
low after, as many as 
have spoken, have 
likewise foretold of 
these days. 

25 Ye are the chil- 
dren of the prophets, 
and of the covenant 
which God made with 
our fathers, saying 
unto Abraham, And 
in thy seed shall all 
the kindreds of the 
earth be blessed. 

26 Unto you first, 
God having raised up 
his Son Jesus, sent 
him to bless you, in 
turning away every 
one of you from his 

Moses to your forefathers, (Deut. xviii. A. D. 33. 

15.) Wherein he promises them God — 

would one day cause the still greater Pro- 
phet, the Messiah, to be born from one of 
their families ; with a strict charge left 
to receive him, and obey Ids laics ; threat- 
ening withal, thai all those that would 
not be obedient to him, should be cut off 
from the true church, and from all hopes 
of salvation. 

24 And not only Moses, but all the 
other prophets after him, that have left 
any predictions concerning the Messiah, 
have described the manner, circum- 
stances, and effects of his appearance, 
no otherwise than you have found it in 
our Jesus; and are all full of the like 
threatenings upon those that reject and 
disobey him. 

25, 26 You indeed are the poste- 
rity of Abraham, to whom, for his emi- 
nent piety, God solemnly promised, that 
the Messiah, the Saviour of the whole 
world, should be born of his family; 
and you have had a succession of pro- 
phets to confirm and assure you of that 
great promise; and accordingly God 
has now given you Jews the first offer 
of repentance, pardon, and salvation by 
him; which if you still obstinately re- 
fuse, you shall utterly perish and be 

* Ver. 22. 'il; IpL Either like unto me, i. e. in being a Law- 
giver, and Mediator between God and the people ; or else as he 
has raised up and made me your prophet, so he will him. But it 
seems to refer to the foregoing words^ of your brethren, i. e. I am a 
prophet and lawgiver of your own stock and nation, so will he be. 
See my note and paraphrase on Deut. xviii. 15> 18. 





Five thousand converted by the foregoing discourse and miracle of the 
two apostles. The Jewish council and Roman captain cause them 
to be apprehended, and brought before them. Their defence of them- 
selves. The determination of the council thereupon. The apostles' 
answer to it. Their prayer upon that occasion, and the effect of it. 
The unity and charity of the new converts. The particular generosity 
of .loses, surnamed Barnabas. 

AD. 33.1 npHlS discourse of the apostles, 

-*- and the cure they had wrought, 

being immediately heard of by the chief 
priests and Sadducees, and the Roman 
officer that guarded the temple, they 

* See chap, took cognizance of them as disturbers 

r » 17 - of the peace. 

2 The chief priests of the great coun- 
cil being fretted to hear the man, whom 
they had crucified as a malefactor, 
preached up for the Messiah ; and the 
Sadducees at the doctrine of the resur- 
rection, which they violently opposed; 
but the Roman captain's fear was, that 
it should prove a riot. 

3 Accordingly they caused them that 
very evening to be apprehended and 
imprisoned, in order to be examined 
and punished the day after. 

4 But notwithstanding this severity, 
about five thousand of the people were 
converted to the Christian religion by 
that discourse. 

5, 6 So the next day the high priests, 
Annas and Caiaphas, assembled all the 
chief priests and doctors of the law that 
belonged f to the great council. There 
was no occasion for the Roman com- 
mander's presence; for the pretence 
of sedition was waved, being wholly 
groundless, and a mere invention of the 
Jewish priests, who therefore were now 
the only members of this court. 

f 'Ex yiv- 
ovg upx- 

1 AND as they spake 
unto the people, 
the priests, and the 
captain of the temple, 
and the Sadducees, 
came upon them *, 

2 Being grieved 
that they taught the 
people, and preached 
through Jesus the re- 
surrection of the dead. 

3 And they laid 
hands on them, and 
put them in hold un- 
to the next day : for 
it was now eventide. 

4 Howbeit many 
of them which heard 
the word believed ; 
and the number of the 
men was about five 

5 And it came to 
pass on the morrow, 
that their rulers, and 
elders, and scribes, 

6* And Annas the 
high priest, and Caia- 
phas, and John, and 
Alexander, and as 
many as were of the 
kindred f of the high 
priest, were gathered 
together at Jerusalem . 



7 And when they 
had set them in the 
midst, they asked, By 
what power, or by 
what name, have ye 
clone this ? 

S Then Peter, filled 
with the Holy Ghost, 
said unto them, Ye 
rulers of the people, 
and elders of Israel, 

9 If we this day 
be examined of the 
good deed done to the 
impotent man, by 
what means he is 
made whole, 

10 Be it known 
unto you all, and to 
all the people of Isra- 
el, that by the name 
of Jesus Christ of Na- 
zareth, whom ye cru- 
cified, whom God 
hath raised from the 
dead, even by him 
doth this man stand 
here before you 

11 This is the 
stone which was set 
at nought by you 
builders, which is now 
become the head of 
the corner. 

1*2 Neither is there 
salvation in any 
other : for there is 
none other name un- 
der heaven given a- 
mong men, * whereby 
we must behaved. 

7 And ordering the two apostles to A. D. 33-. 

be brought into court, they demanded 

of them, by what art they had done the 
cure upon the lame man, and by what 
authority they preached to the people. 

8, 9, 10 Peter, being assisted by the 
Holy Ghost with readiness and courage 
to speak before so great an assembly, 
gave them this respectful answer. That 
as to the cure wrought upon the poor 
man, it had all the signs of an act of 
charity and mercy, but nothing that 
could look like a crime. And as to the 
power by which they did it, they pro- 
fessed to them, and the whole nation, 
it w T as derived from the very Jesus of 
Nazareth whom they had crucified, and 
from no other. 

1 i Who by his resurrection from the 
dead, is now become, what the Psalmist 
described him, (Ps. cxviii. 22.) The Sa- 
viour of mankind, and Lord and Head of 
the church, though you of the council re- 
jected and despised him. 

i c 2 And then as to our authority of 
preaching to the people, we have it also 
from the same Jesus, * who has commis- 
sioned and enjoined us to publish to 
the world, That there is now no other 
means of pardon * and salvation to 

* Ver. 12. Whereby we must be saved, or be healed, or cured, 
as this lame man was, ver. 9, 10. it is the same word used in both 
passages. Salvation, in the spiritual sense, as being owing to 
Christ alone, as sole Mediator, is sufficiently proved from other 
passages ; though we should allow it in this place to be meant 
of a temporal cure. However, I have here given the acceptation 
commonly given by interpreters. 




A. D. S3, mankind, but that of embracing and 

living up to his religion. 

13, 14? The council knowing the two 
apostles to have been the disciples of 
Jesus while he lived and preached, and 
that they were private plain men, 
brought up to no learning in the law, 
they could not but marvel at the great 
readiness and strength with which they 
spoke; and the man they had cured 
standing by them, they could object 
nothing to the truth and reality of the 

15, 16 And ordering thefffto with- 
draw, they consulted together; and con- 
sidering the fact was so universally 
known and allowed, they were perfectly 
at a loss what to determine about it, or 
how to restrain the apostles from pro- 
ceeding any farther. 

17, 18 However, being resolved not to 
be convinced themselves, and to keep the 
common people from it as much as they 
could, they agreed to send for them in, 
and charge them, upon pain of the ut- 
most punishment, to preach this doc- 
trine no more to any of the people. 

19, 20 To which the apostles replied, 
That though they had all just regard 
for their authority, yet in the present 
case, having an absolute assurance of 
the truth of what they taught, and a 
commission from God to publish it, 

13 Now when they 
saw the boldness of 
Peter and John, and 
perceived that they 
were unlearned and 
ignorant men, they 
marvelled ; and they 
took knowledge of 
them, that they had 
been with Jesus. 

14 And beholding 
the man which was 
healed standing with 
them, they could say 
nothing against it. 

15 But when they 
commanded them to 
go aside out of the 
council, they confer- 
red among them- 

16 Saying, What 
shall we do to these 
men ? for that indeed 
a notable miracle 
hath been done by 
them, is manifest to 
all them that dwell 
at Jerusalem, and we 
cannot deny it. 

17 But that it 
spread no farther 
among the people, let 
us straitly threaten 
them, that they speak 
henceforth to no man 
in this name. 

18 And they called 
them, and command- 
ed them not to speak 
at all, nor teach in 
the name of Jesus. 

19 But Peter and 
John answered, and 
said unto them, Whe- 
ther it be right in 
the sight of God to 
hearken to you more 




than unto God, judge 

20 For we cannot 
but speak the things 
which we have seen 
and heard. 

21 So when they 
had farther threat- 
ened them, they let 
them go, finding no- 
thing how they might 
punish them, be- 
cause of the people : 
for all men glorified 
God for that which 
was done. 

22 For the man 
was about forty years 
old, on whom this 
miracle of healing 
was shewed. 

23 And being let 
go, they went to their 
own company, and 
reported all that the 
chief priests and el- 
ders had said unto 

24 And when they 
had heard that, they 
lift up their voices to 
God with one accord, 
and said, Lord, thou 
art God, which hast 
made heaven and 
earth, and the sea, and 
all that in them is. 

25 Who by the 
mouth of thy ser- 
vant David hast said, 
Why did the hea- 
then rage, and the 

they referred it to their own consciences, A. D. 
whether they could expect to be obeyed ; , , 
and so told them plainly, they neither 
could, nor would do it. 

21 The council could do no more 
but repeat their threats to them, and so 
dismiss them ; for the common people 
had such a mighty esteem, and religious 
veneration for them, that they durst 
not arbitrarily punish them, for fear of 
a tumult. 

22 And that which heightened and 
confirmed the people's opinion of the 
cure, was, that the length of the dis- 
temper had put it past all natural re- 
medies, the man being forty years old. 

23 The two apostles being dismissed, 
went immediately to the other ten, and 
the rest on whom the Holy Ghost had 
fallen, (chap, ii.) and told them what 
had passed in the council , and how se- 
verely they were threatened. 

24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 Who 
thereupon addressed themselves in 
earnest and solemn prayer to God the 
Creator and Governor of the world, ac- 
knowledging to him, That the sufferings of 
his Son Jesus Christ, by the hands of the 
Jewish and Roman governors, and the 
treatment which they his apostles and dis- 
ciples now had, and were like to meet 
withal in the world, were the most wise 
and full accomplishment # of what he by 
his Spirit had foretold by his prophet T)a- 
ttid(Psal. ij. 1.) concerning the Messiah. 


* Ver. 27, 28. Note, These words, For to do whatsoever thy hand 
and thy counsel determined before to be done, may, in fit construction, 
be referred to the words, Jesus, whom thou hast anointed — For to do 
whatsoever, %c. agreeable to chap. x. 38. God anointed Jesus of Na- 
zareth with the Holy Ghost and with power, who went about doing 
good, and healing all that were oppressed ; for God was with him. 




A. D. 33. Beseeching him withal to assist and in- 
spire them with sufficient courage and re- 
solution, and with a continuance of such 
miraculous powers, as would enable them 
to preach and propagate the Christian 
religion wider cdl their difficulties and 

* See p. 31. 

31 And God answered their request 
accordingly ; for as soon as they ended 
it, the room in which they met was 
shaken in an extraordinary manner, (to 
give them notice of the approach of 
some divine influence,) and they all 
found themselves inspired with a super- 
natural courage, and undaunted resolu- 
tion, to persevere in their ministry. 

32 To return now to the five thou- 
sand that were last converted : They 
followed the example of those in chap, 
ii. by living in perfect unity of love and 
affection, and a free renunciation and 
distribution of whatever they had to 
such as wanted. 

people imagine a vain 

26 The kings of 
the earth stood up, 
and the rulers were 
gathered together, 
against the Lord, and 
against his Christ. 

27 For of a truth, 
against thy holy child 
Jesus, whom thou 
hast anointed, both 
Herod, and Pontius 
Pilate, with the Gen* 
ties, and the people 
of Israel, were gather* 
ed together, 

28 For to do what- 
soever thy hand and 
thy counsel deter- 
mined before to be 
done *. 

29 And now, Lord, 
behold their threaten- 
ings, and grant unto 
thy servants,that with 
all boldness they may 
speak thy word, 

30 By stretching 
forth thine hand to 
heal : and that signs 
and wonders may be 
done by the name of 
thy holy child Jesus. 

31 And when they 
had prayed, the place 
was shaken where 
they were assembled 
together ; and they 
were all filled with 
the Holy Ghost, and 
they spake the word 
of God with bold- 

32 And the mul- 
titude of them that 
believed were of one 
heart, and of one 
soul : neither said 
any of them, that 



ought of the things 
which he possessed 
was his own, but 
they had all things 

33 And with great 
power gave the apo- 
stles witness of the 
resurrection of the 
Lord Jesus : and 
great grace was upon 
them all. 

34 Neither was 
there any amongthem 
that lacked : for as 
many as had posses- 
sions of lands, or 
houses, sold them, and 
brought the price of 
the things that were 

35 And laid them 
down at the apostles' 
feet : and distribution 
was made unto every 
man according as he 
had need. 

36 And Joses, who 
by the apostles * was 
surnamed Barnabas, 
(which is, being in- 
terpreted, The son of 
consolation,) a Le- 
vite, and of the coun- 
try of Cyprus, 

37 Having land, 
sold it, and brought 
the money, and laid 
it at the apostles' feet. 

A. D. S3. 

33 The apostles in the mean time 
going on to give the most wondrous 
evidences of the truth of their doctrine, 
(especially that of Christ's resurrection,) 
while the converts exercised such cha- 
rity to one another : 

34, 35 A charity that supplied every 
one's wants : for such of them as had 
estates, sold them, and gave the money 
to the apostles, who disposed of it ac- 

36, 37 Particularly one Joses a Levite, 
of the island of Cyprus, sold the estate 
he had there, and gave the money to the 
apostles, who for so bountiful * an ac- 
tion, gave him a new name, that sig- 
nifies comfort and consolation. 

* This name was given him either from the peculiar charity 
and benignity of his temper in general, (see chap. xi. 24.) or else 
upon account of this act of selling his estate, which we may then 
suppose was a very considerable one. 

VOL. I. 





The transaction and death of Ananias and Sapphira. The effect it 
had upon the people. The apostles proceed in working miraculous 
cures, and gain great credit. The Jewish council cause them to be 
committed to prison. They are delivered by an angel ; and are 
found preaching again in the temple, to the great astonishment of the 
court. The Roman captain brings them into court. The charge of 
the court against them. Their answer. A determination to slay 
them. Gamaliel's advice to the court hereupon. The apostles are 
scourged. Their conduct under it. 

1 T|UT a certain 
man named A- 
nanias, with Sap- 
phira his wife, sold a 

2 And kept back 
part of the price, his 
wife also being piivy 
to it, and brought a 

1,2 4 MONG the rest of the new 
-£*■ converts that were so charitable 
as to sell their estates to supply the 
poor, there was one man and his wife 
that had contrived together to give the 
apostles only a part of the money, and 
yet pretend to give the whole as others 
did, designing thereby to get them- 
selves maintained as plentifully out of certain part, and laid 
the public stock, as if they had given it at the apostles' feet. 
up their whole estate, while they kept 
part of it in their own hands, either ima- 
gining they could not find them out, 
or else desiring to try whether they 
could or no. 

3, 4 But Peter, who, by the assistance 
of the Holy Ghost, knew their design, 
asked him when he offered the money, 
whether he gave it as the whole price 
of his estate, or only as a part of it ; 
and upon his affirming it to be the 
whole, Peter severely reproved him for 
thus covering a pretence of charity with 
such a base and needless falsehood ; 
telling him, he was not absolutely 
obliged to have sold his estate at all, nor 
thus to dispose of the money when he 
had sold it: but to lie thus to them whom 
he could not but know were endowed 
with the Holy Spirit of God, was to 
lie to the Holy Spirit itself, which was 
the same thing as lying to God. 

3 But Peter said, 
Ananias, why hath 
Satan filled thine 
heart to lie to the Ho- 
ly Ghost, and to keep 
back part of the price 
of the land ? 

4 Whiles it remain- 
ed, was it not thine 
own? and after it was 
sold, was it not in 
thine own power ? 
why hast thou con- 
ceived this thing in 
thine heart ? thou 
hast not lied unto 
men, hut unto * 

* Ver. 4. Thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God. Compare 
Luke x. 16. Acts xxiii. 9. 1 Thess.iv. S. 

CHAf. r. 



5 And Ananias 
hearing these words, 
fell down, and gave 
up the ghost : and 
great fear came on 
all them that heard 
these things. 

6 And the young 
men arose, wound 
him up, and carried 
him out, and buried 

7 And it was about 
the space of three 
hours after, when his 
wife, not knowing 
what was done, came 

5 And to deter and keep all believers A. D. 31 

for the future from such barefaced in- 

sincerity, and arrogant temptation of 
the Holy Ghost, he struck the man 
dead upon the spot ; which exemplary 
punishment put a mighty dread and 
reverence into them all. 

6* And because his death happened 
with such lamentable circumstances, lie 
was carried away, and buried as soon 
and as privately as might be *. 

7 About three hours after, his wife 
came into the room, knowing nothing 
of her husband's death. 

8 And Peter an- 
swered unto her, Tell 
me whether ye sold 
the land for so much. 
And she said, Yea, 
for so much. 

9 Then Peter said 
unto her, How is it 
that ye have agreed 
together f to tempt the 
Spirit of the Lord ? 
behold, the feet of 
them which have bu- 
ried thy husband are 
at the door, and shall 
carrv thee out. 

10 Then fell she 
down straightway at 
his feet, and yielded 
up the ghost : and 

8, 9, 10 To whom Peter put the same 
question about the money, and receiving 
the same false answer from her, he re- 
proved her w r ith the like severity, tell- 
ing her, that as she had joined with her 
husband in the same deliberate act of 
f affronting the Holy Spirit, she should 
feel the same terrible effect of his divine 
power, as her husband had just now 
done. Accordingly she fell down dead 
at his feet; and the same persons that 
returned from burying her husband, 
took her up, and laid her by him. 

* Ver. 6. I paraphrase this verse purely from a view of the 
manner of Ananias's death, and must acknowledge there is more in 
the paraphrase than the text will absolutely warrant; and so 
leave it to the judgment and candour of the reader. 

f Ver. 9. To tempt the Spirit of the Lord. i. e. in Scripture lan- 
guage, to provoke. So the provocation and temptation in the icil- 
derness, are one and the same thing. So again, Why tempt ye God to 
put a yoke upon the discipUs, Acts xv. 10. i. e. Why do you provoke 

n 2 



chap. r. 

A. D. 33. 

11 Which still increased the reve- 
rence of the new believers toward the 
apostles, and astonished all other peo- 
ple that heard of it. 

12 * Then the apostles went on to 
work miracles (especially the cures of 
sick people) in the most public man- 
ner, assembling themselves generally in 
Solomon's porch, before or after the 

13 And this exemplary punishment 
of the insincerity of Ananias and Sap- 
phira, had such an effect, that none off 
the people dared to pretend to be con- 
verted, and come over to the Christian 
faith, but such as really and sincerely 
did so, and a very seasonable and well- 
timed severity this was ; for without it 
(very probably) the apostles would have 
been crowded and over-run with such 
impostures, who pretend to be Christians 
merely in hopes of being maintained 
out of this community of goods ; and 
moreover hereby even those who would 

the young men came 
in and found her 
dead, and, carrying 
her forth, buried her 
by her husband. 

11 And great fear 
came upon all the 
church, and upon as 
many as heard these 

12 * And by the 
hand of the apostles 
were many signs and 
wonders wrought a- 
mong the people : 
(and they were all 
with one accord in 
Solomon's porch. 

13 And of the rest 
durst no man join f 
himself to them : but 
the people magnified 

* Ver. 12. Though I would be very cautious of altering any 
thing in the sacred text, without the warrant of some good 
copies, or very plain and necessary reasons ; yet I may safely 
suggest, that if this 12th verse may be allowed to be transposed to 
after the 14th, and connected with the 15th, the sense of the his- 
tory, from the 11th to the 17th verse would be exceeding much 
more clear and uninterrupted. For as the 11th has a most direct 
and evident connection with the 13th, so has this 12th with the 
15tfe and 16th ; whereas, as it now stands, it makes an interrup- 
tion. But 1 paraphrase them as 1 found them. 

f This I take to be the most natural sense of this verse, which if 
the critical reader does not like, he is at liberty to follow Grotius, 
or Dr. Hammond, or Dr. Lrightfoot, none of which seem clear to 
me in this matter. That joining themselves to them, may signify 
what I have rendered it. See Acta xvii. 34. 1 Cor. vi. IT. 



14 And believers 
were the more added 
to the Lord, multi- 
tudes both of men 
and women;) 

15 Insomuch that 
they brought forth 
the sick into the 
streets, and laid them 
on beds and couches, 
that at the least the 
shadow of Peter pass- 
ing by might over- 
shadow some of 

16 There came 
also a multitude out 
of the cities round 
about unto Jeru- 
salem, bringing sick 
folks, and them 
Which were vexed 
with unclean spirits ; 
and they were healed 
every one. 

17 Then the high 
priest rose up, and all 
they that were with 
him, (which is the sect 
of the * Sadducees,) 
and were filled with 

18 And laid their 
hands on the apo- 
stles, and put them 
in the common pri- 

19 But the angel 
of the Lord by night 
opened the prison- 
doors, and brought 
them forth, and said, 

20 Go, stand and 
speak in the temple 
to the people all the 
words of this life f. 

not believe, had yet a mighty esteem A. D. 33. 

of their power and performances. 

14< And of them that did sincerely 
believe, there were every day vast 
numbers of both sexes by this means. 

15 For the number of the apostles' 
miracles began now to be so great, 
that people brought their sick into the 
streets upon beds and couches ; and 
the cure of the most desperate dis- 
tempers was so certain, that the people 
thought their very shadow (especially 
Peter's) had a virtue in it. 


16 And the fame of these 
spreading through the towns and other 
cities of Judea, they resorted to Jeru- 
salem with great numbers of their sick, 
some of natural diseases, others pos- 
sessed with evil spirits; and the apo- 
stles cured them as fast as they brought 

17, 18 The apostles, continuing with 
these miracles to preach the resur- 
rection of Christ and a future state, 
put the high priest, and that part of the 
council that were Sadducees, in a most* ; 
violent rage ; (the doctrine preached 
being in direct opposition to the prin- 
cipal tenet of their sect :) and so they 
ordered them again to be apprehended, 
and put into the common gaol. 

19, SO But an angel of God, that 
very night, led them out, and shut the 
doors again, without any of the keep- 
ers' knowledge, and ordered them early 
next morning to go and preach the 
same doctrine (viz. of the future state of 
eternal Fife) openly in the temple : and 
so they did. 

iv. U 

f Ver. 20. All the words of this life, or, vmtx t« f»V aT *> 





A. D. 33. 21 At the same time, the high priest 
and Sadducees called all the council 

together, and sent to the gaol to fetch 

the apostles. 

f i% QS The officers went accordingly ; 
but came back, and told them, that 
they had been at the prison, where they 
found every thing fast, and every man 
in his post, as they were left the night 
before, but that the prisoners were 

24 This put the council again to a 
perfect nonplus. 

95 But in the midst of their per- 
plexity, they had notice given them, 
that their prisoners were in the temple, 
teaching the people as they used to do. 

26 Upon' which intelligence, the 
Roman officer went with a guard, and 

21 And when they 
heard that, they en- 
tered into the temple 
early in the morning, 
and taught. But the 
high priest came, and 
they that were with 
him, and called the 
council together, and 
all the senate of the 
children of Israel, and 
sent to the prison to 
have them brought. 

22 But when the 
officers came, and 
found them not in the 
prison, they returned, 
and told, 

23 Saying, The 
prison truly found we 
shut witii all safety, 
and the keepers 
standing without be- 
fore the doors : but 
when we had opened, 
we found no man 

24 Now when the 
high priest and the 
captain of the temple 
and the chief priests 
heard these things, 
they doubted of them 
whereunto this would 

25 Then came one 
and told them, say- 
ing, Behold, the men 
whom ye put in pri- 
son are standing in 
the temple, and 
teaching the people. 

26 Then went the 
captain with the offi- 

all the things concerning this life. This life emphatically, this 
resurrection to the future life, which the Sadducees so violently op- 
posed. Tim life, in contradistinction to the life of mere temporal 
worldly blessings and grandeur the Jews were generally so fond 





cers, and brought 
them without vio- 
lence : (for they fear- 
ed the people, lest 
they should have been 

27 And when they 
had brought them, 
they set them before 
the council : and the 
high priest asked 

28 Saying, Did not 
we straitly command 
you, that you should 
not teach in this 
name ? and, behold, 
ye have filled Jeru- 
salem with your doc- 
trine, and intend to 
bring this man's 
blood upon us. 

29 Then Peter and 
the other apostles an- 
swered, and said, We 
ought to obey God 
rather than men. 

30 The God of our 
fathers raised up Je- 
sus, whom ye slew 
and hanged on a tree. 

31 Him hath God 
exalted with his right 
hand to be a Prince 
and a Saviour, for to 
give repentance to Is- 
rael, and forgiveness 
of sins. 

32 And we are his 
witnesses of these 
things ; and so is also 
the Holy Ghost, 
whom God hath given 
to them that obey 

33 When they 
heard that, they were 
cut to the heart, and 
took counsel to slay 

brought them to the council, with as A. D. 33. 

little violence as could be, for fear the ■ 

people should have mutinied. 

27, 28 When they were come into 
court, the high priest asked them, how 
they durst presume against the solemn 
orders and threats of so great an au- 
thority, to preach up a doctrine, that 
in effect was to tax the whole council 
with murder and bloodshed. 

20 To which they all unanimously 
gave the same answer as Peter and 
John had given before, chap. iv. That 
the authority of God was superior to that 
of their court. 

30, 31, 32 Repeating to them again 
the sum of the doctrine they preached, 
viz. That the very God of Israel, whom 
they all acknowledged, has raised up 
the very Jesus whom they had crucified, 
and exalted him to the highest degree 
of heavenly glory, as the Messiah and 
Saviour of mankind ; that he had now 
offered to them, and the whole world, 
pardon, and happiness, upon the condi- 
tion of repentance, and a sincere profes- 
sion of his religion ; that they bis apo- 
stles were eye-witnesses, both of his re- 
surrection and ascension, and had suf- 
ficiently confirmed them by the powers 
of the Holy Ghost. 

The council, enraged at this, were 
them to death. 

resolving, right 

wrong, to condemn 

d 4 



CH\P. V. 

A. D. 33. 34, 35 But an eminent Pharisee, 

, _ one of their own members, either from 

some inward conviction of the truth of 
the apostles' miracles, or else out of op- 
position to the Sadducees, put a stop 
to it, by advising them to consider a 
while upon a thing of such consequence. 

36, 37 Telling them that they had 
had instances of men, that set up for 
heads of parties, and deliverers of Israel, 
upon much worse designs than these 
men yet appeared to have; and all 
dropped and came to nothing; as in 
the cases of Theudas * and Judas of 

34 Then v stood 
there up one in the 
council, a Pharisee, 
named Gamaliel, a 
doctor of law, had in 
reputation among all 
the people, and com- 
manded to put the 
apostles forth a little 
space j 

35 And said unto 
them, Ye men of Is- 
rael, take heed to 
yourselves what ye 
intend to do as touch- 
ing these men. 

36 For uefore these 
days rose up Theudas, 
boasting himself to 
be somebody ; to 
whom a number of 
men, about four hun- 
dred, joined them- 
selves : who was 
slain, and all, as 
many as obeyed him, 
were scattered, and 
brought to nought. 

37 After * this man 
rose up Judas of Ga- 
lilee, in the days of 
the + taxing, and 
drew away much peo- 
ple after him : he 
also perished, and all, 
even as many as obey- 
ed him, were dis- 

* It may save the critics the labour of reconciling Josephus 
with Gamaliel, by either joining /xrra tstov to the last words of the 
foregoing verse, and so reading it, were scattered and brought to 
nought ^et« x t«tov after him, i. e. after he was taken off, as Dan. 
Heinsius thinks ; or else by referring it to the instance, not the 
time of Judas's insurrection, and making it thus, viz. after or be- 
sides Theudas, I instance in Judas. See Mr. Lardner's Credibil. of 
the Gosp. Hist. vol. i. book ii. chap. 7. 

f Ver. 37. In the days of the taxing, i. e. When this land of 
Judea was reduced to a Roman province, and the taxes payable to 
Caesar were first levied upon us. 




38 And now I say 
Unto you, Refrain 
from these men, and 
let them alone : for 
if this counsel or this 
work be of men, it 
will come to nought: 

39 But if it be of 
God, ye cannot over- 
throw it, lest haply 
ye be found even to 
light against God. 

40 And to him they 
agreed : and when 
they had called the 
apostles, and beaten 
them, they command- 
ed that they should 
not speak in the name 
of Jesus, and let them 

41 And they de- 
parted from the pre- 
sence of the council, 
rejoicing that they 
were counted worthy 
to suffer shame for 
his name. 

42 And daily in the 
temple, and in every 
house, they ceased not 
to teach and preach 
Tesus Christ. 

38, 39 Wherefore (says he) seeing A. D. 33, 

the miracles they work are so palpable, 

the safest way is to stay a little, and 
wait what designs they tend to. If to 
any seditious purposes, by the very 
course of things, and especially by Di- 
vine Providence, you will easily put a 
stop to it, without illegal and desperate 
methods. But if God really appears to 
be the author of these miracles, it is in 
vain and impious for us to oppose it. 

40 The majority agreed to this ad- 
vice ; and yet to shew their indignation 
at the apostles for breaking- their com- 
mands, they ordered them to be whip- 
ped, and so dismissed them for that 
time, charging and threatening them to 
do so no more. 

41 And though whipping was a ser- 
vile and infamous punishment, they 
were so far from being ashamed of it on 
this account, that they rejoiced, and 
blessed God for the honour of suffering 
in so glorious a cause. 

42 And so went on to preach the 
Gospel, both in public and private every 





The complaint of the Grecian converts against the Hebrews about the 
partial distribution of the charities. The apostles appoint seven 
Deacons to be chosen, to remedy this evil. They are elected to the 
office by prayer, and imposition of hands. Stephen the most eminent 
aniongst them. A false accusation raised against him. He is brought 
before the council. 


A. D.33. 1 HPHE Christian converts now in- 1 AND in those 

days, when the 
number of the disci- 
ples was multiplied, 
there arose a mur- 
muring of the Gre- 
cians * against the 
Hebrews *, because 
their widows were 

creasing to so great a number, 
that there were hardly benefactions 
enough to supply all their poor; the 
convert Jews of other countries that had 
been proselyted Jews, and used the 
* Greek language, complained to the apo- 
stles, that their poor widows had not an 
equal share with those that were natives 
of the Jewish land, and Jews by birth. 

2 Upon which the twelve assembled 
the chief of the believers of the several 
countries, and told them they had so 
much and constant work of preaching 
the Gospel, that they could no longer 
attend the distributions to the poor. 

3, 4 And therefore advised them to 
choose out seven of the most eminent 
and proper persons, that should make 
this their chief business, to receive and 
dispense the charities equally, and pre- 
vent all disputes for the future ; that so 
they might not be interrupted in their 

5 To which they readily agreed ; and 
accordingly nominated the seven, of 
whom Stephen was the most eminent, 

neglected in the dai- 
ly ministration. 

2 Then the twelve 
called the multitude 
of the disciples unto 
them, and said, It is 
not reason that we 
should leave the word 
of God, and serve ta- 

3 Wherefore, bre- 
thren, look ye out a- 
mong you seven men 
of honest report, full 
of the Holy Ghost 
and wisdom, whom 
we may appoint over 
this business. 

4 But we will give 
ourselves continually 
to prayer, and to the 
ministry of the word. 

5 And the saying 
pleased the whole 
multitude : and they 

* I here follow the distinction between the Grecian and Hebrew 
Jews, made by Bishop Pearson. Op. Post. p. 52_, 53. 



chose Stephen, a man 
full of faith and of 
the Holy Ghost, and 
Philip, and Procho- 
rus, and Nicanor, and 
Timon, and Parme- 
nas, and Nicolas a 
proselyte of Antioch : 

6 Whom they set 
before the apostles : 
and when they had 
prayed, they laid their 
hands on them. 

7 And the word of 
God increased ; and 
the number of thedis- 
ciples multiplied in 
Jerusalem greatly, 
and a great company 
of the priests were 
obedient to the faith. 

8 And Stephen, full 
of faith and power, 
did great wonders 
and miracles among 
the people. 

9 Then there arose 
certain of the syna- 
gogue, which is call- 
ed The synagogue of 
the * Libertines, and 
Cyrenians, and Alex- 
andrians, and of them 
of Cilicia,and of Asia, 
disputing with Ste- 

10 And they were 
not able to resist the 
wisdom and the spirit 
by which he spake. 

1 1 Then they sub- 
orned men, which 
said, We have heard 
him speak blasphem- 
ous words against 

for the strength and sincerity of his faith, A. D. 33. 
and the power of working miracles. 

6 These they brought to the apostles, 
giving them sufficient testimonies of 
their abilities and qualifications for the 
office, who thereupon consecrated them 
to it by prayer and imposition of hands. 

7 By the apostles being thus at full 
liberty to preach, the church increased 
every day more and more, and a great 
many of the Jewish priests came in and 
embraced the Gospel. 

8 But Stephen distinguished himself 
by his zealous faith, and great know- 
ledge in the Scriptures, and courage in 
preaching, and doing miracles. 

9 Against whom there came a set of 
Jews, that had a particular synagogue 
by themselves, and who from their be- 
ing freemen * of Rome, were called Li- 
bertines, and pretended openly to con- 
tradict, and challenged to dispute with 

10 But by the strength of his reason, 
and the gravity, courage, and freedom of 
his discourse, they were silenced and 
baffled before all the people. 

11, 12 Which instead of convincing, 
did so enrage them, that they hired or 
persuaded witnesses to accuse him of 
dishonourable words against the Jewish 
religion : and under that pretence got 

* Ver. 9. Ai£tfr7vos, Freemen, or more properly such as were born 
so of parents that had Roman freedom, and so distinguished from 
Liberti, who were not lorn, but made such by purchase or free gift. 




A. D. S3, him apprehended. 
., — the council. 

nd brought before 

13, 14 And the testimony they gave 
in against him was, that they had heard 
him°affirm, that Jesus would cause their 
temple to be finally destroyed, and the 
ceremonial law to be abolished, which 
they said was blasphemy. 

15 As soon as he was charged with 
this crime, there appeared upon his 
face (as a token of his innocence) a 
splendor and a brightness like that of 
an angel, which was visible to all the 
council that were to be his judges. 

Moses, and against 

12 And they stir- 
red up the people, 
and the elders, and 
the scribes, and came 
upon him, and caught 
him, and brought 
him to the council, 

13 And set up false 
witnesses, which said, 
This man ceaseth not 
to speak blasphemous 
words against this 
holy place and the 
law : 

14 For we have 
heard him say, that 
this Jesus of Nazareth 
shall destroy this 
place, and shall 
change the customs 
which Moses deliver- 
ed us. 

15 And all that 
sat in the council, 
looking stedfastly on 
him, saw his face as 
it had been the face 
of an angel. 


The high priest sums up the charge of blasphemy against the Jewish 
law, and demands of Stephen what he had to say to it. Stephen's 
famous defence, and retaliation upon the Jews. The court exaspe- 
rated. He is stoned to death. 

1 ^TEPHEN being thus charged 
^ with blasphemy against the Jew- 
ish religion, for affirming that Christ 
would destroy the temple, and abrogate 
the ceremonial law, the high priest 
asked him, what he had to say for him- 
self? To which he answered, That it 
ought not to be interpreted as blas- 
phemy against their religion, or against 
God the divine Author of it, to affirm 

1 npHEN said the 
high priest,Are 
these things so ? 




2 And he said, 
Men, brethren, and 
fathers, hearken ; The 
God of glory appear- 
ed unto our father A- 
braham, when he was 
in Mesopotamia, be- 
fore he dwelt in Char- 

3 And said unto 
him, Get thee out of 
thy country, and from 
thy kindred, and 
come into the land 
which I shall shew 

4 Then came he 
out of the land of the 
Chaldeans, and dwelt 
in Charran : and 
from thence, when 
his father was dead, 

either or both of these things. And this A. D. 3S, 
he proved to them, by shewing from 
their own Scriptures, in the several pe- 
riods from Abraham to Moses, and from 
Moses to the building of the temple, 
that God never intended to confine his 
true worship and religion to the land of 
Canaan, nor his divine presence to the 
temple of Jerusalem ; that the ceremo- 
nial law was not given to be of neces- 
sary and perpetual obligation ; and that 
by the frequent examples of judgments 
upon the sins of their forefathers, it was 
but just for them who now followed, 
and exceeded them in obstinate wicked- 
ness, to expect the final destruction of 
their temple and nation *. 

% 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 He began with 
Abraham the father of the Jewish nation, 
to whom, for his eminent faith and vir- 
tue under all the influence of an epide- 
mical wickedness and idolatry, God was 
pleased in special manner to communi- 
cate himself; to give him an absolute 
promise of being the head of a nation, 
from whom the Messiah should be 
born ; and of the land of Canaan, which 
his posterity should possess, as a sepa- 
rate and peculiar people for his worship. 
And yet neither Abraham himself, when 
he was removed into this land, had the 
least foot of ground in it, nor did his 
posterity enjoy it till above four hun- 
dred years after the birth of Isaac, liv- 
ing in the meantime in foreign countries, 
under a deal of hardship and oppression. 
Though all that while the faith and vir- 

* The reader may take notice, that this pretty long paraphrase 
of the first verse is intended as an abridgment of this famous apo- 
logy of St. Stephen ; and that as the critics have laboured much 
about the phraseology and synchronisms of several passages of it, 
I have made it my business to shew the strength and argument of 
its several parts, as a just defence of himself against his accusation, 
which I thought the chief business of a paraphrase, and toward 
which I found but little help from commentators. 




A. D. S3, tue of Abraham, and the service andwor- 

ship of God, performed by Jacob, and 

the twelve patriarchs his sons, was every 
way as acceptable to God as ours in the 
land of Canaan ever icas since. Then 
again, when God appointed the famous 
rite of circumcision to Abraham, it was 
after * the grand promise made to him, 
and therefore had nothing in it that 
could make Abraham more worthy, but 
was only an eternal mark, and a badge 
of the covenant, and relation he bore to 
God, and so being of no intrinsic virtue 
of itself, ivas capable of being omitted or 
abolished; and if that, then consequently 
so must any other of the ceremonial 
usages be. 

f Rom. iv. 
10, 11. 

9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 His 

next instance in the course of their his- 
tory was in Joseph, his being sold into 
Egypt by the emulation of his brethren ; 
his wisdom, piety, success, and advance- 

* he removed him 
into this laud where- 
in ye now dwell. 

5 And he gave 
him none inheritance 
in it, no not so much 
as to set his foot on : 
yet he promised that 
he would give it to 
him for a possession, 
and to his seed after 
him, when as yet he 
had no child. 

6 And God spake 
on this wise, that his 
seed should sojourn 
in a strange land, 
and that they should 
bring them into bon- 
dage, and entreat 
them evil four hun- 
dred years. 

7 And the nation 
to whom they shall 
be in bondage will I 
judge, said God : and 
after that shall they 
come forth, and serve 
me in this place. 

8 And he gave him 
the covenant f of 
circumcision : and so 
Abraham begat Isaac, 
and circumcised him 
the eighth day : and 
Isaac begat Jacob, 
and Jacob begat the 
twelve patriarchs. 

9 And the patri- 
archs, moved with en- 
vy, sold Joseph into 
Egypt : but God was 
with him, 

* When his father was dead, he removed. Note, there ariseth a 
great difficulty about the age of Abraham at the time of this his 
removal, as the history records the circumstances of it in Gen. xi. 
and xii. But the account of Terah's age in the Samari tan Penta- 
teuch, clearly reconciles St. Stephen to Moses. See Sir Norton 
Knatchbull in loc. 




10 And delivered 
him out of all his af- 
flictions,, and gave 
him favour and wis- 
dom in the sight of 
Pharaoh king of 
Egypt j and he made 
him governor over 
Egypt, and all his 

1 1 Now there came 
a dearth over all the 
land of Egypt and 
Canaan, and great 
affliction j and our 
fathers found no sus- 

12 But when Ja- 
cob heard that there 
was corn in Egypt, 
he sent out our fa- 
thers first. 

13 And at the se- 
cond time Joseph was 
made known to his 
brethren ; and Jo- 
seph's kindred was 
made known unto 

14 Then sent Jo- 
seph, and called his 
father Jacob to him, 
and all his kindred,, 
threescore and fifteen 

15 So Jacob went 
down into Egypt, and 
died, he and our fa- 

16 And were car- 
ried over into Sychem, 
and laid in the sepul- 
chre * that Abraham 

ment there, as the providential means A. D. 33. 

of preserving his family under the great - 

famine ; who all lived and died in Egypt, 
and had no other benefit of the pro- 
mised land, but to be carried over and 
buried there. By all which it was clear, 
That the most despised and persecuted 
persons might be yet the most glorious 
instruments of delivering and saving God's 
people. That the favour and love of God 
toward his most eminent servants, has no 
respect to any particular country; but 
that in every place lie accepts of and re* 
wards the services and virtues of his true 
worshippers. And finally, if this were 
true of the patriarchs, the fathers of the 
Jewish church, it could not be otherwise 
intended of God in relation to their pos- 

* Ver. 16. That Abraham bought, &c. Note, It was not Abraham, 
but Jacob that bought this sepulchre, Gen. xxxiii. 18, 19. Whe- 
ther therefore we should say, That Stephen, in the warmth of his 
speech, might mistake the name; or rather, that it is an error of 
the copies ; let the learned and pious reader determine. See Capel. 




A. D. 33. 

17, 18, 19 As the four hundred 
years grew toward a completion, dur- 
ing their stay in Egypt, the Israelites 
increased thereto vast multitudes, which 
the Egyptian king endeavoured, for rea- 
sons of state, to suppress, by destroying 
their male children as fast as they were 
born, as you now, by illegal and violent 
methods, intend to hinder the religion of 
Oirist, by suppressing and destroying his 
apostles and disciples. 

SJO, 21, 22 But as then Moses was 
born, and by the special providence of 
God was educated, qualified, and pre- 
served to be their deliverer, against all 
the fury and opposition of the Egyptian 
court ; so be you assured, God has in a 
still more wonderful mariner appointed 
Jesus to be the Saviour of mankind, and 
will miraculously support and defend his 
doctrine and religion, maugre all the force 
of your power and malice. 

93, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 Moses, 
indeed, before his divine commission, to 
be the instrument of their deliverance 
from Egyptian bondage was fully known, 
did a private action or two that could 

bought for a sum of 
money of the sons of 
Eramor the father of 

17 But when the 
time of the promise 
drew nigh, which 
God had sworn to 
Abraham, the people 
grew and multiplied 
in Egypt, 

18" Till another 
king arose, which 
knew not Joseph. 

19 The same dealt 
subtilly with our 
kindred, and evil en- 
treated our fathers, 
so that they cast out 
their young children, 
to the end they might 
not live. 

20 In which time 
Moses was born, and 
was exceeding fair, 
and nourished up in 
his father's house 
three months. 

21 And when he 
was cast out, Pha- 
raoh's daughter took 
him up, and nourished 
him for her own son. 

22 And Moses was 
learned in all the 
wisdom of the Egyp- 
tians, and was migh- 
ty in words and in 

23 And when he 
was full forty years 
old, it came into his 
heart to visit his bre- 
thren the children of 

Spicileg. on this passage. Erasmus in II. cap. Matth. and Epist. 
lib. 2. epist. 6. Episcop. Instit, lib. 4. sect. 1—84. Le Clerc. Ars 
Crit. part 3, pag. 208. 




24 And seeing one 
of them suffer wrong, 
he defended him, and 
avenged him that was 
oppressed, and smote 
the Egyptian : 

25 For he supposed 
his brethren would 
have understood, how 
that God by his hand 
would deliver them ; 
but they understood 

26 And the next 
day he shewed him- 
self unto them as 
they strove, and 
would have set them 
at one again, saying, 
Sirs, ye are brethren ; 
why do ye wrong one 
to another ? 

27 But he that did 
his neighbour wrong, 
thrust him away, say- 
ing, Who made thee 
a ruler and a judge 
over us ? 

28 Wilt thou kill 
me as thou didst the 
Egyptian yesterday ? 

29 Then fled Moses 
at this saying, and 
was a stranger in the 
land of Madian, where 
he begat two sons. 

30 And when forty 
years were expired, 
there appeared to him 
in the wilderness of 
Mount Sinai, an angel 
of the Lord in a flame 
of fire in a bush. 

31 When Moses 
saw it, he wondered 
at the sight: and as 
he drew near to be- 
hold it, the voice of 
the Lord came unto 

VOL, I. 

only be interpreted a kind of earnest of A. D. 33. 

their future general deliverance; and 

the parties concerned in it, having no 
apprehensions of him as such, rejected 
and abused him for his kindness; but 
you have now no plea in respect to your 
Saviour Jesus. His commission is con- 
firmed by all possible evidence, and your 
refusal of him is without all excuse, 

30, 31, 32, 33, 34., 35, 36 But 
when God had demonstrated his com- 
mission by that wondrous and amazing 
appearance at Mount Sinai, by the mi- 
racle of the burning bush, and by the 
voice of an angel; and wdien Moses had; 
by the power of miracles convinced the 
Egyptians and them of the truth of it ; 
then they found the person they before 
overlooked and rejected, to be indeed 
their great deliverer and governor. 
And thus God will at last most terribly 
convince you, that the Jesus whom you 

50 A PARAPHRASE ON THE chap, yii 

A. D. 33. have rejected, is the onhf Saviour and 32 Saying, I am 
-spiritual Deliverer of his church and the God of thy fa- 

people thers ' the God of A " 

1 1 * braham, and the God 

of Isaac, and the God 

of Jacob. Then Mo- 

ges trembled, and 

durst not behold. 

S3 Then said the 

Lord to him, Put off 

thy shoes from thy 

feet : for the place 

where thou standest 

is holy ground. 

34 I have seen, I 
have seen the affliction 
of my people which is 
in Egypt, and I have 
heard their groaning, 
and am come down 
todeliverthem. And 
now come, I will send 
thee into Egypt. 

35 This Moses, 
whom they refused, 
saying, Who made 
thee a ruler and 
judge ? the same did 
God send to be a 
ruler and deliverer by 
the hands of the an- 
gel which appeared 
to him in the bush. 

36 He brought 
them out, after that 
he had shewed won- 
ders and signs in the 
land of Egypt, and 
in the Red sea, and 
in the wilderness for- 
ty years. 

$7 And even this great Moses your 3 ? This is that 

lawgiver, has given you so little reason ^ os es which said 

to conclude, that the ceremonial law unto the children of 

should be of necessary and perpetual Israel, A prophet shall 

obligation; that, on the contrary, when the Lord l° m G ° d P 

r P j .' ' . • , ,, ^' C1 raise up unto you of 

he had given you it, he directed you brethren, like 

and your posterity to expect the Mes- unto me hIm shall 

siah as a more excellent Prophet, the ye hear. 


SS This is he that 
was in the church in 
the wilderness, with 
the angel which spake 
to him in the mount 
Sinai, and with our 
fathers : who received 
the lively oracles to 
give unto us. 

39 This is he to 
whom our fathers 
would not obey, but 
thrust him from them, 
and in their hearts 
turned back again in- 
to Egypt, 

40 Saying unto 
Aaron, Make us gods 
to go before us : for 
as for this Moses, 
which brought us out 
of the land of Egypt, 
we wot not what is 
become of him. 

41 And they made 
a calf in those days, 
and offered sacrifice 
unto the idol, and re- 
joiced in the works of 
their own hands. 

42 Then God turn- 
ed and gave them up 
to worship the host of 
heaven ; as it is writ- 
ten in the book of the 
prophets, * O ye house 
of Israel, have ye of- 
fered to me slain 
beasts, and sacrinces, 
by the space of forty 
years in the wilder- 

43 Yea, ye took 
up the tabernacle of 
Moloch, and the star 
of your god Reru- 

Author of more refined and spiritual A. D. 33. 

laws: to which therefore his were only 

an introduction, and in due time to give 

38 This Moses, I say, therefore, 
when he delivered this law from God to 
our forefathers, could be understood to 
give it for no longer continuance, than 
till Christ should come to complete it, 
and give a more perfect one in the room 
of it. 

39, 10, 41, 42, 43 And when these 
your forefathers (who were as much the 
church and favourite people of God as 
you can now pretend to be) were so un- 
grateful under all their deliverances, 
and so stupid under all the blessings of 
their divine law, as to affront Moses, 
by whose hand they received it, and 
from time to time to fall into heathen 
idolatry and worship : what did God do 
to them, but give them up to themselves, 
despise their temple, and at last give it 
over to destruction, and them into a long 
and dreadful captivity? And therefore 
he ye your own judges, whether this your 
malicious treatment of Christ, the last 
and greatest of all lawgivers, does not 
call for a more terrible and fatal punish- 
meiu ? 

* Amos v. 

E 2 



A.D. 3J. 

4t, 45 Again, the tabernacle, with 
the ark in it, was, for a long space of 
time, as solemn a place for your war- 
ship, and of the divine appearance and 
residence, as the temple can be at this 
present; and yet though it was made 
and framed by God's special direction 
for that purpose, he was so far from 
amfthirtghis blessings to it, that it lasted 
no longer than to the building of the 

46* Which noble fabric was erected, 
and accepted of God, more as a testi- 
mony of David's gratitude for divine 
favours, than from any express and po- 
sitive command from heaven. 

47 As it is evident from this, that 
though God accepted of David's thank- 
ful and pious intention; yet so little 
did he insist upon it as essentially neces- 
sary to his divine worship and presence, 
that only because David was engaged 
in so many wars, he ordered the build- 
ing of it to be deferred to the more 
peaceable reign of his son Solomon. 

48, 49, 50 Nay, and when he had 
built and consecrated it to this divine 
service, what a solemn profession and 
declaration did he then make in his de- 
dication-prayer ? (1 Kings viii. 27.) 
That the most high God neither could 
nor would confine his especial presence 
and blessings, upon the worship of men, 
to any temple made with hands ; nor he 
that fills heaven and earth, limit his peo- 

phan, figures which 
ye made, to worship 
them : and I will 
carry you away be- 
yond Babylon. 

44 Our fathers had 
the tabernacle of wit- 
ness in the wilderness, 
as he had appointed, 
speaking unto Moses, 
that he should make 
it according to the fa- 
shion that he had 

45 Which also our 
fathers that came af- 
ter, brought in with 
Jesus into the pos- 
session of the Gen- 
tiles, whom God 
drove out before the 
face of our fathers, 
unto the days of Da- 

46 Who found fa- 
vour before God, and 
desired to find ataber- 
nacle for the God of 

47 But Solomon 
built him an house. 

48 Howbeit the 
Most High dwelleth 
not in temples made 
with hands, as saith 
the prophet, 

49 Heaven is my 
throne, and earth is 
my footstool : what 
house will ye build 
me ? saith the Lord : 
or what is the place 
of my rest ? 



50 Hath not my 
hand made all these 
things ? 

51 Ye stiff-necked 
heart and ears, ye do 
always resist the Holy 
Ghost : as your fa- 
thers did, so do ye. 

52 Which of the 
prophets have not 
your fathers perse- 
cuted ? and they have 
slain them which 
shewed before of the 
coming of the Just 
One, of whom ye 
have been now the 
betrayers and mur- 

53 Who have re- 
ceived the law by the 
disposition of angels, 
and have not kept it. 

54 When they 
heard these things, 
they were cut to the 
heart, and they gnash- 
ed on him with their 

55 But he being full 

pie's adorations to one particular place. A. D. 33. 

Plainly intimating thereby, that this 

temple had no peculiar holiness m itself, 
nor were its worship and sacrifices of 
any necessary and perpetual obligation. 
And the same was meant by the pro- 
phet Isaiah, when he says, What house 
willye build me ? fyc. [Isai. Ixvi. 1, 2.] 

51 Stephen having thus fully an- 
swered the charge laid to him, and 
knowing the incurable prejudice and 
malice of the council, told them plainly, 
that notwithstanding all these unexcep- 
tionable evidences from their own scrip- 
tures, he still expected that they would 
continue hard against the word of God, 
and the miraculous testimonies of his 
Spirit, just as their forefathers had too 
often done before them. 

52 Only with this difference, that 
they only abused those prophets that 
foretold and described the blessed times 
of the Messiah; but you (says he) by a 
more desperate degree of wickedness, 
have betrayed and murdered the very 
Messiah himself. 

53 And finally, that this their law 
and temple, though the one so augustly 
and solemnly declared from heaven, 
the other so magnificent in its fabric 
and worship, should be, so far from 
being their security, under such unre- 
pented violation of the divine will, that 
they would serve only as arguments to 
ascertain, and increase, and aggravate 
that most exemplary judgment that was 
coming upon them. 

54 This discourse, and the bold ap- 
plication of it to them, so incensed the 
council, that they expressed themselves 
against him, with all the signs of rage 
and bitterness. 

55 Stephen, knowing what this fury 



CHAP. Vil. 

A. D. 33. of theirs would end in, lifted up his 

eyes and heart to heaven, where his 

only hope and confidence was placed ; 
and God for his present support vouch- 
safed him a sight of the SHECHINAH, 
or glorious appearance of the Divine 
Majesty, and Jesus, in the highest splen- 
dor and greatness, ready to save and 
receive him. 

56* And he declared to them all, 
what he saw. 

57 But they, seeing nothing of the 
vision as he did, took it as a fresh in- 
stance of his blasphemy to confirm the 
former charge; and exclaiming against 
him in the loudest manner, called upon 
the people to carry him off, and stone 
him as a blasphemer. 

58 And to put some face of a legal 
proceeding upon the matter, they or- 
dered him to be carried out of the city, 
and the witnesses first to begin the exe- 
cution ; who accordingly stripped them- 
selves for it, and gave their clothes to 
be kept by one Saul, an eminent young 
zealot against Stephen; who, by this 
office, desired to testify his consent to 
his death. 

59 Thus they murdered this eminent 
disciple, who all the while commended 
his soul to Jesus his Saviour *. 

60 And in the midst of his agonies 
got upon his knees, and begged of God 

of the Holy Ghost, 
looked up stedfastly 
into heaven, and saw 
the glory of God, and 
Jesus standing on the 
right hand of God, 

56 And said, Be- 
hold, I see the hea- 
vens opened, and the 
Son of man standing 
on the right hand of 

57 Then they cri- 
ed out with a loud 
voice, and stopped 
their ears, and ran 
upon him with one 

53 And cast him 
out of the city, and 
stoned him : and the 
witnesses laid down 
their clothes at a 
young man's feet, 
whose name was Saul. 

59 And they stoned 
Stephen, calling upon 
* God, and saying, 
Lord Jesus, receive 
my spirit. 

60 And he kneeled 
down, and cried with 

* Ver. 59. Calling upon God. Note, The word (God) is not in 
the original, nor ought to have been inserted here. The reading 
is, And they stoned Stephen, krt**X^*Tsvw, calling out to, or calling 
upon, or praying and saying, Lord Jesus, kc. And if the word God 
be supposed to be put in this place, yet the sense may well be this, 
viz. Calling upon God, and also saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. 




a loud voice, Lord, 
lay not this sin to 
their charge. And 
when hehad said this, 
he fell asleep. 

not to add this to the rest of their heavy A. D. 33. 

crimes: and so died with as much calm 

ness and composure, as if he had fallen 


A general persecution against the converts to Christianity. They are 
forced to flee from Jerusalem. Only the apostles stay there. Saul 
a chief instrument in this persecution. The preaching and miracles 
of Philip the Deacon, in Samaria. Of Simon the sorcerer. His 
proposal to buy the gifts of the Holy Ghost with money. Peter's re- 
proof to him thereupon. Philip converts the eunuch, and baptizetk 

1 AND Saul was 
consenting un- 
to his death. And at 
that time there was 
a great persecution 
against the church 
which was at Jerusa- 
lem j and they were 
all scattered abroad 
throughout the regi- 
ons of Judea and Sa- 
maria, except the a- 

2 And devout men 
carried Stephen to his 
burial, and made great 
lamentation over him. 

1 rpHE rage and malice of the coun- 
-■- cil at Stephen's discourse did not 
end in his murder, but extended to all 
the Christian converts ; all, or most of 
which, were forced thereupon to retire 
from Jerusalem into the several parts of 
Judea and Samaria. But the twelve 
apostles * continued there still. And 
in the execution of these persecuting 
orders of the council, Saul was a prin- 
cipal instrument, as he had before been 
of Stephen's condemnation. 

2 In the mean time, though it was 
against the custom of the Jewish nation 
to bury malefactors in the same man- 
ner with other people, yet Stephen's f 
friends ventured to carry his body off, 

* Ver. 1. vXriv tSv aVoj-oXi-y, except the apostles ; who, in all pro- 
bability, would hardly have abided the danger of this persecution, 
but from some special order from God, and by a particular provi- 
dence over them. 

The reason for their continuance at Jerusalem in a body, I con- 
ceive to be, that they might consult and give directions to them 
that were scattered into several parts, relating to the converts they 
should make. See chap. viii. 14, &c. and chap. xi. 22, &c. See 
Bp. Pearson's Oper. Post. pag. 62. 

f V A>^ E? tfaa&i?, devout men. Whether this phrase in this place, 
signifies Jewish proselytes, or Christian converts, is hardly to be de- 
termined ; though most probably they were Jewish proselytes 
turned Christians. 

K 4 




A. D. 35. and perform his funeral with the usual 
i decencies and respects. 

3 To proceed now in the account of 
this dispersion of the Christian con- 
verts, who could now no longer endure 
their own houses, by reason of the zeal 
and fury of Saul, who, by order of the 
council, entered and searched them all, 
dragging men and women out to prison. 

4 But these endeavours to suppress 
the Christian doctrine, tended yet far- 
ther to spread and propagate it. For 
such of those that were driven from Je- 
rusalem, as had sufficient endowments 
of the Holy Ghost, and authority from 
the apostles, went preaching, and con- 
firming the Gospel, through the several 
towns and countries, into which they 
were dispersed. 

5, 6, 7? 8 Among whom Philip, one 
of the seven deacons or stewards for 
the poor, (chap, vi.) distinguished him- 
self in one of the chief cities of the Sa- 
maritan country; in which he preached, 
and WTought miracles with such success, 
that the greatest part of the people be- 
lieved, and embraced the Gospel with 
the greatest gladness and satisfaction. 

9, 10, 11 Now there had been a good 
while in that city, one Simon, a famous 
sorcerer, that declared himself endowed 
with most eminent degrees of divine 
power; and indeed had so long and 
often astonished the people with diabo- 
lical and magical performances, that he 
was cried up by all ranks, for a won- 
derful and divine person. 

3 As for Saul, he 
made havoc of the 
church, entering into 
every house, and hal- 
ing men and women, 
committed them to 

4 Therefore they 
that were scattered 
abroad, went every 
where preaching the 

5 Then Philip went 
down to the city of 
Samaria, and preach- 
ed Christ unto them. 

6 And the people 
with one accord gave 
heed unto those tilings 
which Philip spake, 
hearing and seeing 
the miracles which 
he did. 

7 For unclean spir 
rits, crying with a 
loud voice, came out 
of many that were 
possessed with them : 
and many taken with 
palsies, and that were 
lame, were healed. 

8 And there was 
great joy in that city. 

9 But there was a 
certain man called 
Simon, which before- 
time, in the same city, 
used sorcery, and be- 
witched the people 
of Samaria, giving 
out that himself was 
some great one. 



10 To whom they 
all gave heed, from 
the least to the great- 
est, saying, This man 
is the great power of 

11 And to him they 
had regard, because 
that of long time he 
had bewitched them 
with sorceries. 

l c 2But when they be- 
lieved Philip, preach- 
ing the things con- 
cerning the kingdom 
of God, and the name 
of Jesus Christ, they 
were baptized both 
men and women. 

13 Then Simon 
himself believed also : 
and when he was bap- 
tized, he continued 
with Philip, and won- 
dered, beholding the 
miracles and signs 
which were done. 

14 Now when the 
apostles which were 
at Jerusalem heard 
that Samaria had re- 
ceived the word of 
God, they sent unto 
them Peter and John. 

15 Who when they 
were come down, 
praj'ed for them, that 
they might receive 
the Holy Ghost. 

16 (For as yet he 
was fallen upon none 
of them : only they 
were baptized in the 
name of the Lord Je- 

17 Then laid they 
their hands on them, 

A. D. 35. 

12 But upon hearing the comfortable 
and reasonable doctrine of the Christian 
religion from Philip, and seeing the far 
more plain and unexceptionable mira- 
cles by which he confirmed it, they left 
Simon, and were baptized into the re- 
ligion of Jesus Christ. 

13 Nay, the power by which Philip 
wrought his cures appeared so evidently 
to be derived from the true God, that 
Simon himself was as much struck and 
astonished at them, as the people had 
been at his; and finding he could no 
longer stand in competition with him, 
pretended at least to be his sincere 
convert, and so was baptized, and at- 
tended upon his preaching. 

14-, 15 Now the twelve apostles at 
Jerusalem, having intelligence of the 
progress of the Gospel about Samaria, 
sent Peter and John into those parts, 
to confer such gifts of the Holy Ghost 
upon such of the new converts, as the 
divine wisdom should think most pro- 
per for the occasions of the church. 

16 (For these miraculous powers 
were not the immediate privilege of all 
converts upon baptism, but were dis- 
pensed by the twelve apostles, to such 
persons and purposes as the Holy Spirit 

17 Accordingly these two apostles 
came and conferred them upon several, 




A. D. 35. by prayer, and the significant ceremony 
. of laying their hands on them. And, 
by thus conferring the gifts of the Holy 
Spirit upon these converts of Samaria, 
the apostles took the most prudent 
and early steps toward curing those long 
prejudices and aversions that had pos- 
sessed the minds of Jews and Sama- 
ritans against each other; shewing them 
now to be all equally acceptable to God, 
and capable of the blessings of the Mes- 
siah's kingdom, upon their repentance 
and conversion to his religion. 

IS, 19 Simon observing this great 
prerogative of the apostles, not only to 
work miracles themselves, but to confer 
the power upon others; and imagining 
with himself what credit and gains he 
could make of such a privilege, if he 
had it; and judging of the apostles' 
temper by his own covetous inclinations, 
offered them a sum of money to bestow 
it upon him. 

20 Which proposal Peter rejected 
with the utmost indignation, upbraiding 
him with the monstrous wickedness of 
imagining, that a free gift of God 
could ever, like earthly commodities, 
be exposed to sale, and of designing 
that for his own vanity and lucre, which 
God intended only for the spiritual 
good of mankind. Take your mo- 
ney, (says he,) the love of which will be 
your destruction. 

21 Telling him that his covetousness 
and hypocrisy was too great to render 
him fit for any spiritual gift, or capa- 
ble of any benefit from the Christian 

22, 23 But exhorted him at the same 
time to endeavour for a pardon of this 
wicked project, and for the cure of his 

and they received the 
Holy Ghost. 

18 And when Si- 
mon saw that through 
laying on of the apo- 
stles' hands, the Holy 
Ghost was given, he 
offered them money, 

19 Saying, Give 
me also this power, 
that on whomsoever 
I lay hands,he may re- 
ceive the Holy Ghost. 

20 But Peter said 
unto him, Thy mo- 
ney perish with thee, 
because thou hast 
thought that the gift 
of God may be pur- 
chased with money. 

21 Thou hast nei- 
ther part nor lot in 
this matter; for thy 
heart is not right in 
the sight of God. 

22 Repent there- 
fore of this thy wick- 
edness, and pray 
God, if * perhaps the 

Ver. 22. If perhaps, J a^u. This particle does not denote any 
uncertainty of God's forgiveness upon Simon's real repentance j but 



thought of thine 
heart may be forgiven 

23 For I perceive 
that thou art in the 
gall * of bitterness, 
and in the bond f of 

24 Then answered 
Simon, and said, Pray 
ye to the Lord for me, 
that none of these 
things which ye have 
spoken come upon 

25 And they, when 
they had testified and 
preached the word of 
the Lord, returned 
to Jerusalem, and 
preached the Gospel 
in many villages of 
the Samaritans. 

26 And the angel 
of the Lord spake 
unto Philip, saying, 
Arise, and go toward 
the south, unto the 
way that goeth down 
from Jerusalem unto 
Gaza, which is de- 

27 And he arose 
and went : and, be- 
hold, a man of Ethi- 
opia, an eunuch of 
great authority under 
Candace queen of the 
Ethiopians, who had 
the charge of all her 
treasure, and had 

desperate and corrupted disposition, by A. D. 35. 
the most earnest prayer to God, and - 
a special degree of humiliation and re- 

24 By which severe rebuke he 
seemed, at least, to be much affected, 
and begged of the two apostles to join 
their prayers to his own, that God 
would not punish him in so exemplary 
a manner, as they seemed to threaten 
him withal. 

25 The two apostles having, by the 
gifts of the Holy Ghost, confirmed and 
settled the Christians in these parts, 
returned again to the other ten at Jeru- 
salem, preaching the Gospel as they 
went through several villages of the 
Samaritans, where Philip had not yet 

26* He having also now finished his 
preaching, in the place before men- 
tioned, had orders given him by an 
angel to leave it, and travel the road 
that leads from Jerusalem to Gaza, that 
part of it particularly that lay through 
the desert of Judah. 

27, 28 He went accordingly; and as 
soon as he came thither, found upon 
what occasion he was sent ; for he saw 
a chariot upon the road, belonging to 
the high treasurer of the queen of 
£ Ethiopia, who being a Jewish proselyte, 
had been at Jerusalem to worship the 
true God, at the great feast of Pente- 
cost, and was now returning home ; and 

is the same with tl and e*W, in Philip, iii. 11, 12, and elsewhere. 
The sense is, That the thought of thy heart may be forgiven thee. 

* Ver. 23. Gall of bitterness. Alluding (most probably) to 
Deut. xxix. 18. or xxxii. 32. 

f Ibid. Bond of iniquity. Alluding to Isai. lviii. 6. 

% That part of it that lay under Egypt. 




A. D. 35. as hs rode along, was reading in the 

prophet Isaiah. 

29 The angel directed Philip to make 
up to the chariot, and talk with the 
treasurer about what he was reading. 

SO He did so, and asked him, if he 
understood that famous and remarkable 
passage ? 

31 No (he said) it can hardly be 
expected, a stranger, not much skilled 
in the Jewish learning, should be able to 
interpret their prophecies ; and being 
desirous to be informed, requested Philip 
to come into the chariot, and shew him 
the meaning of it. And so he did. 

32, 33 The passage was that of Isai. 
liii. 8. (according to the Greek trans- 
lation,) concerning the Messiah. He 
was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and as 
a lamb dumb before his shearer, so opened 
he not his mouth. Signifying the perfect 
innocency of life, and the absolute pa- 
tience, modesty, and resignation of 
CHRIST under his condemnation and 
sufferings. In his humiliation his judg- 
ment was taken away; i. e. while he 
condescended to live upon earth, in 
the low and humble state of manhood, 
he should be most unjustly treated, 
and have no right or justice done him. 
And who shall declare his generation? 
for his life is taken from the earth; i. e. 
who can sufficiently express the wick- 
edness of that generation of men, who 
thus condemned and crucified their 
own Messiah ? 

34 The treasurer desired to know, 
whether Isaiah spake this of himself, 

come to Jerusalem 
for to worship, 

28 Was returning 
and sitting in his cha- 
riot, read Esaias the 

39 Then the Spirit 
said unto Philip, Go 
near, and join thyself 
to this chariot. 

30 And Philip ran 
thither to him, and 
heard him read the 
prophet Esaias, and 
said, Understandest 
thou what thou read- 

31 And he said, 
How can I, except 
some man should 
guide me ? And he 
desired Philip that he 
would come up and 
sit with him. 

32 The place of 
the scripture which 
he read was this, He 
was led as a sheep to 
the slaughter, and 
like a lamb dumb be- 
fore the shearer, so 
opened he not his 
mouth : 

33 In his humili- 
ation his judgment 
was taken away : and 
who shall declare his 
generation ? for his 
life is taken from the 

34 And the eunuch 
answered Philip, and 



said, I pray thee, of 
•whom speaketh the 
prophet this ? of 
himself, or of some 
other man ? 

35 Then Philip 
opened his mouth, 
and be^an at the 
same scripture, and 
preached unto ^lim 

36 And as they 
■went on their way, 
they came unto a cer- 
tain water : and the 
eunuch said, See here 
is water ; what doth 
hinder me to be bap- 
tized ? 

37 And Philip said, 
If thou believest with 
all thine heart, thou 
mayest. And he an- 
swered and said, 1 be- 
lieve that Jesus Christ 
is the Son of God. 

38 And he com- 
manded the chariot to 
stand still : and they 
went down both into 
the water, both Philip 
and the eunuch ; and 
he baptized him. 

39 And when they 
were come up out of 
the water, the Spirit 
of the Lord * caught 

or of some other great and eminent A. D. 35. 
prophet ? n — - 

35 Whereupon Philip took occasion 
to shew him, how this, and abundance 
of other prophecies, were designed to 
be eminently and completely fulfilled in 
the Messiah ; convincing him all the 
way, that Jesus was the very person, 
to whose lite, death, resurrection, and 
ascension, these scriptures exactly an- 
swered ; and consequently that he was 
the Saviour of mankind, and so all were 
obliged to embrace his doctrine, and be 
baptized into the profession of his re- 

36 The man was fully convinced of 
the truth of the Christian religion by 
Philip's discourse, and requested him 
to baptize him into the profession and 
privileges of it. 

37, 3S Philip told him, that if his 
conviction was real and sincere, and his 
resolution to persevere and live up to 
it firm and hearty, he would do it. And 
having his repeated assurances that he 
was so, he baptized him at the next 
convenient water they came to. 

39 When all was over, the angel 
conveyed away Philip in a miraculous 
manner, * which still more confirmed 
the eunuch in the truth of what he 

* Ver. 39. The Spirit of the Lord caught away Philip. Note, the 
Alexandrian and other MSS. read it thus, nW ( u« ayiov ziricu) lr\ tov 
vjv*x qv ', clyy&oi 2: Kvtiovj &e. " The Holy Spirit fell upon the 



A. D. 35. had taught him, and so he continued 
his journey home with the utmost joy 
and satisfaction. 

40 The angel carried Philip as far 
as Azotus, which was about thirty miles 
distant from the place he took him 
up at ; from whence he went up the 
coast-side, and preached the Gospel in 
the towns as far as Caesarea. 

away Philip, that the 
eunuch saw him no 
more : and he went 
on his way rejoicing. 

40 But Philip was 
found at Azotus : and 
passing through, he 
preached in all the ci- 
ties, till he came to 

* Chap, 
xxii. 6. 


The rage of Saul against the Christians. His commission to seize them. 
His extraordinary conversion. Ananias sent to him. He preached 
the Gospel at Damascus to the Jews. They attempt to destroy him. 
His escape. He comes to Jerusalem, and is received by the apostles. 
Peter's preaching and miracles at Lydda and Joppa. 

1 HT^O proceed now in the account of 

* this persecution, and of what hap 
pened to Saul, who was the chief instru- 
ment of the council in carrying it on : 

2 The gospel-doctrine having by 
this time been preached and entertained 
at Samaria, and in several other cities 
into which the Christians were dis- 
persed ; Saul, out of his furious zeal 
for the Jewish law, addressed himself 
to the high priest and council for a 
commission to go thither, and demand 
of the rulers of the synagogues to seize 
upon all Christians, and send them to 
Jerusalem, to be condemned and pu- 
nished as enemies to the Jewish religion. 

3 They gave him his orders ; and in 
his journey thither to execute them, 
as he drew near the town about noon, 
he and his * company were surrounded 
with a miraculous light from heaven, 
that eclipsed the very sun. 

l^ND Saul yet 
breathing out 
ter against the disci- 
ples of the Lord, went 
unto the high priest, 

2 And desired of 
him letters to Da- 
mascus to the syna- 
gogues, that if he 
found any of this way, 
whether they were 
men or women, he 
might bring them 
bound unto Jerusalem. 

3 And as he jour- 
neyed, he came near 
Damascus : and sud- 
denly there shined 
round about him a 
light from heaven. 

" eunuch • but the angel of the Lord caught away Philip." And 
accordingly, by the powers of this Spirit, the eunuch is said to 
have planted the Gospel in Ethiopia, as Eusebius says, Hist. lib. ii. 
cap. 1, 



4 And he fell to the 
earth, and heard a 
voice, saying unto 
him, Saul, Saul, why 
persecutes t thou me ? 

5 And he said, Who 
art thou, Lord ? And 
the Lord said, I am 
Jesus, whom thou per- 
secutest 1 It is hard 
for thee to kick a- 
gainst the pricks. 

6 And he, trembling 
and astonished, said, 
Lord, what wilt thou 
have me to do ? And 
the Lord said unto 
him, Arise, and go 
into the city, and it 
shall be told thee what 
thou must do. 

7 And the men 
which journeyed with 
him stood speechless, 
hearing a voice, but 
seeing no man. 

8 And Saul arose 
from the earth j and 

4 Whereupon, either concluding it A. D. 35. 

to denote the special presence * of 

God, or else struck and confounded at 

the brightness of it, they f all fell pros- f Chap, 
trate upon the ground, when a voice xxvi> 14 « 
out of the cloud was directed to Saul, 
Saul, why dost thou thus persecute me, in 
oppressing the members of my church f 

5 Saul, astonished to hear his zeal 
for religion so dreadfully interpreted, 
desired to know whether this was the 
appearance of the true J God or no ? X Ver. 5. 
To which the voice answered, That it ^ e f. *? a P' 
was the manifestation of the very Je- 
sus, the Son of God, the true Messiah, 
whose religion and disciples he thus 
inhumanly persecuted ; adding, that it 
would be a most desperate attempt for 

him any longer to oppose such evi- 
dences, and resist such a divine autho- 

6 Thus convinced of his errdr, and 
trembling at his own guilt, Saul hum- 
bly begged to be directed what he 
should do to testify his repentance, 
and obtain his pardon ? And the voice 
replied, That he should pursue his 
journey into the town, and wait there 
for a further manifestation of the Divine 
w r ill concerning him. 

7 (Now his fellow-travellers heard 
this voice only, as a loud and confused 
sound, || but not the distinct words H See cb. 
that were spoken to Saul ; and though xx "- 9 - 
more struck and confounded, had not xxv j, 

so clear a sight of the § divine glory that 
appeared, as he had. 

8, 9 So that when they rose up to go 
on their journey, Saul's eyes were so 

* Or to he the Sheckina, the glory of the Lord. 

§ Ver. 7- /**&»« Se^te?. Seeing no person. From whence 
most interpreters, concluding, that St. Paul at this time saw the 
person of Christ ; I have so expressed it in the paraphrase, as to 
give a just latitude to that notion. See ver. 17. and 1 Cor. ix. 1. 
and xv. 6. aud Acts xxii. 14. 




A. D. 35. dazzled at the light he had seen, that he 

was forced to be led into the town by 

his companions, and continued blind 
for three days together, which he spent 
in solemn repentance, prayer^ and fast- 

10, 11 At three days end, Jesus per- 
formed his promise to Saul (ver. 6.), by 
appearing to Ananias, a Christian disci- 
ple, (formerly a Jewish proselyte,) and 
ordered him to go to such a house, in 
such a street, to find out Saul, to cure 
him of his blindness, and baptize him 
into the Christian religion, and qualify 
him for the ministry, by conferring the 
Holy Ghost on him, telling him, that 
the great persecutor was now a true pe- 

12 And that he might go to him 
without any fear, Christ acquainted him, 
that Saul knew beforehand what he 
came for, by a vision from himself. 

13, 14 Ananias, knowing the character 
of the man, and the commission he 
came thither with, could not but express 
his amazement at such a change, and 
(perhaps) some fearfulness to make him- 
self known to so notorious a persecutor. 

15, 16 But Christ bade him go and 
fear nothing, assuring him, that, now 
his violent prejudices were removed, 
Saul would become not only a true 

when his eyes were 
opened, hs saw no 
man : but they led 
him by the hand, and 
brought him into Da- 

9 And he was three 
days without sight, 
and did neither eat 
nor drink. 

10 And there was 
a certain disciple at 
Damascus, named A- 
nanias : and to him 
said the Lord in a vi- 
sion, Ananias. And 
he said, Behold, / am 
here, Lord. 

11 And the Lord 
said unto him, Arise, 
and go into the 
street which is called 
Straight, and enquire 
in the house of Judas 
for one called Saul of 
Tarsus : for, behold, 
he prayeth, 

12 And hath seen 
in a vision a man 
named Ananias, com- 
ing in, and putting 
his hand on him, that 
he might receive his 

13 Then Ananias 
answered, Lord, I 
have heard by many 
of this man, how 
much evil he hath 
done to thy saints at 
Jerusalem : 

14 And here he 
hath authority from 
the chief priests, to 
bind all that call on 
thy name. 

15 But the Lord 
said unto him, Go 
thy way : for he is a 
chosen vessel Unto- 




me, to bear my name 
before the Gentiles, 
and kings, and the 
children of Israel. 

16" For I will shew 
him how great things 
he must suffer for my 
name's sake. 

17 And Ananias 
went his way, and 
entered into the house, 
and putting his hands 
on him, said, Brother 
Saul, the Lord (even 
Jesus that appeared 
unto thee in the way 
as thou earnest) hath 
sent me, that thou 
Slightest receive thy 
sight, and be filled 
with the Holy Ghost. 

IS And immedi- 
ately there fell from 
his eyes as it had been 
scales, and he received 
sight forthwith, and 
arose, and was bap- 

* 19 And when he 
had received meat, 
he was strengthened. 
Then was Saul certain 
days with the disciples 
which were at Da- 

20 And straightway 
he preached Christ in 
the synagogues, that 
he is the Son of God. 

21 But all that 
heard him were a- 
mazed, and said, Is 
not this he that de- 
stroyed them which 
called on this name 
in Jerusalem, and 

disciple, but an eminent preacher of the A. D.3.' 

Gospel, both to Jews and Gentiles ; and 

that as be had been an oppressor of, be * 
would now be a most undaunted sufferer 
for the truth of it. 

17, 18 Ananias, fully satisfied at this, 
went and performed his message, con- 
gratulating and saluting Paul by the 
name of Brother, f Christian; andfScrcli:. 
then, in the name of Christ, laid his xxn - 16 * 
hands upon him, cured his blindness, 
baptized him, and he was then endowed 
with the miraculous gifts of the Holy 
Ghost. In the cure of his blindness 
there fell from his eyes something like 
scales ; as a fit and lively emblem, de- 
noting that the veil was now taken away 
from his heart, and that he was come to 
the sight and understanding of the true 

19, 20 Saul being assured by all this 
of the truth of Christ's religion, and of 
his own pardon, ended his fast, joined 
himself to the Christian disciples at 
Damascus, and forthwith preached up 
JESUS to be the Son of God, the true 
Messiah, in the very Jewish syna- 


21 This was a great surprise to all his 
hearers, who knew very well how con- 
trary a purpose he came thither for. 

* Ver. 16*. oo-cchr a,v7ov vk§e7v. I will shew him what things he 
(emphatically) must suffer for my names sake. 

VOL. I. F 




A. D. 35. 

22 But he increasing every day more 
and more in the knowledge of the scrip- 
tures, and of the truth ot the Christian 
religion, gave the Jews of that place 
such undeniable proofs that Jesus was 
the true Messiah, as ihey could no way 
, answer. 

A. I>. 36. 23 After this his first preaching at 

Damascus, Saul retired from thence 

into Arabia, * where he continued about 
a * year, and then returned hither 
again, and preached to the Jews, who, 
by authority obtained from the govern- 
or of the town, watched the gates *, with 
a design to kill him. 
A. D. 37. 24, 25 But getting intelligence of 

their design, the Christian disciples let 

iiim down from the town wall by night, 
and so he escaped. (2 Cor. xi. 32.) 

26 Thence, in the third year f after 
his conversion, he went up to Jerusalem 
to converse with the Christians, and 
such of the apostles as were then there. 
But they knowing his former cha- 
racter, and not hearing of him lately 
since his conversion, suspected and 
shunned his acquaintance. 

27, 28 Till Barnabas, who had a 
certain account of his miraculous con- 
version, and preaching at Damascus, 
introduced him to Peter and James, and 
fully satisfied them of his sincerity, so 

came hither for that 
intent, that he might 
bring them bound 
unto the chief priests? 

22 But Saul in- 
creased the more in 
strength, and con- 
founded the Jews 
which dwelt at Da- 
mascus, proving that 
this is very Christ. 

23 And after that 
many days were ful- 
filled, the Jews took 
counsel to kill him. 

24 But their lay- 
ing await was known 
of Saul : and they 
watched the gates day 
and night to kill 

25 Then the dis- 
ciples took him by. 
night, and let him 
down by the wall in a 

26 And when Saul 
was come to Jerusa- 
lem, he assayed to 
join himself to the 
disciples : but they 
were all afraid of 
him, and believed not 
that he was a disciple. 

27 But Barnabas 
took him, and brought 
him to the apostles, 
and declared unto 
them how he had seen 

Bishop Pearson, Annal. Paulin, 

* Ver. 23. See Galat. i. 1 
p. 2. and 2 Cor. xi. 32. 

f Ver. 26. Galat. i. 18. and Bishop Pearson, Sup. p. 3. 




the Lord in the way, 
and that he had spoken 
to him, and how he 
had preached boldly 
at Damascus, in the 
name of Jesus. 

28 And he was with 
them, coming in, and 
going out at Jerusa- 

29 And he spake 
boldly in the name of 
the Lord Jesus, and 
disputed against the 
Grecians : but they 
went about to slay 

30 Which when 
the brethren knew, 
they brought him 
down to Csesarea, and 
sent him forth to Tar- 

31 Then had the 
churches rest through- 
out all Judea, and Ga- 
lilee, and Samaria, and 
were edified, and walk- 
ing in the fear of the 
Lord, and in the com- 
fort of the Holy Ghost, 
were multiplied. 

32 And it came to 
pass, as Peter passed 
throughout all quar- 
ters, he came down 
also to thesaints which 
dwelt at Lydda. 

33 And there he 
found a certain man, 

that he lived in consultation with them A. D. 38. 

(particularly with Peter) for fifteen days. 

Galat. i. 1».) 

9.9 During which time, he preached 
the Gospel to the Jewish strangers and 
proselytes with great strength and ar- 
gument, fortitude, and freedom of 
speech ; who, instead of being convinced 
by him, contrived and plotted his death. 

30 But the Christians finding out 
their intent, conveyed him first to 
Caesarea, and then along the coast to 
Tarsus, the place of his nativity, where 
he stayed and preached, till Barnabas 
came to him. Chap. ix. 25. 

31 Whether the fury of the Jewish 
council was abated by the loss of so 
eminent an instrument as Saul, or from 
some other cause # , they now suffered 
the Christians of Judea, Samaria, and 
Galilee, to enjoy for a while the free 
exercise of their religion, which gave a 
great opportunity of increasing the 
number, and of enlarging the comfort 
and piety of its professors. 

32, 33 Peter laid hold of this season 
to go round those parts, visiting and 
confirming the several converts; and 
being at Lydda, had a man brought to 
him, that had been confined to his bed 
eight years with a dead palsy. 

* See The history of the first Plantation of the Christ. Relig. by 
Mr. Benson, vol. i. chap. ix. sect. 3. and Mr. Lardner's Credi- 
bility of the Gosp. Hist. pag. 123, &c. where it is proved, that Cali- 
gula's persecution of the Jews caused them to cease, at present, 
from persecuting the Christians. 





AD 31). 

34 As soon as he came to him, Peter 
called him by his name, and bade him, 
in the name of Jesus Christ, rise up 
and be perfectly whole ; and so he did 

35 Which miracle brought a great 
many in Lydda, and Saron the next 
town, to the Christian faith. 

36, 37 At the same time there died at 
Joppa a very pious and charitable 
Christian, named Tabitha, and her 
corpse was prepared for the funeral. 

38 But before they would inter her, 
hearing of Peter's fame at Lydda, (which 
w r as just by,) her friends sent and begged 
of him to come thither, in hopes he 
would restore so useful a person to life. 

39 Peter went with the messengers 
immediately, and in the room where she 
lav, the poor widows came about him, 
and shewed him the clothes they had 
on, as evidences and monuments of her 

named iEneas, which 
had kept his bed eight 
years, and was sick of 
the palsy. 

34 And Peter said 
unto him, iEneas, Je- 
sus Christ maketh 
thee whole : arise, and 
make thy bed. And 
he arose immediately. 
35 And all that 
dwelt in Lydda and 
Saron saw him, and 
turned to the Lord. 

36 Now there was 
at Joppa a certain dis- 
ciple named Tabitha, 
which by interpreta- 
tion is called Dorcas : 
this woman was full of 
good works and alms- 
deeds which she did. 

37 And it came to 
pass in those days, 
that she was sick and 
died : whom when 
they had washed, they 
laid her in an upper 

38 And forasmuch 
as Lydda was nigh to 
Joppa, and the disci- 
ples had heard that 
Peter was there, they 
sent unto him two 
men, desiring himiha.t 
he would not delay to 
come to them. 

39 Then Peter a- 
rose, and went with 
them. When he was 
come, they brought 
him into the upper 
chamber, and all the 
widows stood by him 
weeping, and shewing 
the coats and gar- 
ments which Dorcas 
made, while she was 
with them. 




40 But Peter put 
them all forth, and 
prayed, and turning 
him to the body, said, 
Tabitha, arise. And 
she opened her eyes : 
and when she saw Pe- 
ter, she sat up. 

41 And he gave 
her his hand, and lift 
her up ; and when he 
had called the saints 
and widows, presented 
her alive. 

42 And it was 
known throughout all 
Joppa j and many be- 
lieved in the Lord. 

43 And it came to 
pass, that he tarried 
many days in Joppa 
with one Simon a tan- 

40, 41 Then ordering them all to with- A. D. 39. 

draw, he kneeled down and prayed by , 

the body, and commanded her to 
rise up; upon which she opened her 
eyes, and he gave her his hand, lifted 
her up, and presented the sorrowful 
widows with their benefactress perfectly 
restored to life. 

42 Which as soon as it was known, 
converted a great many in that town. 

43 Where Peter, seeing he could gain 
still more converts, continued a good 
while at one Simon's a tanner. 


Cornelius the first Gentile convert. The manner of his conversion by 

Peter. Peter's vision, to satisfy him, that the distinction between 

Jew and Gentile was abolished. His speech upon it. The effect it 
had upon the hearers. 

1 rpHERE was a 
certain man in 
Caesarea, called Cor- 
nelius, a centurion of 
the band, called the 
Italian band. 

2 A devout * man, 

Is ^ npHE Gospel having thus in the a. D. 40. 

-"■ space of about seven or eight 

years been preached by the apostles 
and disciples of Christ in most parts of 
the Jewish land, it was now begun to be 
offered to the Gentile world ; (and, in 

* Ver. 2. Oo&y^svos tov ®eov, One that feared God. This phrase 
so often occurring in this book of the Acts, it is proper here, once 
for all, to observe the meaning of it to be, such a convert to the 
Jewish religion, as acknowledged and worshipped the God of Israel, 
but was not circumcised. This sort of foreign converts, the Jews 
called Proselytes of the gate. Such as were fully converted and 
circumcised, they called Proselytes of righteousness, (those were the 
Hellenists, or Greeks, as Bishop Pearson thinks). And the Jews, 
by original descent, were called Hebrews and Israelites. 

f 3 




A. D. 40. this publication of the Christian religion 

to the Gentiles, divine Providence was 

pleased to proceed in a wise and proper 
gradation; beginning it first of all with 
such Gentiles as were partly proselyted 
to the Jewish religion, had renounced 
idolatry, and worshipped the true God ; 
whereby they were the more easily per- 
suadable to embrace the religion of the 
Son of God;) Cornelius a Roman 
officer belonging to the Italian legion, a 
proselyte to the Jewish religion, (but 
not circumcised,) a man of singular piety 
and charity, being first converted at 
Caesarea, by St. Peter, in the following 

3 As he was at his devotion, about 
three o'clock in the afternoon, (the time 
of evening service,) an angel appeared 
to him in the form of a man, sur- 

rounded with 


glory and 



4. At which unaccustomed appear- 
ance, being in a fright, he desired to 
know what his pleasure was? To which 
the angel most kindly and cheerfully 
replied, that his piety and charity were 
so acceptable to God, that, in rew r ard 
of them, he now intended him a free 
and full discovery of the true religion, 
and perfect way of salvation. 

5, 6 And accordingly ordered him to 
send to such a house in Joppa, for one 
Simon Peter, who should fully instruct 
him in it. 

7 5 8 As soon as the angel was gone, 
Cornelius acquainted two of his own 
servants, and one of his soldiers, that 
was a worshipper of the true God, as 
well as himself, with what the angel 

and one that feared 
God, with all his 
house, which gave 
much alms to the 
people, and prayed to 
God alway. 

3 He saw in a vi- 
sion evidently, about 
the ninth hour of the 
day, an angel of God 
comingin to him, and 
saying unto him, Cor- 

4 And when he 
looked on him, he 
was afraid, and said, 
What is it, Lord ? 
And he said unto 
him, Thy prayers and 
thine alms are come 
up for a memorial be- 
fore God. 

5 And now send 
men to Joppa, and 
call for one Simon, 
whose surname is Pe- 
ter : 

6 He lodgeth with 
one Simon a tanner, 
whose house is by the 
sea-side: he shall tell 
thee what thouought- 
est to do. 

7 And when the 
angel which spake 
unto Cornelius was 
departed, he called 
two of his household 




servants, and a de- 
vout soldier of them 
that waited on him 
continually : 

S And when he 
had declared all these 
things unto them, he 
sent them to Joppa. 

9 On the morrow, 
as they went on their 
journey, and drew 
nigh unto the city, 
Peter went up upon 
the house-top to pray, 
about the sixth hour. 

10 And he became 
very hungry, and 
would have eaten ; 
but while they made 
ready, he fell into a 

11 And saw hea- 
ven opened , and a cer- 
tain vesseldescending 
unto him, as it had 
been a great sheet 
knit at the four cor- 
ners, and let down to 
the earth : 

12 Wherein were 
all manner of four- 
footed beasts of the 
earth, and wild beasts, 
and creeping things, 
and fowls of the air. 

13 And there came 
a voice to him, Rise, 
Peter ; kill, and eat. 

had said to him; and ordered them A. D. 40. 

next day to go to Joppa in search of . 

Peter, and give him an account of it. 

9, 10 And the better to prepare Peter 
to receive and comply with their mes- 
sage, God was pleased to clear him of 
the common prejudice of the unlawful- 
ness of conversing with, or preaching 
to, any uncircumcised persons, by a 
visionary representation made to him 
the very day the men were coming from 
Cornelius, as he was at his stated prayers 
just before dinner. 

11, 12 Wherein there appeared to 
him a large sheet, let down as it were, 
from heaven, full of abundance of beasts 
and fowl, clean and unclean, such as 
were allowed or forbidden by the Jew- 
ish law, all mixed together. 

14 But Peter said, 
Not so, Lord ; for I 
have never eaten any 
thing that is common 
or unclean. 

15 And the voice 
spake unto him again 

13 And at the same time, a voice 
directed to him from heaven, bidding 
him to take and eat any of them, with- 
out any difference or religious distinc- 
tion : God thereby intending to intimate 
to him, that he should now freely and 
indifferently preach the Gospel to the 
Jews and Gentiles. 

14, 15 And when Peter seemed to 
startle at such a proposal, as being con- 
trary to the express law of Moses, 
which he knew was not yet totally and 
finally abolished ; the voice returned to 
him, and told him, he might safely do 




A. D. 40. it by warrant from God who instituted 

the law; to intimating to him, that tiiese 

positive laws about the distinction of 
meals, being at first designed to keep the 
Jewish people separate from all other 
nations, were vow of no further use or 
obligation, because the Christian church 
icas to consist of believers of all nations 
and countries. 

16 And to give him a greater cer- 
tainty of the truth of the vision, and 
fix his attention to the meaning of it, 
it was repeated to him three times. 

17) 18, 19 After it was over, and 
while Peter was seriously considering 
and debating with himself about the 
design of it, the Holy Ghost suggested 
to him, that there were people at the 
door that wanted to speak with him, 
and from whom he would learn the 
meaning of the vision; and upon en- 
quiry made, he found they were there 

the second time, What 
God hath cleansed, 
that call not thou 

20, 21 The Spirit ordered him, 
though they were Gentiles, to make no 
scruple of conversing and going along 
with them, for that they came by spe- 
cial direction from God. He went 
clown to them accordingly, telling them 
he was the person they enquired for, 
and asked them their business. 

22 They told him, Cornelius of Cae- 
sarea, a very pious and eminent prose- 

16 This was done 
thrice: and the vessel 
was received up again 
into heaven. 

17 Now while Pe- 
ter doubted in him- 
self what this vision 
which he had seen 
should mean, behold, 
the men which were 
sent from Cornelius, 
had made enquiry for 
Simon's house, and 
stood before the gate. 

IS And called, and 
asked whether Simon, 
which was surnamed 
Peter, were lodged 

19 While Peter 
thought on the vision, 
the Spirit said unto 
him, Behold, three 
men seek thee. 

20 Arise therefore, 
and get thee down, 
and go with them, 
doubting nothing : 
for I have sent them. 

2i Then Peter 
went down to the 
men which were sent 
unto him from Cor- 
nelius ; and said, Be- 
hold, I am he whom 
you seek : what is the 
cause wherefore ye 
are come ? 

22 And they said, 
Cornelius, the centu- 




rion, a just man, and 
one that feareth God, 
and of good report a- 
mong all the nation 
of the Jews, was 
warned from God by 
an holy angel, to send 
for thee into his 
house, and to hear 
words of thee. 

23 Then called he 
them in, and lodged 
them. And on the 
morrow Peter went 
away with them, and 
certain brethren from 
Joppa accompanied 

24 And the mor- 
row after they entered 
into Caesarea : and 
Cornelius waited for 
them, and had called 
together his kinsmen 
and near friends. 

25 And as Peter 
was coming in, Cor- 
nelius met him, and 
fell down at his feet, 
and worshipped him. 

26 But Peter took 
him up, saying, Stand 
up ; I myself also am 
a man. 

27 And as he talk- 
ed with him, he went 
in, and found many 
that were come toge- 

2S And he said 
unto them, Ye know 

lyte to the Jewish religion, (though yet A. D. 40. 

uncircumcised,) was warned by an angel 

to send for him, to instruct him in some 
great points of religion. 

23 Peter entertained the men that 
night, and the next day went along with 
them, taking six * of his friends at * See ch. 
Joppa that were Jewish converts to xl - llt 
accompany him, and to be witnesses of 
whatever should pass upon this remark- 
able occasion. 

24 Cornelius in the mean time had 
got his relations and friends together, 
who were all expecting Peter, to par- 
take f of his instructions, who the nextt Seech. 
day arrived there. 

xi. 14. 

25 As he was entering the house, 
Cornelius met him, and fell prostrate 
at his feet, reverencing him as the 
J messenger of heaven. 

26' But Peter took him up, and de- 
sired him to treat him only as af% man, 
that neither would, nor ought to expect 
such humility from him. 

27 5 28 Then observing Cornelius to 
have a good number of friends about 
him, some of which might possibly think 
strange of his free conversation with 
uncircumcised people, he told them, it 
was not without a special direction 

$ Ver. 25, and 2(7. Grotius and several other learned men are of 
opinion, that Cornelius took Peter to be an angel. But the angel 
having described him in Cornelius's vision no otherwise than as a 
man ; and it not being very agreeable to imagine, Cornelius 
should conceive an angel to be a lodger in a house j or that one 
angel should direct him to send for another angel to teach him ; 
1 have therefore so expressed it, as not to confine the reader's 
notion to either merely civil or religious worship. 




A. D. 40. from God, that he now did what was 

„ so contrary to the Jewish doctrine and 


29 And as he already concluded, 
from what the messengers told him of 
Cornelius's vision, and what he knew 
of his own, that God had some great 
and particular design in it, he desired 
Cornelius to tell him the whole matter, 
from whence they might learn the full 
of the divine will in this case. 

30, 31, 32 Who accordingly related 
to him the particulars of the angel's 
appearance and order to send for him, 
as one that was to instruct in the true 
faith and method of salvation. 

33 Which plain revelation from hea- 
ven he could not but obey, and now 
rejoiced to see him come to fulfil and 
explain it; assuring him that he and 
all his friends about him, would heart- 
ily embrace and cheerfully obey what- 
ever discoveries of the divine will he 
should make to them. 

how that it is an un- 
lawful thing for a 
man that is a Jew, to 
keep company, or 
come unto one of an- 
other nation : but 
God hath shewed me 
that I should not call 
any man common or 

29 Therefore came 
I unto you without 
gainsaying, as soon as 
I was sent for : I ask 
therefore for what in- 
tent ye have sent for 

30 And Cornelius 
said, Four days ago 1 
was fasting until this 
hour, and at the ninth 
hour I prayed in my 
house, and, behold, a 
man stood before me 
in bright clothing. 

31 And said, Cor- 
nelius, thy prayer is 
heard, and thine alms 
are had in remem- 
brance in the sight 
of God. 

32 Send therefore 
to Joppa, and call 
hither Simon whose 
surname is Peter -, he 
is lodged in the house 
of one Simon a tan^ 
ner, by the sea-side ; 
\vho,when he cometh, 
shall speak unto thee. 

33 Immediately 
therefore I sent to 
thee j and thou hast 
well done that thou 
art come. Now there- 
fore we are all here 
present before God, 
to hear all things that 




are commanded thee 
of God. 

34 Then Peter o- 
pened his mouth, and 
said, Of a truth I per- 
ceive that God is no 
respecter of persons. 

35 But in every 
nation, he that fear- 
eth him, and worketh 
righteousness, is ac- 
cepted with him. 

36 The word J 
which God sent unto 
the children of Israel, 
preaching peace by 
Jesus Christ, (he is 
Lord of all,) 

37 That word J, 
/ say, you know, 
which was published 
throughout all Judea, 
and began from Gali- 
lee, after the baptism 
which John preached : 

38 How God a- 
nointed Jesus of Na- 
zareth with the Holy 
Ghost, and with pow- 

A.D. 40. 

34, 35 Peter now by comparing the 
two visions together, being fully satis- 
fied of the meaning of them, declared 
it to be this, viz. " That God intended 
" the Christian doctrine, and the great 
t( mercies of the Gospel, to be no longer 
" confined to the Jewish land and peo- 
" pie, but to be preached to, and en- 
" joyed by people of all nations, that 
" would sincerely believe and obey it." 
And so gave them the following account 
of the Christian faith : 

36, 37, 38 Although, said he, f you 
may not perfectly know, yet you cannot 
but have heard something of the J fame 
of Jesus of Nazareth, who lived and 
X preached at Jerusalem, and through the 
whole Jewish land. This was the true 
Messiah, the Saviour of all mankind, 
Gentiles as well as Jews, constituted by 
God the Father to be the Governor 
and Judge of all the world, whose com- 
mission from God was demonstrated by 
the many great and beneficial miracles 
he wrought by the power of the Holy 

X Ver. 36, 37- The word which God sent, tov \6yov, that word yon, 
know, to f?jjua. Note, If I greatly mistake not, this passage loses all 
its true meaning in our common way of interpreting it. Tov T^oyov 
in the 36th, and to ysvo^vov pvpz, in the 37th verse, are taken to 
signify one and the same thing ; whereas the former is the same 
with ov TfoVov, and x«t« is to be understood; the latter [j>»>/*»] an- 
swers to Dabar in the Hebrew, and signifies not the doctrine, but 
the transactions of Christ, the history or facts of his life, miracles, 
&c. This gives the clearest sense and connection thus, viz. God 
is no respecter of persons ; but in every nation, he that fear -eth God — is 
accepted with him; x.ocra) tov "hoyav : i. e. according to the very doctrine 
which God sent to Israel, by Jesus Christ, who, #toj, this God, [or 
this Christ,] is Lord of all both Jews and Gentiles. Now, the trans- 
actions [pj5/*a] of Christ, you know ,• viz. How that God anointed him 
with the Holy Ghost, and with power, ftc. 




A. D. 40. 

39, 40 And of this his life and doc- 
trine, we his apostles (besides many 
other of his disciples) were eye and ear- 
witnesses ; as also of his resurrection 

from the dead the third day, after 
Jews had crucified him. 


41 This his resurrection indeed (and 
his glorious ascension into heaven after 
it) the divine wisdom thought not fit to 
give the Jewish council and people a 
sensible demonstration of, by shewing 
him alive to them; (whose incurable life 
and obstinacy rendered them both un- 
worthy and incapable of being wrought 
upon by such means ;) but did it to such 
a proper and sufficient number of us, 
that were to testify it to others. 

42, 43 Who are therefore commis- 
sioned to declare to the world (what the 
prophets had all in their several ages 
foretold) that this Jesus is the Saviour, 
Lord, and Judge of mankind ; and the 
only means of pardon and salvation is 
a firm belief of his doctrine, and a sin- 
cere obedience to his commands. 

44 Cornelius and his friends being 
convinced of the truth of Peter's dis- 
course, God was pleased to confirm 
them more fully in it, by immediately 
conferring the miraculous powers of the 
Holy Ghost upon them, particularly 
that of speaking divers languages. 

er, who went about 
doing good, and heal- 
ing all that were op- 
pressed of the devil : 
for God was with 

39 And we are 
witnesses of all things 
which he did, both in 
the land of the Jews, 
and in Jerusalem, 
whom they slew and 
hanged on a tree. 

40 Him God rais- 
ed up the third day, 
and shewed him 
openly ; 

41 'Not to all the 
people, but unto wit- 
nesses, chosen before 
of God, even to us, 
who did eat and drink 
with him after he rose 
from the dead. 

42 And he com- 
manded us fo preach 
unto the people, and 
to testify that it is he 
which was ordained 
of God to be the Judge 
of quick and dead. 

43 To him give all 
the prophets witness, 
that through his name 
whosoever believetli 
in him, shall receive 
remission of sins. 

44 While Peter yet 
spake these words, 
the Holy Ghost fell on 
all them which heard 
the word. 




45 And they of the 
circumcision which 
believed were asto- 
nished, as many as 
came with Peter, be- 
cause that on the Gen- 
tiles also was poured 
out the gift of the Ho- 
ly Ghost. 

46 For they heard 
them speak with 
tongues, and magni- 
fied God. Then an- 
swered Peter, 

47 Can any man 
forbid water, that 
these should not be 
baptized, which have 
received the Holy 
Ghost as well as we ? 

48 And -he com- 
manded them to be 
baptized in the name 
of the Lord. Then 
prayed they him to 
tarry certain days. 

45, 46 And this perfectly astonished A. D. 40. 

the six friends that came along with 

Peter, to see the Gentiles partake of 
those divine favours, which they hi- 
therto believed were to be always con- 
fined to the Jewish nation. 

47 Then Peter appealed to them, 
whether this was not a clear evidence, 
that God intended these men the bless- 
ings of the Gospel covenant ; and that 
they might and ought to be baptized 
into the Christian profession ? 

48 And upon their confession that 
it was so, he * baptized them. And 
they begged of him, for the further ad- 
vancement of the Gospel, to stay there 
some time with them. 

* Ver. 48. From St. Peter's baptizing these converts, any person 
may see the monstrous error of the Quakers, in affirming, that 
water-baptism is unnecessary to such as have the Holy Ghost. 



CH*AF. Til, 


The Jewish Christians quarrel with Peter for conversing with Gen- 
tiles. His account of his conduct fully satisfies them. The Gospel 
preached at Phcenice, Cyprus, and Antioch, but still to Jews only. 
Barnabas sent to confirm those converts. Saul comes to Antioch. 
Disciples called Christians there. Agabus for etels a famine. Cha~ 
rities sent for the relief of the Christians of Judea. 

A. D. 40. 1 HHHE account of Cornelius and his 
_— — — -*■ friends conversion, and baptism 
by Peter, was soon heard of by the 
other apostles and Christians at Jerusa- 

2, 3 And when he was come up thi- 
ther to give them notice of it, those 
converted Jews that still retained a reli- 
gious regard to the legal rites, (especi- 
ally such as tended to distinguish the 
Jewish from the Gentile people,) quar- 
relled with him, for so freely conversing 
with, and entertaining, men that were 

4 Upon which Peter shewed them 
the express authority he had from God 
for it, by telling them the whole trans- 
action : 

5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 * How he was 
commanded to eat of clean and unclean 
creatures without any distinction, by a 
vision, and voice from heaven ; and that 
upon shewing a reluctancy to break the 
Jewish law, the command was repeated 
thrice to him. 

1 AND the apo- 
sties and bre- 
thren that were in Ju- 
dea, heard that the 
Gentiles had also re- 
ceived the word of 

2 And when Peter 
was come up to Jeru- 
salem, they that were 
of the circumcision 
contended with him, 

3 Saying, Thou 
wentest in to men un- 
circumcised, and didst 
eat with them. 

4 But Peter re- 
hearsed the matter 
from the beginning, 
and expounded it by 
order unto them, say- 

5 I was in the city 
of Joppa, praying, and 
in a trance I saw a 
vision : A certain ves- 
sel descend, as it had 
been a great sheet, let 
down from heaven by 
four corners ; and it 
came even to me. 

6 Upon the which 
when 1 had fastened 
mine eyes, I consider- 
ed, and saw four-footed 
beasts of the earth, and 

* For the full paraphrase of these verses, from the 5th to the 
16th, see chap. x. 




■wild beasts and creep- 
ing things, and fowls 
of the air. 

7 And I heard a 
voice saying unto me, 
Arise, Peter j slay and 

8 But I said, Not 
so, Lord : for nothing 
common or unclean 
hath at any time en- 
tered into my mouth. 

9 But the voice 
answered me again 
from heaven, What 
God hath cleansed, that 
call not thou com- 

10 And this was 
done three times : 
and all were drawn up 
again into heaven. 

11 And behold im- 
mediately there were 
three men already 
come into the house 
where I was, sent 
from Caesarea unto 

12 And the Spirit 
bade me go with 
them, nothing doubt- 
ing. Moreover, these 
six brethren accom- 
panied me, and we 
entered into the man's 
house : 

13 And he shewed 
us how he had seen an 
angel in his house, 
which stood, and said 
unto him, Send men 
to Joppa, and call for 
Simon, whose sur- 
name is Peter : 

14 Who shall tell 
thee words, whereby 
thou and all thy 
hou»e shall be saved. 

15 And as 1 began 

A. D. 40. 

11, 12, 13, W, 15 How, while he 
was considering upon the meaning of 
the vision, the Holy Spirit suggested to 
him, that there were people waiting for 
him at the door, and expressly com- 
manded him to go along with them to 
Cornelius; whom he found to have 
had a vision from heaven to the same 
purpose; upon comparing which with 
his own, he found it to be the express 
will of God, that he should instruct 
him and his friends in the Christian 
faith ; and that he had no sooner done 
it, but the Holy Ghost was conferred 
upon them, giving them the same gift 
of diverse languages, as he did the apo- 
stles on the day of Pentecost. 



CHAP. Xl. 

A. I). 40. 

16 From whence he could not but 
conclude, that great promise of Christ 
about the Holy Ghost to be designed 
for the Gentile as well as Jewish con- 

17 And now (says he) can you ima- 
gine, that God should ever confer the 
same gifts and endowments upon them 
and us, and yet deny them baptism into 
the same religion with us ? And when 
his Spirit had qualified them to be his 
ministers, how durst I deny to make 
them Christians ? 

18 Fully satisfied with this, they 
were so far from any longer envying 
the Gentiles the Gospel privileges, that 
they blessed God for the extent of his 
mercies towards them. 

19 During these transactions of Saul 
and Peter, some of the disciples that 
were dispersed from Jerusalem by the 
persecution, (chap, viii.) had travelled 
and preached the Gospel as far as Phoe- 
nice, the isle of Cyprus, and Antioch in 
Syria, but preached only to the Jews, 
(not yet understanding the Gospel to 
be designed for any other nation.) 

20, 21 And some of them belonging 
to Cyprus and Cyrene, where the Greek 
language was used, preached to the 
Jewish proselytes at Antioch that used 
the same language, with such miracles 

to speak, the Holy 
Ghost feU on them, as 
on us at the begin- 

16 Then remem- 
bered 1 the word of 
the Lord, how that 
he said, John indeed 
baptized with water ; 
but ye shall be bap- 
tized with the Holy 

17 Forasmuch then 
as God gave them the 
like gift as he did unto 
us who believed on 
the Lord Jesus Christ, 
what was 1 that I 
could withstand God ? 

18 When they heard 
these things, they held 
their peace, and glo- 
rified God, saying, 
Then hath God also 
to the Gentiles granted 
repentance unto life. 

19 Now they which 
were scattered abroad 
upon the persecution 
that arose about Ste- 
phen, travelled as far 
as Phoenice, and Cy- 
prus, and Antioch, 
preaching the word 
to none but unto the 
Jews only. 

20 And some of 
them were men of 
Cyprus and Cyrene, 
which when they were 
come to Antioch, 
spake unto the * Gre- 

* Ver. 20. Spake unto the Grecians, wgos tovs 'EXXwra\-, to the 
Greek Jews, as our common copies read it. But the Alexandrian 
MS. the Syr. Vulg. Arab, and iEthiop. versions read it rc^o? Tot?s*EX- 
fafMt;, to the Greeks, i. e. uncircumcised Grecian proselytes. And 1 




cians preaching the 
Lord Jesus. 

21 And the hand 
of the Lord was with 
them : and a great 
number believed, and 
turned unto the Lord. 

22 Then tidings of 
these things came un- 
to the ears of the 
church which was in 
Jerusalem : and they 
sent forth Barnabas, 
that he should go as 
far as Antioch. 

23 Who when he 
came, and had seen 
the grace of God, was 
glad, and exhorted 
them all, that with 
purpose of heart they 
would cleave unto the 

24 For he was a 
good man, and full of 
the Holy Ghost, and 
of faith : and much 
people was added unto 
the Lord. 

25 Then departed 
Barnabas to Tarsus, 
for to seek Saul. 





brought him unto An- 
tioch. And it came 
to pass, that a whole 
year they assembled 
themselves with the 

along with their doctrine, that abun-A.D. 

dance of them believed and were bap 


22 Which great success, as soon asA.D. 41. 

the apostles at Jerusalem heard of, they ■ 

sent Barnabas into those parts, to con- 
firm and perfect the new converts, and 

to confer such gifts of the Holy Ghost 
upon them, as the condition of those 
churche.- required. 

23 Who, in pursuance of that com- 
mission, went through Phoenice and Cy- 
prus, and so to Antioch, exhorting them 
to patience, and immoveable constancy 

in their profession, 

24 And in this office he had great 
success, not only by his eminent en- 
dowments of the Holy Spirit, but by 
the peculiar goodness, * generosity, and 
sweetness of his temper, which very 
much won upon all that knew him. 

25 And perceiving that a great many A. D. 42. 

more might there be converted, he took 

in the assistance of Saul, whom he went 

to look for at Tarsus, where he had 
continued, preaching about the parts of 
Syria and Cilicia, for three years after 
his first arrival. (Chap. ix. 31, 32.) 

26 Having found him, and brought 
him to Antioch, they remained preach- 
ing there a whole year, and so increased 
the Christian church, that the converts, 
who by their enemies were wont in de- 
rision to be called Nazarenes and Gali- 
leans, and among themselves only be- 

take that to be the true reading ; because mention is made before 
concerning the conversion of the Hellenists, ch. \\. 1. 

* Ver. 24. cfaig *y«3ofc a bounteous, merciful person. 

VOL. I. G 




A. D. 42. lievcrs, brethren, and faithful, were now 

so encouraged, as publicly and solemnly 

to take upon * them the name of Chris- 

27 About this time there arrived at 
Antioch from Jerusalem several disci- 
ples, whom God endowed with a fore- 
sight of several things to come. 

28 One of which, called Agabus, 
foretold, that about two years after, 
there should be a dreadful famine raging 
through almost every part f of the 
Roman empire, which came to pass ex- 
actly at the time, being the fourth year 
of Claudius. 

A. D. 44. S9 And this famine being particu- 

larly hard in Judea, (where the number 

of the poor Christians was very great,) 
these Christians of Antioch resolved to 
send them some relief. 

30 And accordingly sent Barnabas 
and Saul with it, to give it into the 

church, and taught 
much people j and the 
disciples were called 
Christians first in An- 

27 And in these 
days came prophets 
from Jerusalem unto 

2S And there stood 
up one of them, named 
Agabus, and signified 
by the Spirit that 
there should be great 
dearth throughout all 
f the world : which 
came to pass in the 
days of Claudius Cae- 

29 Then the dis- 
ciples, every man ac- 
cording to his ability, 
determined to send re- 
lief unto the brethren 
which dwelt in Judea. 

30 Which also they 
did, and sent it to the 

* Ver. 26. x$ v l xa -' l: ' ;<7Xi X^r*avoOj, called Christians. That the 
word xjujuaTtcroM signifies the same as I have paraphrased it, is not 
only highly probable from the circumstances of the thing, but 
from what the reader may see in Gregory's notes, and in Dr. Stan- 
hope on Epist. for St. Barnabas's day. But it is much worth re- 
marking, what a very learned person hath lately observed, viz. 
that the converts., who now took the title of Christians upon 
themselves, were (most probably) of the Gentile part. The believ- 
ing Jews still adhering to the law, and affecting to be still called 
Jews ; not willing so much as to admit the Gentile converts (that 
refused to submit to circumcision) into their synagogues and as- 
semblies. Whereupon these said converts, relinquishing their 
Gentilism, and being neither willing nor permitted to be styled 
Jews, went by the name of Christians. See Bohmer's Dissert. 
Juris Eccles. Antiq. Dissert, viii. cap. 2. See also Mr. Benson's 
Hist, of the first Planting of the Christ. Relig. vol. i. p. 241. 

f Ver. *48. Throughout all the world, 1$ oXw iriv oJkc^ueW. That 
is, either throughout the Roman empire (or the most part of it), 
or else throughout the whole land of Judea. See Mr. Lardner's 
Crcdibil. of the Gosp. Hist. p. 318, &c. 




elders by the hands of hands of the elders, (to whose care the A. D. 4 4. 

Barnabas and Saul. apostles, upon the dispersion by the -! 
forementioned persecution, had left the 
care of the churches of Judea,) to be 
distributed by the * deacons as they * See chap, 
saw occasion. yu 1 > &c « 


The history returns to the affairs of the Christians at Jerusalem. A 
fresh persecution by Herod Agrippa, on purpose to please the Jews. 
James slain. Peter put in prison. Is delivered by an angel. The 
guard slain. Herod at Ccesarea : makes an oration in the theatre ; 
receives the fulsome flatteries of the people ; is struck with a disease, 
and dies. 

1 TyOW about that 
time Herod the 
king stretched forth 
his hands to vex cer- 
tain of the church. 

2 And he killed 
James the brother of 
John with the sword. 

3 And because he 
saw it pleased the 
Jews, he proceeded 
further to take Peter 
also. (Then were the 
days of unleavened 

4 And when he 
had apprehended him, 
he put him in prison, 
and delivered him to 
four quaternions of 
soldiers to keep him, 
intending- after Easter 
to bring him forth to 
the people. 

5 Peter therefore 
was "kept in prison ; 
but prayer was made 

1 r i^O return a little back to some 
-*■ transactions of Peter at Jeru- 
salem. About the time that Agabus 
foretold the famine, (chap. xi. 28.) He- 
rod Agrippa began a fresh persecution 
of the Christians there. 

2, 3 He first condemned and exe- 
cuted James the son of Zebedee ; and a 
little before the passover apprehended 
Peter, and all this out of mere vanity, 
to please the doctors of the Jewish coun- 
cil, who still continued their obstinate 
hatred to the Christians, though the 
common people had generally a better 
esteem of them. 

4 For fear, therefore, if he should 
bring Peter to his trial in court during 
the time of that festival, the people 
should beg for his release, according to 
their privilege, which could not have 
been denied them, (Matt, xxvii. 15.) he 
resolved to continue him in prison till 
it was quite over. And to secure him 
the better from any escape, set sixteen 
soldiers to guard him by turns, four at 
a time. 

5 While he was thus, as it were, 
marked out for death, yet the Christians 
put up the most solemn and frequent 

g c 2 




A. 1). 44. prayers to God for his deliverance; and 
he answered their requests. 

6 For the very night before Herod 
intended him for trial and execution, as 
he was asleep, chained on each side to 
a soldier, while the other two kept sen- 
try at the sentry door, 

7, 8 An angel, surrounded with great 
brightness and splendor, came to him, 
and awoke him, knocked off' his chains, 
(without the least disturbance of the 
guard,) and ordered him to make him- 
self ready, and follow him. 

9 Peter did so; but knowing himself 
to have been in a sleep, did not imme- 
diately conclude this to be real, but ra- 
ther a visionary representation. 

10 The prison being in the suburbs 
of the city, the angel conducted him 
through the watches, and so on to the 
city-gate, which though securely locked 
and barred, opened of itself; and after 
he had carried him so far into the 
street, that he knew where he was, and 
could shift for himself, he left him. 

11 By this time, Peter throughly 

without ceasing of the 
church unto God for 

6 And when Herod 
would have brought 
him forth, the same 
night Peter was sleep- 
ing between two sol- 
diers, bound with two 
chains : and the keep- 
ers before the door 
kept the prison. 

7 And, behold, the 
angel of the Lord 
came upon him, and 
a light shined in the 
prison : and he smote 
Peter on the side, and 
raised him up, saying, 
Arise up quickly. And 
his chains fell off from 
his hands. 

8 And the angel 
said unto him, Gird 
thyself, and bind on 
thy sandals : and so 
he did. And he saith 
unto him, Cast thy 
garment about thee, 
and follow me. 

9 And he went out, 
and followed him, and 
wist not that it was 
true which was done 
by the angel : but 
thought he saw a vi- 

10 When they were 
past the first and the 
second ward, they 
came unto the iron 
gate that leadeth unto 
the city, which o- 
pened to them of its 
own accord : and they 
went out, and passed 
on through one street, 
and forthwith the an- 
geldeparted from him. 

11 And when Pe- 




ter was come to him- 
self, he said, Now I 
know of a surety that 
the Lord hath sent 
his angel, and hath 
delivered me out of 
the hand of Herod, 
and from all the ex- 
pectation of the peo- 
ple of the Jews. 

12 And when he 
had considered the 
thing, he came to the 
house of Mary, the 
mother of John, whose 
surname was Mark, 
where many were ga- 
thered together, pray- 

13 And as Peter 
knocked at the door 
of the gate, a damsel 
came to hearken, 
named Rhoda. 

14 And when she 
knew Peter's voice, 
she opened not the 
gate for gladness, but 
ran in, and told how 
Peter stood before the 

15 And they said 
unto her, Thou art 
mad. But she con- 
stantly affirmed that 
it was even so. Then 
said they, It is his an- 

considered, and fully satisfied himself A. D. 44. 

the whole transaction was real, and that 

God had wrought him a miraculous de- 
liverance by his angel. 

12 And so resolving to secure him- 
self as well as he could, went to the 
house of Mary the mother of that John 
whose * surname was Mark, whither 
Providence seemed to have guided him; 
for the family was up, with several of 
their neighbour Christians at their de- 
votions, and praying particularly for 
his deliverance, ver. 5. 

13 As soon as Peter knocked at the 
gate, a maid-servant came to examine f 
and know certainly who it was, before 
she would venture to let him in. 

14 But being sure it was Peter's 
voice as soon as he spoke to her, she 
had not patience to open the gate, till 
she ran and told the company. 

15 Who all told her, she must be 
mad, to affirm such an impossible thing. 
But the maid persisting in it, they con- 
cluded it must be either some J messen- 
ger from him of his near acquaintance, 
who could best imitate his voice ; or 
else an % angel in his shape, that could 
do it perfectly. 

* Ver. 12. John whose surname wets Mark. See Dodwell's Dissert. 
Gyp. v. §. 11. 

f Ver. 13. 'Yirxxxo-cti, to hearken, subauscultare. See Le Clerc 
upon the place. 

X Ver. 15. o oiyytXo? ccvtH 'irw, It is his angel ; the word signifying 
either a messenger or an angel. It is not absolutely certain, which 
of the two senses it is here to be taken in ; though P. a Limborch, 
in his late Commentary, has observed such circumstances render it 
most probably to signify a real angel. 





A. D. 

44. 16 Peter knocking all this time at 

the gate, several of them came, and 

upon further certainty that it was he. 
let him in, but astonished how he should 
come there. 

17 He desired them to make no 
noise, but keep it private at present, 
telling them shortly how it was, and 
ordered some of them to carry the news 
to James the bishop of Jerusalem, and 
the other Christians, to shew them 
Y»hat a good effect their prayers had 
had ; and so went to another house, 
where he thought he could be more safe 
and private. 

18 Next morning the poor soldiers 
were in a dreadful apprehension for 
their prisoner, as well knowing the 
great severity of the Roman discipline 
upon all neglects of keeping guard. 

19 And well they might; for Herod 
had them immediately to a strict exa- 
mination, and upon their not being able 
to give any account of his escape, he 
ordered them all four to be put to 

20 After this, Herod went to Gaesa- 
rea, to celebrate the solemnity there 
kept for the honour of CaBsar; whither 
the cities of Tyre and Sidon sent am- 
bassadors to him, to appease his dis- 
pleasure at some misdemeanor of theirs, 
for which they feared he might declare 
war against them, and deprive them of 
the constant supplies of corn and other 
provisions out of Judea and Galilee, 
without which they could not well * 
subsist. And gaining over his cham- 

16 But Peter con- 
tinued knocking: and 
when they had open- 
ed the door, and saw 
him, they were asto- 

17 But he, beckon- 
ing unto them with 
the hand to hold their 
peace, declared unto 
them how the Lord 
had brought him out 
of the prison. And 
besaid,Go shew these 
things unto James, 
and to the brethren. 
And he departed, and 
went into another 

IS Now as soon as 
it was day, there was 
no small stir among 
the soldiers, what was 
become of Peter. 

19 And when He- 
rod had sought for 
him, and found bin 
not, he examined the 
keepers, and com- 
manded that they 
should be put to death. 
And he went down 
from Judea to Caesa- 
rea, and there abode. 

20 And Herod 
was highly displeas- 
ed with them of Tyre 
and Sidon : but they 
came with one accord 
to him, and, having 
made Blastus the 
king's chamberlain 
their friend, desired 
peace ; because their 
country was nourish- 
ed by the king's coun- 

* Ver. 20. Their country was nourished by t/ie kings country. See 
Ezek. xxvii. 17. and 1 Kings v. 11. 




21 And upon a set 
day, Herod, arrayed 
in royal apparel, sat 
upon his throne, and 
made an oration unto 

22 And the people 
gave a shout, saying, 
It is the voice of a 
god, and not of a 

23 And immedi- 
ately the angel of the 
Lord smote him, be- 
cause he gave not God 
the glory : and he was 
eaten of worms, and 
gave up the ghost. 

24 But the word 
of God grew and mul- 

25 And Barnabas 
and Saul returned 
from Jerusalem,when 
they had fulfilled their 
ministry, and took 
with them John, 
whose surname was 

berlain to their interest, they obtained A. I). 44, 
their peace. • 

21 Upon the second (being the chief) 
day of the solemnity, Herod, in glitter- 
ing and sumptuous robes, seated under 
a canopy in the theatre, harangued the 
nobles * and people with a most elo- 
quent oration in the praise of Caesar. 

22 Upon which the nobles about 
him, gave him the most extravagant 
compliments, and the people with loud 
acclamations cried him up for a kind of 
deity. All which fulsome flatteries he 
received with the highest degree of 
pride and satisfaction. 

23 For which, along with the many 
other instances of his vanity and cruelty, 
the invisible f hand of God immediately 
struck him with a most painful and tor- 
menting disease in his bowels, J which 
in five. J days time ulcered and bred 
worms, and ended in a loathsome and 
calamitous death. 

24 In the mean while, notwithstand- 
ing the late opposition of Herod, the 
Christian religion got ground every day. 

25 And Saul and Barnabas having 
delivered their contributions, sent from 
Antioch to Jerusalem, (chap. xi. 29, 
30.) returned to Antioch again; of 
whose travels and transactions (in the 
more remote parts of the world) I now 
come to give a relation in the following 

* Ver. 21. Made an oration unto them, ergot avrovg, which may 
refer either to the assembly in general, or to the forementioned 
ambassadors in particular. 

f Ver. 23. b $ ciyytXos Kvpiov becer*%iv airrov, the angel of the 
Lord smote him. Josephus, who gives the particulars of this re- 
lation, makes no mention of an angel. So St. Luke may be 
thought to express it, in the usual strain of the Jews, who were 
wont to attribute any supernatural event, the immediate cause 
whereof was not visible, to the operation of angels. 

X For the more full account of this, the reader may see Jose- 
phus's Antiq. lib. xix. cap. 7. and from him in Euseb. Eccles. Hist. ii. 
cap. x. 






The progress of the Gospel at Antioch, and other remote parts. Sergius 
Paulus, the Roman governor at Paphos, converted by Paul and 
Barnabas. Elymas the sorcerer struck blind by Paul. Paul's 
Sermon in the Jewish synagogue at Antioch in Pisidia, proving Jesus 
to be the Messiah. The effect it had upon many. The unbelieving 
Jews cause them to be expelled the country. 

D. 45. 

I HHHE persons endowed with pro- 
-■ phetical gifts at Antioch (menti- 
oned chap. xi. 2J.) were by this time 
grown to a considerable number, and 
become the chief teachers # in the pub- 
lic assemblies of that church, among 
whom were Saul, Barnabas, Simeon, 
Lucius, and one Manaen belonging to 
Herod's court. 

2 On a certain day, which they set 
apart f for fasting and public worship, 
the Holy Ghost suggested to these pro- 
phetic teachers, that God intended Bar- 
nabas and Saul should travel into seve- 
ral remote countries to spread the 
Gospel both to Jews and Gentiles ; and 
ordered they should be in a solemn 
manner appointed and set upon that 

3 Which they did accordingly by 
fasting and solemn prayer for a bless- 
ing upon their undertakings, and impo- 
sition of hands, as a token of special de- 
signation to a particular office. 

4 They went first to J Seleucia, 
(which was hard by,) and thence into the 

1 "^OVV there were 
in the church 
that was at Antioch 
certain prophets and 
teachers ; as Barna- 
bas, and Simeon that 
was called Niger, and 
Luciusof Cyrene,and 
Manaen, which had 
been brought up with 
Herod the tetrarch, 
and Saul. 

2 As they minis- 
tered to the Lord, and 
fas ted, the Holy Ghost 
said, Separate me Bar- 
nabas and Saul, for 
the work whereunto 
I have called them. 

3 And when they 
had fasted and prayed, 
and laid their hands 
on them, tiiey sent 
them away. 

4 So they being 
sent forth by the Holy 

* Ver. 1. TT£o<p*To,i xxl ^^ao-xaXot, Prophets that were their chief 
preachers and ministers. See Dr. Whitby's Gen- Pre/, to the Episi. 
§. 12. 

f Ver. 2. ZiiTovgyovvruv ?u> Kv/tu xai wi-w'vTuv, As tltcy fasted and 
ministered unto the Lord. 


Ghost, departed unto 
Seleucia ; and from 
thence they sailed to 

5 And when they 
were at Salamis, they 
preached the word of 
God in the syna- 
gogues of the Jews : 
and they had also 
John to their mi- 

6 And when they 
had gone through the 
isle unto Paphos, they 
found a certain sor- 
Qerer, a false prophet, 
a Jew, whose name 
was Barjesus. 

7 Which was with 
the deputy of the 
country, Sergius Pau- 
lus, a prudent man : 
who called for Bar- 
nabas and Saul , and 
desired to hear the 
word of God. 

8 But Elymas the 
sorcerer (for so is his 
name by interpreta- 
tion) withstood them, 
seeking to turn away 
the deputy from the 

9 Then Saul, (who 
also is called Paul,) 
filled with the Holy 
Ghost, set his eyes on 

10 And said, O 
full of all subtilty and 
all mischief, thou child 
of the devil, thou 
enemy of all righ- 
teousness, wilt thou 
not cease to pervert 
the right ways of the 
Lord > 

isle of Cyprus, where the Jews were A. D. 45. 
very numerous. 

5 All along as they went, they ap- 
plied themselves, first to the Jews, be- 
ginning at Salamis to preach in their 
synagogues ; and because they expected 
a great number of converts, they took 
Mark with them to baptize and do other 
offices under them, while they attended 
wholly upon preaching. 

6, 7 Thence they went through the 
whole island to Paphos, where the Ro- 
man governor had his residence, and 
had got with him a Jewish magician, 
that amused him with his diabolical 
arts. But being a sensible and well- 
disposed person, and hearing of the 
fame of the two apostles, sent for them 
to hear what religion they taught. 

8 As they were teaching him the 
Christian doctrine, this Barjesus (whose 
Arabic name Emmas signifies a magi- 
cian) contradicted them, and would 
have persuaded the governor not to 
hearken to them. 

9 Upon which Saul (who goes by 
the name of Paul in the sequel of this 
history) being inspired with a divine 
power to punish this wicked person in 
a miraculous manner, for the governor's 
conversion, set his eyes on him with an 
air of anger and authority. 

10, 11 And having first severely re- 
buked him as a confederate with the 
devil, and a malicious opposer of true 
religion, told him, that his obstinacy 
against the plain evidences of the Gospel, 
should instantly be punished with the 
loss of his sight ; upon which words he 
was struck blind. 




A. D. 45. 

12 The governor, seeing the apostle's 
doctrine confirmed with such divine 
power, embraced the Christian faith. 

13 From Paphos in Cyprus, they 
went to Perga in Pamphylia, where 
Mark choosing * rather to be with Peter 
at Jerusalem, than travel with them any 
further, left them ; which Paul very 
highly f resented. 

A. D. 46. 14, 15, 16 Thence the next year 

,,they arrived at Antioch in Pisidia, where 

in one of the Jewish synagogues, after 

the lessons, the president (according to 

j Philo. j custom) asking who would expound 
upon any part of them, Paul stood up, 
and made the following sermon to the 
Jews and 

li And now, be- 
hold, the hand of the 
Lord is upon thee, and 
thou shall be blind, 
not seeing the sun for 
a season. And imme- 
diately there fell on 
him a mist and a dark- 
ness ; and he went 
about, seeking some to 
lead him by the hand. 

12 Then the deputy, 
when he saw what 
was done, believed, 
being astonished at 
the doctrine of the 

13 Now when Paul 
and his company loos- 
ed from Paphos, they 
came to Perga in Pam- 
phylia : and John de- 
parting from them, 
returned to Jerusalem. 

14 But when they 
departed from Perga, 
they came to Antioch 
in Pisidia, and went 
into the synagogue on 
the sabbath-day, and 
sat down. 

15 And after the 
reading of the law and 
the prophets, the rul- 
ers X of the syna- 
gogue sent unto 
them, saying, Ye 
men and brethren, if 
ye have any word of 
exhortation for the 
people, say on. 

16 Then Paul stood 
up,and beckoningwith 
his hand, said, Men of 
Israel, and ye that 
fear God, give audi- 

* As Bishop Pearson thinks, Op. Postum. p. 6. 
f Ver. 13. See chap. xv. 37, 38, 39. 



17 The God of 
this people of Israel 
chose our fathers, and 
exalted the people 
when they dwelt as 
strangers in the land 
of Egypt, and with 
an high arm brought 
he them out of it. 

18 And about the 
time of forty years 
suffered he their man- 
ners in the wilderness. 

19 And when he 
had destroyed seven 
nations in the land of 
Canaan, he divided 
their land to them by 

20 And after that 
he gave unto them 
judges, about the 
space of four hundred 
and fifty years, until 
Samuel the prophet. 

21 And afterward 
they desired a king: 
and God gave unto 
them Saul, the son of 
Cis, a man of the tribe 
of Benjamin, by the 
space of forty years. 

22 And when he 
had removed him, he 
raised up unto them 
David to be their 
king, to whom also 
he gave testimony, 
and said, I have found 
David the son of 
Jesse, a man after 
mine own heart, 
which shall fulfil all 
my will. 

23 Of this man's 
seed hath God accord- 
ing to his promise 
raised unto Israel a 
Saviour, Jesus : 

24 When John had 

17, 18, 19, 20, 21 Wherein he A. D. 46. 

proved to them in the first place, that — 

the chief and great design of God in 
choosing Abraham, and the patriarchs, 
and the nation of the Jews descended 
from them, for a peculiar and separate 
people, in preserving- and miraculously 
delivering them from the Egyptian 
bondage ; in his mercies and patience 
toward them in the wilderness; in de- 
stroying the seven nations for their set- 
tlement in the land of promise, and 
their constant deliverances under the 
government of their judges and kings, 
down to David, and so to this time, 
was the kingdom and religion of the 
Messiah, who was to he born of their 
nation, as the Saviour and Redeemer of 

22, 23 And then, as David, in par- 
ticular, upon account of his eminent 
wisdom, valour, and piety, was made a 
type of Christ, and bad a promise he 
should descend from his family, that 
God had fulfilled that promise in Jesus 
of Nazareth, who was of David's line. 

24-, 25 This Jesus it was that John 




A. D. 46. Baptist, that holy and mortified preacher 

. of repentance, declared to be the true 

Christ, when the Jews demanded of 
him if he himself were the person? 
Telling them he pretended only to pre- 
pare them, by repentance, for the mer- 
cies of a far greater Prophet who was 
shortly to appear ; even so great a one, 
that in comparison (says he) I am not 
worthy to do the meanest office of ser- 
vice to him. 

26 Then addressing himself anew to 
the Jews and proselytes, he called upon 
them earnestly to consider, that now 
was the time wherein God offered them 
the happy means of pardon and salva- 
tion by Jesus Christ. 

27 And that they would make it no 
objection against the truth of his Mes- 
siahship, that the council at Jerusalem 
had condemned and crucified him as a 
malefactor and false prophet, for that 
in so doing, they had exactly fulfilled, 
and inconsiderately accomplished, the 
very prophecies concerning the suffer- 
ings of the Messiah, that used to be 
read in their own synagogues. 

28 Beside, that Jesus's innocence was 
so clear, even to Pilate himself, that he 
would have acquitted him, but for the 
outrageous clamours of the Jew r s to have 
him slain. 

29, 30 But God (says he) has suffi- 
ciently vindicated him, by raising him 
from the dead, after he had been laid in 
a sepulchre, that was so securely sealed, 

* Matt. * and so strongly guarded, 
xxvii. 66. b J & 

31 Of which his apostles, and a great 
number of his disciples, are eye-wit- 

first preached before 
his coming the bap- 
tism of repentance to 
all the people of Is- 

25 And as John 
fulfilled his course, he 
said, Whom think ye 
that I am ? I am not 
he. But, behold, there 
cometh one after me, 
whose shoes of his feet 
I am not worthy to 

26 Men and bre- 
thren, children of the 
stock of Abraham, and 
whosoever among you 
feareth God, to you 
is the word of this sal- 
vation sent. 

27 For they that 
dwell at Jerusalem, 
and their rulers, be- 
cause they knew him 
not, nor yet the voices 
of the prophets which 
are read every sab- 
bath-day, they have 
fulfilled them in con- 
demning him. 

28 And though 
they found no cause 
of death in him, yet 
desired they Pilate 
that he should be 

29 And when they 
had fulfilled all that 
was written of him, 
they took him down 
from the tree, and 
laid him in a sepul- 

30 But God raised 
him from the dead. 

31 And he was 
seen many days of 




them which came up 
with him from Gali- 
lee to Jerusalem, who 
are his witnesses unto 
the people. 

32 And we declare 
unto you glad tidings, 
how that the promise 
which was made unto 
the fathers, 

33 God hath ful- 
filled the same unto 
us their children, in 
that he hath raised up 
Jesus again ; as it is 
also written in the se- 
cond psalm, Thou art 
my Son, this day have 
1 begotten thee. 

34 And as con- 
cerning that he raised 
him up from the dead, 
now no more to re- 
turn * to corruption, 
he said on this wise, I 
will give you the sure 
mercies of David. 

35 Wherefore he 
saith also in another 
psalm, Thou shalt not 
suffer thine Holy One 
to see corruption. 

36 For David, af- 
ter he had served his 
own generation by 
the will of God, fell 
on sleep, and was laid 

nesses, who saw and conversed with him A. D. 46. 
for forty days after it. ■ 

32, 33 And how willingly and gladly 
ought you now to receive this truth of 
Jesus's resurrection, whereby you see so 
happy and full a completion of the most re- 
markable prophecies and promises made 
to your pious ancestors? For of this it 
is that God spake in Psalm ii. Which 
words, though in some lower sense they 
may be meant of David's conquest over 
his enemies, yet have now had their 
most eminent and full accomplishment 
in God's raising tip the Messiah from 
death, to the glory and power of his spi- 
ritual kingdom. 

Si, 35 Thus also that promise of God 
to the Jewish nation, of the sure mercies 
of David, Isa. Iv. 3. could only be 
meant of that * absolute promise of the 
Messiah to be from his family, a glori- 
ous Prince and Saviour, of whom David 
was a type, and who was called also by his 
very name David, and the son of David; 
and so is in effect the same promise 
with that of Psalm xvi. 1 1 . Thou shalt 
not suffer thine Holy One (k e. thy 
Christ) to see corruption. 

36, 37 Which last words can no way 
be true of David's person, who having 
performed several good services, in obe- 
dience, to God's commands, in his lifetime, 
lies in his grave to this day ; but are 

* Ver. 34. Now no more to return to corruption. As Lazarus and 
the widow's son did. Thus Christ's dying no more, and death having 
no more dominion over him, Rom. vi. 9. is the distinguishing privi- 
lege of his resurrection, above that of any other persons miracu- 
lously restored to life, who all returned again to the dark prison 
of the grave. And this is what made the mercies here spoken 
of to be t» -KTira, constant and continual, as the promise was abso- 




A. D. 46. most exactly fulfilled in JESUS, whom 

God raised the third day, before his 

body was in the least putrified, and 
then exalted him into heaven. 

38 Wherefore you have all the de- 
monstration your own scriptures and 
prophecies can give you, That this 
JESUS is the true Messiah, and that 
by the sacrifice of his death, you have 
obtained the means of the full pardon of 
your sins, and of eternal salvation, upon 
the condition of true repentance, and 
embracing his religion. 

39 And this pardon by the blood of 
Jesus, is much more extensive and 
effectual, than what the purgations and 
sacrifices of the Mosaical law could ever 
procure for you : for the only effect of 
those washings and sacrifices was, ad- 
mission into the congregation again, 
from whence the breach of some posi- 
tive ceremony had excluded a man ; 
they alone did not purge the conscience, 
but only took away the political guilt, 
in relation to their civil and ecclesias- 
tical penalties ; and some offences were 
punished with death, and admitted no 
sacrifices at all. Whereas this atone- 
ment of Jesus your Messiah, reaches to 
the perfect and eternal forgiveness of 
every kind and degree of transgression, in 
them that sincerely believe and obey him. 

40, 41 It infinitely concerns you 
therefore, not to reject and contemn 
such clear evidences, and merciful 
proposals of Heaven toward you, lest 
you come under the same character 
wherein the prophet described your 
forefathers in Manasses' time (Hab. i. 
5.), and for a still more wicked obsti- 
nacy and contempt against God, be at 
last cut off by a destruction * more ex- 

unto his fathers, and 
saw corruption : 

37 But he whom 
God raised again, saw 
no corruption. 

3S Be it known 
unto you therefore, 
men and brethren, 
that through this man 
is preached unto you 
the forgiveness of 

39 And by him all 
that believe are justi- 
fied from all things, 
from which ye could 
not be justified by the 
law of Moses. 

40 Beware there- 
fore, lest that come 
upon you, which is 
spoken of in the pro- 

41 Behold, ye de- 
spisers, and wonder, 
and perish : for I 
work a work in your 
days, a work which 
vou shall in no wise 

* Ver. 41. The apostle seems clearly to intimate their final de- 
struction by the Romans. 




believe, though a man 
declare it unto you. 

42 And when the 
Jews were gone out 
of the synagogue, the 
Gentiles besought that 
the words might be 
preached to them the 
next sabbath. 

43 Now when the 
congregation was bro- 
ken up, many of the 
Jews and religious 
proselytes followed 
Paul and Barnabas : 
who speaking to 
them, persuaded them 
to continue in the 
grace of God. 

44 And the next 
sabbath-day came al- 
most the whole city 
together to hear the 
word of God. 

45 But when the 
Jews saw the multi- 
tudes, they were tilled 
with envy, and spake 
against those things 
which were spoken by 
Paul, contradicting 
and blaspheming. 

46 Then Paul and 
Barnabas waxed bold, 
and said, It was ne- 
cessary that the word 
of God should first 
have been spoken to 
you : but seeing ye 
put it from you, and 

emplary and amazing than that of the A. D. 46, 
Babylonish captivity. 

42 This discourse of Paul had so good 
an effect, that though the generality of 
the Jews went away as infidel and ob- 
stinate as they came; yet when they 
were gone, abundance of the Pisidian 
Gentiles (or rather Gentile converts to 
the Jewish religion, called proselytes, 
ver. 43.) requested Paul to preach the 
same doctrine the next * sabbath to 
them, as liking it very well. 

43 And after the assembly was over, 
a good number of the Jews and prose- 
lytes came to the apostles, and professed 
themselves convinced of the truth of 
their doctrine, who thereupon gave them 
a great many further arguments and 
encouragements to persevere in that 
persuasion, against the envy and malice 
of the unbelieving Jews. 

44, 45 Accordingly the next sabbath, 
as Paul was preaching to a vast number 
of people, (viz. idolatrous Gentiles, as 
well as Gentile proselytes,) the infidel 
Jews, enraged at the 6ight of the idola- 
trous Gentiles flocking into their syna- 
gogue, interrupted his discourse with 
the most outrageous expressions of 
railleiy and abuse. 

46, 47 Upon which the two apostles 
told them plainly, that they had now 
discharged their duty toward them, in 
giving them the first offer of the Gospel 
doctrine and privileges, according to the 
direction of Jesus Christ, (Acts i. 8.) 
But as their incurable malice and pre- 

* Ver. 42. E*\- to y.sTa,%v <7a'££aTov, the next sabbath. This phrase 
being taken by some of the best interpreters to signify the week's 
space between the last and next sabbath, but by others, the next 
sabbath-day, and pretty good reasons given on both sides, I have 
left it without any addition to our translation. 



A. D. 46.judice rendered them unworthy and in- 

* capable of any further attempt for their 

conversion, they should leave them to 
themselves, and tender these offers of 
mercy to the Gentiles, who by the tenor 
of all the prophetic writings, particu- 
larly that of Isa. xlix. 6. were intended 
for members of the kingdom of the 
Messiah, as well as the Jews. 

48, 49 The Gentile people received 
this with the utmost degree of religious 
joy and gratitude, and all among them 
that were of a sober disposition, * and 
sincerely desirous to know the true re- 
ligion, believed and embraced the Gos- 
pel, which now was spread through the 
whole country of Pisidia. 

50 But to hear the Gentiles made 
partakers of the blessings of the Mes- 
siah, so enraged and exasperated the 
infidel Jews, that by influencing some 
women of quality among their prose- 
lytes, and by them their husbands, and 
some of the governing part of the city, 
they procured such severe orders against 
the two apostles, that they forced them 
to flee for safety. 

.51 And they, when they left the 
place, remembering the words of Christ, 
(Matt. x. 14.) shook off the dust of 
their feet against them ; thereby signi- 
fying and declaring, that they ought to 

judge yourselves un- 
worthy of everlasting 
life, Io s we turn to 
the Gentiles. 

47 For so hath the 
Lord commanded us, 
saying, I have set thee 
to be a light of the 
Gentiles, that thou 
shouldest be for salva- 
tion unto the ends of 
the earth. 

48 And when the 
Gentiles heard this, 
they were glad, and 
glorified the word of 
the Lord ; and as ma- 
ny as were ordained 
to eternal life, be- 

49 And the word 
of the Lord was pub- 
lished throughout all 
the region. 

50 But the Jews 
stirred up the devout 
and honourable wo- 
men, and the chief 
men of the city, and 
raised persecution a- 
gainst Paul and Bar- 
nabas, and expelled 
them out of their 

51 But they shook 
off the dust of their 
feet against them, and 
came unto Iconium. 

* Ver. 48. TeTay/xEvot Et? fwn\ ctlmiov, ordained to eternal life. That 
this phrase signifies no other than what I have paraphrased it, and 
has not the least relation to any absolute and unconditionate divine 
decree of these persons to eternal life, is so evidently and copiously 
demonstrated by all good critics and interpreters upon this place, 
that I may well venture to tell the English reader in the words of 
Grotius, He thai seeth it not, is blind. 


have no more to do with so obstinate A. D. 46\ 

and incurable a people. 

5*2 And the disci- 52 But in the mean time, notwith- 
ples were tilled with standing this inhuman treatment of the 
joy, and with the apostles, the new converts continued in 
Holy Ghost. t j le p ro f eS sion of the Christian faith, with 

great constancy and cheerfulness ; God 
also assisting and confirming them 
therein, by imparting s»uch gifts of the 
Holy Ghost among them, as were re- 
quisite and agreeable to the circum- 
stances of his church. 


Paul and Barnabas travel to Lycaonia. They -preach at Iconinm in 
the Jewish synagogue, and convert many. Being forced at last from 
thence, they go to Lystra and Derbe. A cripple cured at Lystra. 
The inhabitants take them for deities, and would have offered sa- 
crifice to them. The Apostles discourse to them hereupon. The 
Jews cause Paul to be stoned. The Apostles return to Antioch in 
Syria, from whence they first set out. 

1 AND it came to 1 HpHE two apostles, Paul and Bar- 

passinleonium, -*- nabas, being thus expelled from 

that they went both Pisidia, went into the province of Ly- 

together into the sy- caon j aj bordering upon it, in the lesser 

nagogue of the Jews, Asia> where the first t()wn they entered 

and so spake that a Iconium sti H applying themselves 

great multitude, both n . . . I . rx V . ° 

of the Jews and also ^ to , the Jews t » th f r synagogue, 

of the Greeks, be- where the y preached with such success, 

lieved. that abundance of them and their pro- 
selytes were converted. 
% But the unbe- 2 But the infidel Jews here (being 

lieving Jews stirred of the same obstinate and malicious 

up the Gentiles, and temper with those of other parts) endea- 

made their minds evil voured, by all the arts of slander and 

affected against the calumny, to prejudice the Gentile part 

brethren. of the town aga j nst tnem# 

3 Long time there- 3 This violent opposition of the Jews 
fore abode they speak- made the apostles' stay * in that place 

* Ver. 3. 'Ikmov pa ovv xpovov ^sT^av. The p\v ovv may be ren- 
dered either by therefore, or for indeed ; the latter of which senses 
will make the malice of the Jews, ver. 2. to proceed from their 
long stay and preaching there. 

VOL. i. H 




A. D. 4G. to be the longer, and their preaching 
the more earnest: the truth whereof 

they confirmed by many miraculous 


4 And notwithstanding their mali- 
cious endeavours, the apostles gained 
a considerable part of the people to ap- 
prove and embrace their doctrine. 

5, 6, 7 But perceiving the infidel 
Jews and Gentiles had combined toge- 
ther, and had got so many of the go- 
verning part to join with them, as to 
attempt openly to abuse and destroy 
them, they went off and preached at 
Lystra and Derbe, the next cities of 
the same province, and so in all the 
country that lay round them. 

8 As Paul was preaching at Lystra, 

there was one of his auditors that was 

born a cripple, and never had any use 

of his leo-s. 

1), 10 Paul took notice of this per- 
son ; and whether by his serious beha- 
viour, and devout attendance to his dis- 
course, or by the suggestion of the 
Holy Spirit, knowing the man to be of 
so honest and religious a disposition, 
that a miraculous cure of his body would 
have its due effect upon his mind, called 
out to him before the whole of the con- 
gregation, and, in the name of Jesus, 
bade him rise up, and stand upon his 
legs : upon which words the man did 
so, and found the perfect use of his 

1 1 This so amazed the Gentile part 
of the auditory that saw it done, that 

ing boldly in the Lord, 
which gave testimony 
unto the word of his 
grace, and granted 
signs and wonders to 
be done by their 

4 But the multi- 
tude of the city was 
divided i and part held 
with the Jews, and 
part with the apostles. 

5 And when there 
was an assault made 
both of the Gentiles, 
and also of the Jews, 
with their rulers, to 
use them despitefully, 
and to stone them, 

6 They were aware 
of it, and fled unto 
Lystra and Derbe, ci- 
ties of Lycaonia, and 
unto the region that 
lieth round about : 

7 And there they 
preached the Gospel. 

8 And there sat a 
certain man at Lystra, 
impotent in his feet, 
being a cripple from 
his mother's womb, 
who never had walked. 

9 The same heard 
Paul speak: who sted- 
fastly beholding him, 
and perceiving that 
he had faith to be 

10 Said with aloud 
voice, Stand upright 
on thy feet. And he 
leaped and walked. 

11 And when the 
people saw what Paul 



had done, they lift up 
their voices, saying in 
the speech of Lycao- 
nia, The gods are 
come down to us in 
the likeness of men. 

12 And they called 
Barnabas, Jupiter; and 
Paul, Mercurius, be- 
cause he was the 
chief speaker. 

13 Then the priest 
of Jupiter, which was 
before their city, 
brought oxen and 
garlands unto the 
gates, and would have 
done sacrifice with the 

14 Which when 
the apostles, Barnabas 
and Paul, heard of, 
they rent their clothes, 
and ran in among the 
people, crying out, 

15 And saying, 
Sirs, why do ye these 
things ? we also are 
men of like passions 
with you, and preach 
unto you, that ye 
should turn from these 
vanities, unto the liv- 
ing God, which made 
heaven and earth, and 
the sea, and all things 
that are therein. 

16 Who in times 
past suffered all na- 
tions to walk in their 
own ways. 

17 Nevertheless, 

they ran into town, crying out, The A. D. 40. 
gods are come down to us in human shape. 

12 They took Barnabas to be Jupiter ; 
and because Paul was the chief preacher, 
they took him for Mercury, i. e. Jupi- 
ter's attendant, messenger, and inter- 
preter of his will. 

13 In consequence of this persuasion 
therefore, the priest that belonged to 
Jupiter's temple with his image in it, 
came in solemn manner to the gates 
where the two apostles lodged, with an 
ox crowned with garlands ready for sa- 
crifice, to offer to them as unto gods. 

14- Which they no sooner appre- 
hended, but they went out to them with 
expressions of the utmost concern and 
detestation at what they were about to 

15 Assuring them they were but 
mortal men like themselves, though they 
were the messengers of heaven ; and 
that the chief design of the doctrine they 
had preached was to reduce them from 
their idolatrous and false religion, to 
the pure and proper worship of the one 
true God, the Creator and Governor of 
all the world. 

16 And that though it has pleased 
the divine wisdom and justice, as a 
* punishment for their gross immora- 
lity and idolatry, to give the greatest 
part of the world over for many ages 
to their own ignorance, by not affording 
them any express revelation of his will, 
as the Jews had; 

17 Yet he had not left them without 

* Ver. 16". See Rom. i. from ver. l 20. to the eml* 
h 2 




A. D. 46. any means of knowing so much of his 

divine nature and will, as might restrain 

them from such irrational and barba- 
rous proceedings ; the very creation of 
the world about them, and the constant 
course of Providence over it, ordering 
all things in so particular a manner, 
for the comfort, pleasure, and support 
of mankind, being all clear arguments 
of the wisdom, power, and goodness of 
God. But that now he had intended 
them the happy knowledge of his true 
worship, if they would accept and em- 
brace it, 

18 This discourse was hardly enough 
to weigh upon their prejudices, and 
restrain the people from their intended 

1 9 Soon after this, some of the ma- 
licious Jews of Antioch and Iconium 
pursued the two apostles hither, and by 
their calumnies and inventions, so in- 
censed the rabble against them, (especi- 
ally against Paul the chief preacher 
in public,) that they stoned him out of 
the city, and bruised him so, as they 
thought they had killed him. And 
thus it was the lot of this apostle to be 
stoned, upon the same account as he 
had consented to the stoning of St. 

A. D. 47. 20 But by the help and assistance of 
some of his friends and Christian con- 
verts, he recovered, and got privately 
into the town ; and to avoid their fur- 
ther fury, went next day, and Barnabas 
along with him, to Derbe, another city 
of the same province. 

2J, 22 And after having there 
preached, and converted good numbers, 
returned back the beginning of the 
next year to Lystra again, and so to 
Iconium and Antioch, to confirm and 
settle the new converts in courage and 
patience, under those hardships winch 

he left not himself 
without witness, in 
that he did good, and 
gave us rain from 
heaven, and fruitful 
seasons, rilling our 
hearts with food and 

18 And with these 
sayings scarce re- 
strained they the peo- 
ple, that they had not 
done sacrifice unto 

19 And there came 
thither certain Jews 
from Antioch and Ico- 
nium, who persuaded 
the people, and hav- 
ing stoned Paul, drew 
him out of the city, 
supposing he had been 

20 Howbeit, as the 
disciples stood round 
about him, he rose up, 
and came into the 
city: and the next 
day he departed with 
Barnabas to Derbe. 

21 And when they 
had preached the gos- 
pel to that city, and 
had taught many, they 
returned again to Ly- 
stra, and to Iconium, 
and Antioch, 




22 Confirming the 
souls of the disciples, 
and exhorting 1 them 
to continue in the 
faith, and that we 
must through much 
tribulation enter into 
the kingdom of God. 

23 And when they 
had ordained them 
elders in every church, 
and had prayed with 
fasting, they com- 
mended them to the 
Lord, on whom they 

24 And after they 
had passed throughout 
Pisidia, they came to 

25 And when they 
had preached the word 
in Perga, they went 
down into Attalia : 

26 And thence 
sailed to Antioch,from 
whence they had been 
recommended to the 
grace of God, for the 
work which they ful- 

27 And when they 
were come, and had 
gathered the church 
together, they re- 
hearsed all that God 
had done with them, 
and how he had open- 
ed the door of faith 
unto the Gentiles. 

28 And there they 
abode long time with 
the disciples. 

he told them, by his own example, and A. D, 47. 

the very nature of the Christian reli- 

gion, (that was levelled against the vices 
and prejudices of mankind,) they could 
not but expect to meet withal. 

23 Before their departure from which 
places, they did with solemn fasting 
and prayers, ordain spiritual governors, 
for the orderly management of their re- 
spective churches, and so commended 
both ministers and people to the bless- 
ing of that Lord and Saviour, whose 
religion they professed ; 

24, 25 And then went through Pi- 
sidia into Pamphylia, another province 
of the lesser Asia, and preached the 
Gospel in the cities of Perga and Atta- 

26, 27 From whence, at the latter 
end of the year, they returned by sea to 
that Antioch in Syria, where they were 
first appointed in so particular a man- 
ner for these travels, * and gave the * Chap. 
church a full account of the success of x,n - 3 - 
them, especially among the Gentile peo- 

28 Continuing there for two or three 
years together. 






A dispute raised by some Jewish converts concerning the necessity of cir- 
cumcision. Paul and Barnabas return to Jerusalem, to get this con- 
troversy determined by the Apostles, and the whale church there. The 
speeches of Peter, Paul, and James upon this subject. The deter- 
mination of the council sent in a letter to the Christians at Antioch, 
to the great satisfaction of the Gentile converts there. Paul and 
Barnabas propose to travel again. They part, in a dispute about 
taking Mark with them. 

A. V>. 50, 1 \^ T HILE Paul and Barnabas con- 
51. *- tinued at Antioch, (chap. xiv. 

.28.) there came thither from Judea se- 
veral Jewish Christians, that had been 

* Ver. 5. bred up rigid * Pharisees, and still re- 
tained a warm zeal for the rites of the 
Jewish law; who endeavoured to per- 
suade the Gentile converts that Paul 
and Barnabas had made, that they 
could never be saved by the Christian 
religion alone, but along with it must 
be circumcised, and so obliged to ob- 

t Gdl. v. serve f all the ceremonies of the Mosai- 
cal institution. 

2 These zealots improved this matter 
into a very hot dispute; and though 
the two apostles argued plainly and 
strongly against them, yet, either not 
prevailing so far as fully to satisfy all 
parties, or else the better to put a full 
end to the debate, the whole church of 
Antioch came to this resolution, To 
leave it to the determination of the apo- 
stolical college iu full council at Jerusa- 
lem; and that Paul % and Barnabas, with 
some others of their chief clergy, should 
go thither, and lay the matter before 

1 AND certain men 
■^^ which came 
down from Judea, 
taught the brethren, 
and said, Except ye be 
circumcised after the 
manner of Moses, ye 
cannot be saved. 

2 When therefore 
Paul and Barnabas had 
disputation with them, 
they determined that 
Paul and Barnabas, 
and certain other of 
them, should go up to 
Jerusalem unto the 
apostles and elders 
about this question. 

X This is that journey of St. Paul to Jerusalem, which he men- 
tions, Gal. ii. 1. being .just about fourteen years after his first con- 
version. See Bishop Pearson, An. Paul. p. S, 9. and Dr. Whitby 
upon Gal. ii. 1. 

€«AP. XV. 



3 And being brought 
on their way by the 
church, they passed 
through Phenice, and 
Samaria, declaring the 
conversion of the Gen- 
tiles : and they caused 
great joy unto all the 

4 And when they 
were come to Jerusa- 
lem, they were re- 
ceived of the church, 
and of the apostles and 
ciders, and they de- 
clared all things that 
God had done with 

5 But there rose 
up certain of the sect 
of thePharisees, which 
believed, saying, That 
it was needful to cir- 
cumcise them, and to 
command them to 
keep the law of Moses. 

6 And the apostles 
and elders came toge- 
ther for to consider of 
this matter. 

7 And when there 
had been much dis- 
puting, Peter rose up, 
and said unto them, 
Men and brethren, ye 
know how that a good 
while ago, God made 
choice among us, that 
the Gentiles by my 


3 On this important errand they A. D. 50, 
were accordingly sent, and in their pas- 51. 

sage thither, acquainted the Christians - 

of the several countries of Phenicia and 
Samaria, what success they had in con- 
verting many Gentile people; at which 

they heartily rejoiced. 

4 Arriving at Jerusalem, they imme- 
diately applied themselves to the apo- 
stles and other eminentgovernors in that 
church; acquainting them first with 

the success of their ministry among * * See ver. 
the Gentiles, and then in particular 
with the dispute that had happened, 
and how they had opposed these Jewish 
zealots.; in all which proceedings, they 
were highly commended f and approved 
of by the apostolical assembly, 

5 Against which approbation of the 
apostles, some of the Jewish Christians 
(of the same set with those that went to 
Antioch) objected, and maintained the 
absolute necessity of the whole Jewish 
law along with the Christian religion, 
in order to salvation. 

6 Upon which the apostles and elders 
resolved to consider the case, and deter- 
mine it in a full assembly. 

7 In which, after much dispute on 
both sides, Peter stood up, and thus 
stated and expostulated the case. You 
all know and allow (said he) that Christ, 
in his lifetime, gave me the assurance 
J that I should be the first preacher oft Matt, 
the Gospel to the Gentile world. Andl p » 19 - 
first of all to such Gentiles as these, 

f Ver. 4. 'ATiSs^Swav wro rrfs hxlwUq, Were received of the church, 
%c. seems a very dry translation of a phrase, which properly sig- 
nifies to receive with approbation and applause; and by a small and 
usual transposition in this place, gives that sense as most agreeable 
te the context. For it was against this approbation of the apostles, 
that certain of the sect of the Pharisees rose up, in the next verse. 

h 4 




I). 50, who are proselyted to the Jewish religion, 
51. and worship the true God. 

8, 9 And how fully he has made that 
promise good, by expressly command- 
ing me to convert Cornelius and his 
friends ; upon whom immediately at 
their conversion, God was pleased to 
confer the same gifts of his Spirit, as he 
did upon us at the day of Pentecost ; 
thereby demonstrating, he did as freely 
receive them into all the privileges of 
the Christian religion, without circum- 
cision, as he did us that had been cir- 

10 What a distrust therefore is it of 
the clear and plain truth of God, and 
in what manner do you provoke him, 
tint you should presume to impose that 
as absolutely necessary to the salvation 
ofthese Gentile Christians, which he by 
the most evident dispensation has de- 
clared not to be necessary? And all 
this out of an excessive zeal for the ce- 
remonial parts of a law, which by the 
vast number, cost, and trouble of them, 
are at best but like a yoke, and, in their 
own nature, have no tendency to pro- 
cure inward holiness of life, or the per- 
fect pardon of sin. 

11 Wherefore it is clear to us, that 
by a sincere belief and practice of the 
Gospel religion, (without any virtue of 


both Jew * and Gentih 

are to obtain pardon and salvation. 

19 As soon as Peter had done, Paul 
and Barnabas stood up ; and in further 
confirmation of his argument, gave the 

mouth should hear the 
word of the Gospel, 
and believe. 

8 And God, winch 
knoweth the hearts, 
bare them witness, 
giving them the Holy 
Ghost, even as he did 
unto us : 

9 And put no dif- 
ference between us 
and them, purifying 
their hearts by faith. 

10 Now therefore 
* why tempt ye God, 
to put a yoke upon 
the neck of the disci- 
ples, which neither 
our fathers nor we 
were able to bear ? 

11 But we believe 
tli at through the grace 
of the Lord Jesus 
Christ we shall be 
saved, even as they. 

l<2 Then all the 
multitude kept si- 
lence, and gave au- 

* Ver. 10. Why tempt ye God? See note on ch. v. 9. 

f Ver. 11. xa$' ov reoTrov Kfkihoi. We shall be saved, even as they. 
The word kukuvoi may relate either to the Gentiles, as in the para- 
phrase, or else to Saul and Barnabas ; and then the sense is, We 
are of the same sentiment with Paul and Barnabas, That salvation is 
to be had by the Gospel, not by the Law. But the first is the most 
natural construction. 




dience to Barnabas 
and Paul, declaring 
what miracles and 
wonders God had 
wrought among the 
Gentiles by them. 

13 And after they 
had held their peace, 
James answered, say- 
ing, Men and bre- 
thren, hearken unto 

14 Simeon hath 
declared how God at 
the first did visit the 
Gentiles, to take out 
of them a people for 
his name. 

15 And to this a- 
gree the words of the 
prophets, as it is writ- 

\G After this I will 
return, and will build 
again the tabernacle 
of David, which is 
fallen down : and I 
will build again the 
ruins thereof, and I 
will set it up. 

17 That the residue 
of men might seek 
after the Lord, and 
all the Gentiles upon 
whom my name is 
called, saith the Lord, 
who doth all these 

18 Known unto 
God are all his works, 
from the beginning of 
the world. 

assembly an account, that God had be- A. D. 50, 
stowed the miraculous gifts of the Holy 51. 

Ghost upon those Gentile converts they 

had made in their travels, just as he had 
done in the case of Cornelius; and 
thereby accepted them as complete 
Christians, without the least notice of 
any obligation to the Jewish law. 

13, 14 And then James the bishop 
of Jerusalem, gave the finishing proof 
of what they had all three said, by de- 
siring the council to compare the pre- 
sent facts with the prophecies relating 
to the conversion of the Gentiles. 

15, 16, 17 Particularly that of Amos 
ix. 11, &c. wherein God promised the 
great and happy restoration of the Jewish 
affairs under the kingdom of David, i. e. 
The religion of the Messiah, by calling 
and gathering in the Gentile world to 
them, and uniting them all into one peo- 
ple and one church. 

18 Now (said he) the same Spirit of 
God that promised and foretold, this 
eminent blessing to the Gentile be- 
lievers, did also certainly * determine 

* Ver. 18. Tvojtx ru ®sy, Known unto God are all his works. 
That this expression cannot merely signify God's foreknowledge 
and prediction of this gracious event, is plain, because this sense 




A. D. 50, upon what conditions they should enjoy 
51. it; and as in his gracious and tree ac- 
■ ceptance of these late converts, he has 
no way declared circumcision, and the 
observance of the whole Jewish law, to 
be one of those conditions ; it is plain 
he intended they should be saved only 
by the sincere profession of the Chris- 
tian religion. And therefore do not 
let us pretend to know the mind of God 
better than he himself has declared it. 

19 Wherefore upon these reasons 
we ought to determine, that the Gentile 
believers are not to be thus troubled 
and discouraged in their Christian pro- 
fession, nor burdened with the observa- 
tion of the whole Jewish law, by cir- 

20 Only as the present state of the 
church now stands, as composed by 
Jews and proselyted Gentiles, it is expe- 
dient we should still oblige these con- 
verts to these four things, as proper to 
keep them at a further distance from 
the idolatrous worship they have re- 
nounced; and then, as being the most 
principal points, the Jewish zealots in- 
sist upon it in their law, to keep them 
also from further clamours and objec- 
tions, viz. To avoid the use of every 
thing they know to be any way conse- 
crated to a heathen deity, or dedicated 
to an idol ; and especially from un- 
cleanness, and unlawful use of women, 
(by which the heathens had made them- 
selves, and even their worship, so infa- 
mous and abominable;) and then as 
eating of the blood of animals, or the 

19 Wherefore my 
sentence is, that we 
trouble not them, 
which from among 
the Gentiles are turn- 
ed to God. 

20 But that we 
write unto them, that 
they abstain from pol- 
lution of idols, and 
from fornication, and 
from things strangled, 
and from blood. 

makes nothing towards St. James's argument ; nor was it denied 
by any. But the word yiwo-Ku being of a large and extensive im- 
port in the New Testament, if it be here rendered designed or deter- 
mined, then it will give the apostle's argument full, viz. That God 
designed that prophecy to be no otherwise accomplished, than as 
Peter had acted in the case of Cornelius, &c. 




<21 For Moses of 
old time hath in every 
city them that preach 
him, read in 
the synagogues every 

$2 Then pleased 
it the apostles and el- 
ders, with the whole 
church, to send chos- 
en men of their own 
company to Antioch, 
with Paul and Barna- 
bas : namely, Judas, 
surnamed Barsabas, 
and Silas, chief men 
among the brethren. 

23 And wrote let- 
ters by them after this 
manner, The apo- 
stles, and elders, and 
brethren, send greet- 
ing unto the brethren 
which are of the Gen- 
tiles in Antioch, and 
Syria, and Cilicia. 

flesh of any creature that was killed A. D. fiO, 
with the blood in it, were forbidden the 51. 

Jews in so special a manner, and as a 

solemn token of their distinction from 
all other people, they should abstain 
from both them likewise. 

21 And by this method w r e shall best 
avoid the most principal inconveniencies, 
which may be objected by the Jewish 
Christians against our determination, in 
favour of the Gentile converts. For 
though on one side, the Gentile con- 
verts be not obliged to the whole Jewish 
law, yet will they not be left ignorant 
of the writings of Moses and the pro- 
phets, which are constantly read, a ; they 
used formerly to be, in the religious as- 
semblies they frequent. But on the 
other side, these Jewish Christians would 
never endure to communicate with men, 
that lived in the practice of these things 
that they hear every sabbath so so- 
lemnly condemned in their sacred Scrip- 

22 All the principal members, and 
the whole bulk of this assembly, agreed 
to this proposal ; and accordingly it was 
resolved to send two principal persons 
of the council along with Paul and Bar- 
nabas, to carry their determination to the 
Gentile converts of Antioch, and the 
parts thereabouts, viz. Judas, or Joses, 
(the apostle in Judas's room, Acts i.) 
and Silas. 

23 Which determination they ex- 
pressed in a letter to them, thus < 
" The apostles, elders, and people of 
i: the church of Jerusalem, wish all 
" health and happiness to their Chris- 
" tian brethren of the Gentile part at 
" Antioch, and the provinces there- 
il about, who have been formerly pro- 
" selyted to the Jewish religion and 
" worship, though not fully made Jews 
" by circumcision." [See note on chap. 
x. 2. And see Mr. Benson's Hist, of 




A. D. 50, the first Plant. Christ. Relig. vol. 


chap. iii. sect. 5, G. 

24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 2p " Whereas 
" we understand, that you have been 
" troubled and perplexed about the ne- 
" cessity of circumcision, by some Jew- 
" ish Christians that came from this 
(i place, for that purpose, (but without 
« theleast of our knowledge or consent;) 
" we have therefore considered your 
" case in full council ; and have, with 
" the direction and assistance of the 
46 Holy Ghost, sent you our determina- 
u tion of it by two of our own members 
" for your more absolute satisfaction, 
" along with the two very much 
Ci esteemed and eminent sufferers for the 
" Gospel, Barnabas and Saul. We 
" have determined thus : That the gifts 
" and endowments of the Holy Ghost con- 
" f erred upon you at your conversion, do 
" demonstrate you are to be saved without 
" observing the whole Jewish law, or be- 
" ing circumcised. But that however, to 
" avoid all scandal to these Pharisaical 
" Christians, it is fit for the present you 
" should refrain from these four things, 
**. viz. from all things dedicated to idols, 
Ci from fornication, and things strangled, 
'* and the blood of animals. (See ver. 
U 20.) And by so doing, without any fur- 
" thei* observance of that law, you may 
depend upon your salvation by the Chris- 

" tian religion. 

Fare ye welV 

30, 31 As soon as the letter arrived, 
and was read at Antioch in a full assem- 
bly, the Gentile converts were made very 
easy, and much rejoiced at so solemn a 
determination in their favour. 

24 Forasmuch as 
we have heard, that 
certain which went 
out from us have trou- 
bled you with words, 
subverting your souls, 
saying, Ye must be 
circumcised, and keep 
the law ; to whom 
we gave no such com- 
mandment : 

25 It seemed good 
unto us, being assem- 
bled with one accord, 
to send chosen men 
unto you, with our 
beloved Barnabas, and 

26 Men that have 
hazarded their lives 
for the name of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

27 We have sent 
therefore Judas, and 
Silas, who shall also 
tell you the same 
things by mouth. 

2S For it seemed 
good to the Holy 
Ghost, and to us, to 
lay upon you no 
greater burden than 
these necessary things; 

29 That ye abstain 
from meats offered to 
idols, and from blood, 
and from things 
strangled, and from 
fornication, from 
which if you keep 
yourselves, ye shall 
do well. Fare ye 

30 So when they 
came to Antioch, and 
when they had ga- 
thered the multitude 
together, they deli- 
vered the epistle. 



31 Which when 
they had read, they 
rejoiced for the con- 

32 And Judas and 
Silas being prophets 
also themselves, ex- 
horted the brethren 
with many words, and 
confirmed them. 

33 And after they 
had tarried there a 
space, they were let 
go in peace from the 
brethren unto the a- 

34 Notwithstand- 
ing it pleased Silas to 
abide there still. 

35 Paul also and 
Barnabas continued in 
Antioch, teaching and 
preaching the word 
of the Lord, with 
many others also. 

36 And some days 
after, Paul said unto 
Barnabas, Let us go 
again, and visit our 
brethren in every ci- 
ty where we have 
preached the word of 
he Lord, and see how 
they do. 

37 And Barnabas 
determined to take 
with them John, 
whose surname was 

38 But Paul 
thought not good to 
take him with them, 
who departed from 
them from Pamphylia, 
and went not with 
them to the work. 

39 And the conten- 

A. D. 53. 

3 C 2 And besides what satisfaction they 
received from the council's letter, Judas 
and Silas being two persons of most ex- 
traordinary abilities in understanding 
the Scriptures, gave them many addi- 
tional reasons that tended to confirm 
them in the excellency and sufficiency 
of the Gospel profession. 

33, 34 After they had thus success- 
fully done their message, Judas returned 
to the apostles at Jerusalem ; but Silas 
had a mind to stay at Antioch, perhaps 
to prevent any fresh occasions of reviving 
the dispute in the absence of Paul and 

35, 36 Who though they continued 
some time after this with the Antiochian 
clergy, had yet determined soon to tra- 
vel over those churches in Cyprus, Pi- 
sidia, and Pamphylia in the lesser Asia, 
where they had formerly been, (chap, 
xiii.) to see what state and condition 
they were in. 

' 37, 38 In this voyage Barnabas 
would have taken Mark with them, (as 
they did before, chap, xiii.) but Paul 
would by no means consent to take a 
person that had deserted them in their 
former travels, (chap. xiii. 13.) 

39 In which they so far disagreed; 




A. D. 52. as to resolve to part, and go into dif- 
ferent places, Barnabas and Mark into 

Cyprus, and Paul and Silas into Syria 

and Cilicia. 

40, 41 And having the solemn prayers 
of the Antiochian church for their good 
success, they went through the several 
countries forementioned, (ver. 36.) con- 
firming the C .listians in their profes- 

tion was so sharp be- 
tween them, that they 
departed asunder one 
from the other : and 
so Barnabas took 
Mark, and sailed unto 
Cyprus : 

40 And Paul chose 
Silas, and departed, 
being recommended 
by the brethren unto 
the grace of God. 

41 And he went 
though Syria and Ci- 
licia, confirming the 


Paul and Silas at Derbe and Lystra. Paul circumciseth Timothy ; and 
why. They deliver to all the converts the decree about circumci- 
sion. They go to Philippi in Macedonia. Lydia converted. A 
damsel cured of an evil spirit. A clamour raised upon it. The two 
Apostles scourged, and imprisoned by the Roman officers. An earth- 
quake frees them from their chains. The jailor and his family con- 
verted. The two apostles are dismissed, and leave the town. 

A. D. 53. 1, 2 TOTtOM Cilicia, Paul and Silas 

-*- went to Derbe * and Lystra ; 

* Seechap. in the latter of which places there was 
xiv. 6. a young Christian convert, of eminent 
virtue and qualifications, a Jew by the 
mother's side, but not circumcised, be- 
cause his father was a Gentile. 

3 Paul knowing the excellent temper 
and accomplishments of this person, 
intended to ordain him into the minis- 
try, and take him along with him in his 
travels. But because he knew the 
Jews (to whom he was to preach) would 

1 rpHEN he came 
to Derbe and 
Lystra: and, behold, 
a certain disciple was 
there, named Timo- 
theus, the son of a 
certain woman which 
was a Jewess, and be- 
lieved ; but his father 
was a Greek : 

2 Which was well 
reported of by the 
brethren that were 
at Lystra and Ico- 

3 Him would Paul 
have to go forth with 
him ; and took and 
circumcised him, be- 
cause of the Jews 
which were in those 
quarters : for they 




knew all that his fa- 
ther was a Greek. 

4 And as they went 
through the cities, 
they delivered them 
the decrees for to 
keep, that were or- 
dained of the apo- 
stles and elders which 
were at Jerusalem. 

5 And so were the 
churches established 
in the faith, and in- 
creased in number 

6" Now when they 
had gone throughout 
Phrygia, and the re- 
gion of Galatia, and 
were forbidden of the 
Holy Ghost to preach 
the word in Asia, 

7 After they were 
come to Mysia, they 
assayed to go into Bi- 
thynia : but the Spirit 
suffered them not. 

8 And they passing 
by Mysia, came down 
to Troas. 

9 And a vision ap- 
peared to Paul in the 
night : There stood a 
man of Macedonia, 
and prayed him, say- 
ing, Come over into 
Macedonia, and help 

10 And after he 
had seen the vision, 
immediately we en- 

never endure a person (that was reckon- A. 
ed a Jew by being born of a Jewish wo- — 
man) to be a teacher, while he was 
uncircumcised ; in compliance there- 
fore with their prejudice, he caused 
Timothy to be circumcised, and then 
ordained him. 

4 As they went through the several 
towns of those, and the neighbouring 
provinces, they gave every church a 
copy of the apostles' decree, concerning 
the little obligation the Gentile con- 
verts were under to the Jewish law; 
(chap. xv. 28, 29.) and for asserting 
their Christian liberty. 

5 And by this second visit of Paul, 
these churches were much confirmed in 
their profession, and increased in the 
number of their members ; especially the 
Gentile part received great comfort and 
satisfaction, by finding themselves freed 
from the main burden of the Jewish law. 

6, 7 Having thus visited all the se- 
veral parts in which Paul had formerly 
been, their design was to proceed to the 
other provinces of the lesser Asia, viz. 
Phrygia, and Galatia, Mysia, and 
Bithynia; but they were directed by 
the suggestion of the Holy Ghost, not 
to attempt the preaching of the Gospel 
for the present in those places. 

8, 9 So that they only passed through 
them, and arrived at Troas, where Paul 
had a vision, in which a man of Mace- 
donia came to him, and, in a posture of 
great earnestness and concern, begged 
of him to come over thither, and assist 
the people of that great province in the 
way of salvation, by preaching the Gos- 
pel to them. 

10 The particulars of this vision 
were so clear, and the impressions so 
strong, that he had no sooner ac- 





A. D. 53. quainted us * of his company with it, 

but we agreed with him in concluding 

it to be a notice from God, to go and 
preach there ; and accordingly made 
the best of our way thither ; 

11, 19 Going from Troas directly to 
Samothracia ; the next day to Neapolis, 
and so to Philippi, the first city of Ma- 
cedonia, (on that side,) and head of a 
Roman colony or plantation, and stayed 
there some considerable time. 

13 In this city the Jews were allowed 
a place of public worship in the out- 
skirts of the town ; to which we first 
resorted upon the sabbath-day to 
preach, the major part of the assembly 

being women. 

14 Among which there was one Ly- 
dia, a Jewish proselyte, a woman whose 
sincere and religious disposition made 
her so attentive to, and so thoroughly 
to consider, Paul's arguments, as to be 
converted by them. 

15 And after she and her whole fa- 
mily were fully instructed and baptized 
into the Christian religion, she entreated 
us, upon all the confidence we had of 

deavoured to go into 
Macedonia, assuredly 
gathering that the 
Lord had called us for 
to preach the Gospel 
unto them. 

11 Therefore loos- 
ing from Troas, we 
came with a straight 
course to Samothracia, 
and the next day to 
Neapolis ; 

12 And from thence 
to Philippi, which is 
the chief f city of that 
part of Macedonia, and 
a colony : and we 
were in that city 
abiding certain days. 

13 And on the sab- 
bath we went out of 
the city by a river 
side, where prayer was 
wont to he made ; and 
we sat do w n , and spake 
unto the women which 
resorted thither. 

14 And a certain 
woman named Lydia, 
a seller of purple, of 
the city of Thyatira, 
which worshipped 
God, heard us : whose 
heart the Lord 
opened, that she at- 
tended unto the 
things which were 
spoken of Paul. 

15 And when she 
was baptized and her 
household, she be- 
sought us, saying, If ye 
have judged me to be 

* This passage makes it plain that St. Luke, the writer of this 
history, was St. Paul's fellow traveller, and so wrote what he knew 
and saw himself. 

f Ver. 12. The chief city of that part of Macedonia, -ra-^T* ?r,c 
y.!?i$oc, not the chief, but the first that you come at, on that part or 
division of Macedonia. See Mr. Peirce, Synop. to Philip. 

CHAr. xvr. 



faithful to the Lord, 
come into my house, 
and abide there. And 
she constrained us. 

16 And it came to 
pass, as we went to 
prayer, a certain dam- 
sel possessed with a 
spirit of divination 
met us, which brought 
her masters much 
gain by soothsay- 
ing : 

17 The same fol- 
lowed Paul and us, 
and cried, saying, 
These men are the 
servants of the most 
high God, which 
shew unto us the way 
of salvation. 

18 And this did 
she many days. But 
Paul being grieved, 
turned, and said to 
the spirit, I command 
thee in the name of 
Jesus Christ, to come 
out of her. And he 
came out the same 

19 And when her 
masters saw that the 
hope of their gains 
was gone, they caught 
Paul and Silas, and 
drew them into the 
market-place, unto the 

20 And brought 
them to the magi- 
strates, saying, These 
men being Jews, do 
exceedingly trouble 
our city : 

21 And teach cus- 
toms which are not 
lawful for us to re- 
ceive, neither to ob- 
serve, being Romans. 

vol. I. 

her sincerity, to lodge at her house, and A. D. 53. 
w r ould not be denied in her request. . 

16 As we went every sabbath to tins 
Jewish assembly, there followed us a 
young woman, that by the help of a 
wicked spirit was wont to amuse the 
people by telling fortunes, and was kept 
or hired by several people to get money 
that way. 

1 7 She came after us every day, 
proclaiming us to be the messengers of 
the supreme and true God, and our 
doctrine to be the true way of happiness 
and salvation. God thus constraining 
even the wicked spirits to bear testimony 
to the truth of Christ's religion. 

IS But Paul, to give the people a 
higher evidence to this divine truth 
than what came from an evil spirit, 
and out of compassion to see them thus 
deluded, commanded the evil spirit, in 
the name of Jesus, to leave the woman : 
and she was dispossessed immediately. 

19 The people that employed her 
were so far from being converted by 
this miracle, that, enraged at the loss of 
their gainful trade, they seized upon 
Paul and Silas, and carried them be- 
fore the magistrates. 

20, 21 And sending for the Roman 
officers into court, they accused him of 
spreading and propagating a new reli- 
gion in opposition to the Roman laws, 
and to seditious purposes. 




D. 53. 22 Upon which the common people 
set up an universal 

clamour against 

them; and the officers (using the ri- 
gour of the law) ordered their clothes 
to be torn from their backs, and them 
to be severely whipped. 

23, 24 And then to be imprisoned, 
with a particular charge to the jailor, 
who thereupon shut them into the 
dungeon, and put shackles upon their 

25 The two apostles, under all the 
pain of their stripes, and in that doleful 
confinement, yet spent the night in 
prayers, and singing praises to God 
with so cheerful and audible a voice, 
that the rest of the prisoners could hear 

26 When about midnight, the whole 
prison was shaken by a miraculous 
earthquake, the doors of every apart- 
ment flew open, and all the prisoners' 
chains fell off of their own accord. 

27 The jailor waking at this dreadful 
motion, and finding ali open, concluded 
his prisoners were gone, and, dreading 
the punishment he was liable to, at- 
tempted to kill himself. 

28 But just as he was going to do it, 
Paul called out to him, and bade him 
fear nothing, for that all his charge was 
safe, and not a man gone. 


22 And the mul- 
titude rose up to- 
gether against them : 
and the magistrates 
rent off their clothes, 
and commanded to 
beat them. 

28 And when they 
had laid many stripes 
upon them, they cast 
them into prison, 
charging the jailor to 
keep them safely 

24 Who 
received such a 
charge, thrust them 
into the inner prison, 
and made their feet 
fast in the stocks. 

25 And at mid- 
night Paul and Silas 
prayed, and sang 
praises unto God : and 
the prisoners heard 

26 And suddenly 
there was a great 
earthquake, so that 
the foundations of the 
prison were shaken : 
and immediately all 
the doors were open- 
ed, and every one's 
bands were loosed. 

27 And the keeper 
of the prison awaking 
out of his sleep, and 
seeing the prison 
doors open, he drew 
out his sword, and 
would have killed 
himself, supposing 
that the prisoners had 
been fled. 

28 But Paul cried 
with a loud voice, 
saying, Do thyself no 
harm, for we are all 



29 Then he called 
for a light, and sprang 
in, and came trem- 
bling, and fell down 
before Paul and Silas ; 

30 And brought 
them out, and said, 
Sirs, what must 1 do 
to be saved 1 

31 And they said, 
Believe on the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and thou 
shalt be saved, and 
thy house. 

32 And they spake 
unto him the word of 
the Lord, and to all 
that were in his house. 

33 And he took 
them the same hour 
of the night, and 
washed their stripes, 
and was baptized, he 
and all his, straight- 

34 And when he 
had brought them in- 
to his house, he set 
meat before them, and 
rejoiced, believing in 
God, with all his 

35 And when it 
was day, the magis- 
trates sent the Ser- 
jeants, saying, Let 
those men go. 

36 And the keeper 
of the prison told this 
saying to Paul, The 
magistrates have sent 
to let you go : now 
therefore depart, and 
go in peace. 

37 But Paul said 
unto them, They have 
beaten us openly un- 
condemned, being 
Romans, and have 
cast us into prison $ 

29, 30 At which the man came to A. P. 53. 

them, and understanding how the mat- — 

ter was, threw himself at their feet, ac- 
knowledging this miracle to be an evi- 
dence of their divine commission, and 
begged of them to instruct him in the 
way of true religion, in order to salva- 

31, 32 The apostles told him, The 
only condition of man's salvation was a 
sincere belief and profession of the re- 
ligion of Jesus Christ; and then in- 
structed him and his family in the 
particular history and doctrines of it. 

33, 34> The man then took them into 
his house, washed and dressed their 
stripes, gave them meat, and, upon 
their solemn profession of the Chris- 
tian faith, he and ail his family received 
baptism, with great joy and thankful- 
ness to God. 

35 Next morning the Roman officers, 
hearing what had passed in the prison, 
were so startled at it, that they sent to 
have the two apostles dismissed. 

36, 37 The jailor acquainted them 
with this message with great satisfaction: 
but Paul sent the officers word, That 
he was a Roman freeman ; and that as 
they had ordered him to be whipped, 
contrary to the Roman privileges, and 
that in so open and disgraceful a man- 
ner, they ought to come themselves, 
and in as public a manner discharge 
him, and clear his innocence. 

1 2 




I). 5. 

38, 39 This message put them into a 
much greater concern, the law being very 
severe against doing any dishonour to a 
Roman citizen ; insomuch that they 
came to him, gave him good words, 
and desired him to be gone. 

40 The two apostles, satisfied with 
this small recompence, left the prison, 
and went to their lodgings ; whither 
having sent for the several converts 
they had made, and given them all 
proper exhortations to persevere in 
their professions, they took leave, and 
left the town. 

and now do they 
thrust us out privily? 
nay verily ; but let 
them come themselves, 
and fetch us out. 

38 And the Ser- 
jeants told these words 
unto the magistrates ; 
and they feared, when 
they heard that they 
were Romans. 

39 And they came 
and besought them, 
and brought them out, 
and desired them to 
depart out of the city. 

40 And they wen tout 
of the prison, and en- 
tered into the house of 
Lydia: and when they 
had seen the brethren, 
they comforted them, 
and departed. 


Paul preaches to the Jews at Thessalonica, proving Jesus to be the 
Messiah: is insulted by the unbelieving part of them, and accused to 
the Roman magistrates as raising a sedition against Casar. The apo- 
stles retire to Bercea. The generous temper of that people. The Jews 
of Thessalonica pursue them, and drive them from thence. Paul at 
Athens. His discourse to the philosophers. The success of it. 

. 1 F^HOM Philippi they went through 
. ■*■ Amphipolis and Apollonia, and 
so directly to Thessalonica, the metro- 
polis of the province of Macedonia, a 
large and populous city, frequented by 
people of several countries; where the 
Jews especially were very numerous, 
and had a synagogue allowed them. 

2 And Paul, according to his constant 
method of preaching the Gospel, first to 
the Jews wherever he found them, re- 
paired to this synagogue, where for 
three sabbath-days together he laid 

i iy°w wnen the y 

x had passed 
through Amphipolis 
and Apollonia, they 
came to Thessalonica, 
where was a syna- 
gogue of the Jews. 

2 And Paul, as his 
manner was, went in 
unto them, and three 
eabbath-days reasoned 
with them out of the 



3 Opening and al- 
leging that Christ 
must needs have suf- 
fered, and risen again 
from the dead : and 
that this Jesns, whom 
I preach unto you, is 

4 And some of them 
believed, and consort- 
ed with Paul and Si- 
las : and of the devout 
Greeks a great multi- 
tude, and of the chief 
women not a few. 

5 But the Jews 
which believed not, 
moved with envy, took 
unto them certai n lewd 
fellows of the baser 
sort, and gathered a 
company, and set all 
the city on an uproar, 
and assaulted the 
house of Jason, and 
sought to bring them 
out to the people. 

6 And when they 
found them not, they 
drew Jason and cer- 
tain brethren unto the 
rulers of the city, cry- 
ing, These that have 
turned the world up- 
side down, are come 
hither also. 

7 Whom Jason hath 
received : and these 
all do contrary to the 
decrees of Caesar, say- 

before them the characters and descrip-A. D. 54. 

tions of their Messiah out of the pro- — 

phetical writings. 

3 From which he clearly proved, 
That Christ was not to be a temporal 
prince, nor a deliverer of Israel by 
worldly conquests, but the Saviour and 
Redeemer of mankind, by dying and 
suffering for their sins, and to triumph 
over their spiritual enemies by his re- 
surrection ; and then demonstrated all 
those prophetical characters to be ex- 
actly fulfilled in Jesus Christ, whose 
doctrine and religion he was preaching. 

4 His discourse carried that evidence 
of truth in it, that several of the ori- 
ginal Jews, abundance of the Greek 
proselytes, and a good number of their 
women of distinction, believed and were 

5 But the unbelieving Jews, enraged 
at this success of his doctrine, got the 
rabble of the town together, and in a 
tumultuous manner beset the house 
where the apostles lodged, intending to 
drag them out, and expose them to the 
fury of the multitude. 

6 But the apostles having, upon no- 
tice given, retired into some other 
place, they took Jason the master of the 
house, and some Christian converts 
that were with him, and carried them to 
the Roman magistrates, clamouring 
against the apostles, as men that dis- 
turbed the public peace by seditious 
doctrine, as they had done in several 
provinces before ; and accused Jason for 
entertaining them. 

7 And the more highly to incense the 
magistrates against them, they mali- 
ciously, and contrary to all truth, de- 
posed. That they preached up Jesus for 

i 3 




A. D. 54. a king, against Caesar's right and 


8, 9 This put the magistrates into a 
great concern, insomuch that though 
they examined Jason and the Christian 
converts with him, and could pick out 
nothing from them that looked like 
sedition ; yet they would not dismiss 
them without good security, to appear 
and answer to the charge, if they should 
be called upon again ; and to behave 
peaceably for the future. 

10 In the mean time the Christians 
had conveyed away the two apostles to 
Beraea, a town a few miles distant, 
where they immediately went and 
preached in the Jewish synagogue. 

1 1 The Jews of which place proved 
of a much more gentle and manly dis- 
position than those of Thessalonica ; 
for as often as Paul had preached to 
them, abundance of them took the 
pains to compare what he had said with 
the Scripture-prophecies, and upon a 
careful and impartial search after the 
true sense of them, finding his doctrine 
to be true, embraced it with all readiness 
and alacrity. 

12 Insomuch that a very consider- 
able number of Jews and proselytes of 
both sexes, and of good quality, were 

13 But the infidel and incurable 
Jews of Thessalonica no sooner heard 
that Paul was preaching at Beraea, but 
they pursued him thither, and by their 
wonted arts of calumny and defamation, 
raised the rabble against them. 

14-, 15 Upon which Paul, knowing 
the implacable and desperate temper of 
those Jews, got off, and made as if he 
intended to take shipping; but the 
better to avoid their pursuit, went 

ing, That there is an- 
other king, one Jesus. 

8 And they trou- 
bled the people, and 
the rulers of the city, 
when they heard these 

9 And when they 
had taken security of 
Jason, and of the o- 
ther, they let them 

10 And the brethren 
immediately sent a- 
way Paul and Silas by 
night unto Beraea : 
who coming thither, 
went into the syna- 
gogue of the Jews. 

1 1 These were more 
noble than those in 
Thessalonica, in that 
they received the word 
with all readiness of 
mind, and searched the 
Scriptures daily, whe- 
ther those things were 

12 Therefore many 
of them believed : also 
of honourable women 
which were Greeks, 
and of men not a few. 

13 But when the 
Jews of Thessalonica 
had knowledge that 
the word of God was 
preached of Paul at 
Beraea, they came thi- 
ther also, and stirred 
up the people. 

14 And then im- 
mediately the bre- 
thren sent away Paul 
to go as it were to 
the sea : but Silas 



and Timotheus abode 
there still. 

15 And they that 
conducted Paul, 
brought him unto A- 
thens, and receiving 
a commandment unto 
Silas and Timotheus, 
for to come to him 
with all speed, they 

16 Now while Paul 
waited for them at 
Athens, his spirit was 
stirred in him, when 
he saw the city wholly 
given to idolatry. 

17 Therefore dis- 
puted he in the syna- 
gogue witli the .lews, 
and with the devout 
persons, and in the 
market daily with 
them that met with 

IS Then certain 
philosophers of the 
Epicureans, and of 
the Stoics, encoun- 
tered him : and some, 
said, What will this 
babbler say ? other 
some, He seemeth to 
be a setter forth of 
strange gods: because 
he preached unto 
them Jesus, and the 

down by land to Athens, leaving Silas A. D. 

and Timothy behind, with orders to 

follow him thither as soon as they 

19 And they took 
him, and brought him 
unto Areopagus , say- 

16 While Paul was expecting them 
at Athens, and making observations 
upon the religion and manners of that 
people, he was filled with a most pas- 
sionate concern, to find a place where 
so much learning was professed, and to 
which all countries resorted for liberal 
education, so wholly given up to ido- 
latry and superstitious worship. 

1 7 So that before they could come to 
him, he preached alone, not only to the 
Jews and proselytes in their synagogues, 
but even in the open market-places to 
the Gentile Athenians. 

1 8 He had not done so long, before 
he was attacked by some philosophical 
professors of the Epicurean and Stoical 
sects. The first of which (believing 
nothing of the creation of the world, 
divine Providence, or a future state) de- 
spised him as an empty and ridiculous 
babbler. But the other (who held the 
universe to be God, and had some, 
though absurd notions of rewards and 
punishments) looked upon him as an 
inventor of some new deity, and new 
religious maxims, by what they heard 
him say of Jesus, and his resurrection ; 
and so had a mind to hear particularly 
what they were, and how he could prove 

19, 20 Accordingly they brought 
Paul into their great court, (called Are- 
opagus or Mars' Hill,) where both their 
i 4 




A. D. 54. civil ami religious controversies were 

wont to be determined ; and there, in a 

great assembly of philosophers, desired 
him to declare what his doctrine was, 
that seemed to them so new and un- 

21 Now these philosophers did not 
bring Paul to this great council, so 
much in the nature of a criminal, as 
out of mere curiosity to hear some new 
notions to employ their speculations 
upon : a temper the Athenians are the 
most addicted to of all people living. 

22 In this famous court then Paul 
stood up ; and, the better to gain a 
patient hearing from them, introduced 
i lis discourse with his acknowledgment 
and observation, how zealously devoted 
their city was to superstitious worship *, 
as it plainly appeared from the great 
number and variety of the images and 
altars erected to every deity they knew 
or heard of. 

23 Now (says he) among the many of 
these monuments of your religious 
devotion, I took particular notice of 
one altar, as being dedicated bv an 
inscription, TO THE UNKNOWN 
GOD : which as it bespeaks in you a 
peculiar degree of ignorant piety, ex- 
tending itself to the honour of all sorts 
of deities or demons, even to those you 
may or may not know ; so must it be 
allowed a fair acknowledgment that 

ing, May we know 
what this new doc- 
trine, whereof thou 
speakest, is ? 

20 For thou bring- 
est certain strange 
things to our ears : 
we would know there- 
fore what these things 

21 (For all the 
Athenians, and strang- 
ers which were there, 
spent their time in no- 
thing else, but either 
to tell or hear some 
new thing.) 

22 Then Paul stood 
in the midst of Mars 7 
Hill, and said, Ye men 
of Athens, I perceive 
that in all things ye 
are too superstitious. 

23 For as I passed 
by, and beheld your 
devotions, I found an 
altar with this in- 
scription, TO THE 
Whom therefore ye ig- 
norantly worship, him 
declare I unto you. 

* Ver. 22. Ana-^cn/xoviT^ovc, too superstitious ,• i. e. affected by 
a weak and ignorant fear, exciting them to the worship of nu- 
merous and uncertain demons. The sense of tins word given by 
Mr. Mead is very elegant and emphatical. " You imagine, says 
" St. Paul, that I am preaching up some new chity, some strange 
„" demon. No ; I rind you have deity, and demons enough, and 
" too many, already." 




24 God that made 
the world, and all 
things therein, seeing 
that he is Lord of 
heaven and earth, 
dwelleth not in tem- 
ples made with hands. 

25 Neither is wor- 
shipped with men's 
hands, as though he 
needed anything; see- 
ing he giveth to all 
life, and breath, and 
all things. 

26 And hath made 
of one blood all na- 
tions of men, for to 
dwell on all the face 
of the earth, and hath 
determined the times 
before appointed, and 
the bounds of their 
habitation *. 

there may be a true God, whose exist- A. B. 54. 

ence, perfection, and worship, you may . 

be ignorant of, but are desirous to 
adore, as soon as ever you are informed 
of him. And this is He whom lam 
commissioned to declare to you, as the 
only proper object of your adoration, 
worship, and happiness ; 

24 Namely, the only one infinite and 
all-perfect Being, the Creator and Go- 
vernor of all the world ; who, by the 
immensity of his divine nature, being 
equally present in all places, it cannot 
but be a high disparagement to it, to 
conceive his presence and blessings 
shut up and confined to narrow temples 
or images, the workmanship of so finite 
a creature as man. 

25 Nor can you rationally think this 
all-sufficient Being to be pleased and 
delighted with the offerings, sacrifices, 
or any other external services of man- 
kind, as if he either wanted, or received 
any addition to his happiness by them. 
For how can he be any way bettered by 
us, who live by his power, and enjoy 
every thing we have from his goodness ? 

26 By him was mankind created, 
being all the offspring of Adam the 
first parent, whose posterity by degrees 
were dispersed into the whole earth, 
and peopled the several countries of it ; 
Providence having assigned to each 
people their particular country and 
climate ; and then afterward or- 
dering and disposing the several 

* Ver. 26. By supposing a very easy transposition in this 
verse, I take the true construction to be this, 'Eno'ines vr£v sSvog ruv 

«y3^7TWV KOCTOIKHV E9T* CTC4V TO T7 £G<TWJVOV tYli y^S, XOC.I TO? 0£0§E:7ia? T>1? XOfrTOi- 

Jtiac ocvtojv, o^J-a<; 'sygoTiToc.yfjLZvcw; Kcctgov<;. 

And hath made all men 
for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and the borders of their 
" habitation, having (before) ordered the (proper) seasons, (either 
cf of the year for each of them,) or else ^oTEraypvous, the deter- 
"■ mined periods of nations," as the word is used, Luke xxi. 24. and 
is much the best sense of this place. 




A. D. 54. changes, periods, and revolutions of 


27 Now the wise end for which God 
thus created, and by his merciful pro- 
vidence thus governs and preserves 
mankind, is, that we should look up to 
and duly consider him, as the Author 
of our being, and the Fountain of all 
our blessings ; acknowledge and adore 
him, suitably to the excellence and 
benignity of his divine nature; which 
though it could not very easily be dulv 
performed by the generality of mankind, 
amidst the darkness and depravity into 
which they have so long and wilfully 
sunk themselves ; yet is, in itself, a duty 
most naturally arising from the use of 
our own reason and faculties ; 

28 The regular and wondrous order 
of every thing about us, nay, our own 
existence, with all the blessings and 
comforts that surround us, plainly 
shewing him to us as a Creator and 
Benefactor ; of which Aratus, one of 
your own poets, was sensible, when he 
says, We are his offspring. 

29 Now, in what sense is man the 
offspring of God ? or how do we re- 
semble him ? Not in our bodies, and 
outward shape, surely, but in our 
minds, in our spiritual and rational 
faculties ; and therefore how impious 
and vain must it be for us to represent 
the infinitely perfect Spirit in the vile- 
ness of human shape, or worship him 
under the likeness of any material image 
whatsoever, or ever so exactly graven, 
or finely adorned by human art ? Crea- 
tures that are the offspring of God, ought 
to know and think better of him. 

30 God, indeed, in judgment upon the 
wilful and vicious corruptions of man- 
kind, has, for many ages, permitted * 

27 That they should 
seek the Lord, if haply 
they might feel after 
him, and find him, 
though he be not far 
from every one of us. 

28 For in him we 
live, and move, and 
have our being; as 
certain also of your 
own poets have said, 
For we are also his 

29 Forasmuch then 
as we are the offspring 
of God, we ought 
not to think that the 
Godhead is like unto 
gold, or silver, or stone 
graven by art an<J 
man's device. 

30 And the times 
of this ignorance God 
winked at, but now 

Ver. 30. int^y b © £ oc, God winked at, God overlooked, or neglected 
them. See Rom. i. 20, &c. to the end. Or, fagitei may be very 



commandeth all men 
every where to repent. 

31 Because he hath 
appointed a day in the 
which he will judge 
the world in righte- 
ousness, by that man 
whom he hath or- 
dained, whereof he 
hath given assurance 
unto all men, in that 
he hath raised him 
from the dead. 

32 And when they 
heard of the resurrec- 
tion of the dead, some 
mocked : and~ others 
said, We will hear 
thee again of this 

33 So Paul depart- 
ed from among them. 

34 Howbeit cer- 
tain men clave unto 
him, and believed : a- 
mong the which was 
Dionysius the Areo- 
pagite, and a woman 
named Damaris, and 
others with them. 

the greatest part of them to continue in A. D. 54. 

this ignorant and false way of worship, 

sending them no prophets to instruct 
them, as he did the Jews. But now, 
that he intends, in great mercy and 
compassion, to vouchsafe to them all 
the free offers of pardon, and a full 
discovery of his divine will; he justly 
expects they should all repent of their 
former follies, reform their lives, and 
worship him in a true and acceptable 

31 And it infinitely concerns them so 
to do : for as God has now given them 
his only Son Jesus Christ, to be their 
Saviour and Redeemer, and has de- 
monstrated the truth of his commission 
by raising him from the dead; so has 
lie appointed the same Jesus to be the 
Judge of all the world, and, at the 
great day of accounts, to give eternal 
reward or punishment to every man ac- 
cording to his works. 

32 As soon as ever Paul had men- 
tioned Jesus's resurrection, the Epicu- 
reans laughed * and hooted at him ; * See ver. 
but the Stoics, who had some notions 18, 

of a future recompence, told him they 
would hear him further upon that ar- 

33, 34 So Paul went out of court, 
not without some good effect of his dis- 
course. For though the generality of 
these philosophers were either too no- 
toriously atheistical, or too proud of 
their own learning, to change their sen- 
timents, yet it convinced one who was 
a member of the great council ; a wo- 
man, (probably of some distinction,) and 
some others beside. 

rightly rendered winked at, and so express the Divine Mercy also, 
in not so severely observing and immediately punishing their wilful 
ignorance as it deserved. 





Paul at Corinth. Preacheth to the Jens. Their obstinacy and malice 
causes him to leave them, and preach to the Gentile Corinthians. 
Converts many. Christ, in a vision, encourageth his endeavours. 
The Jews make a riot against him. Gallio suppresses them. Sos- 
thenes beaten. Paul goes through Ephesus. Preacheth there. An 
account of Apollos. Paul returns to Jerusalem. 

g no fur 

A. D. 54. 1 "OAUL therefore expecting 

■ ■*■ ther effects of his doctrine upon 

the philosophers at Athens, soon left 
that place, and went to Corinth, an- 
other large and populous city of Achaia 
or Greece, famous both for trade * and 

2 Where he happened upon a Jew 
and his wife, lately come from Italy, 
from whence the emperor Claudius had, 
by an edict, banished all the Jews, to 
shew his resentment at some seditious 
practices some of them had been guilty 
off. & " 

3 And because he was now converted 
to the Christian faith, and of the same 
trade that Paul was brought up to, (viz. 
that of making soldiers' tents,) he 
lodged at his house, and wrought along 
with him. That so by earning his own 
livelihood, and being independent upon 
those he preached to, he might silence 
the pretence of some malicious Jews, 
that he preached for gain and advantage. 
(See 1 Cor. ix.) 

4 For in this, as in other places, he 
applied himself to those of that nation 
first, preaching every sabbath in some 
or other of their synagogues, but to 

1 AFTER these 
-^ things, Paul 
departed from Athens, 
and came to Corinth, 

2 And found a cer- 
tain Jew named Aqui- 
la, born in Pontus, 
lately come from Italy, 
with his wife Priscilla, 
(because that Clau- 
dius had commanded 
all Jews to depart 
from Rome,) and came 
unto them. 

3 And because he 
was of the same craft, 
he abode with them, 
and wrought, (for by 
occupation they were 
tent makers.) 

4 And he reasoned 
in the synagogue eve- 
ry sabbath, and per- 
suaded the Jews, and 
the Greeks. 

* See 1 Cor. iv. 9, 10. 

f But in what province is not certain, though most probably 
in Judea. 



5 And when Silas 
and Timotheus were 
come from Macedo- 
nia, Paul was pressed 
in spirit, and testified 
to the Jews that Jesus 
was Christ. 

And when they 
opposed themselves, 
and blasphemed, he 
shook his raiment, and 
said unto them, Your 
blood be upon your 
own heads, I am 
clean ; from hence- 
forth 1 will go unto 
the Gentiles. 

7 And he departed 
thence, and entered 
into a certain man's 
house, named Justus, 
one that worshipped 
God, whose house 
joined hard to the sy- 

S And Crispus the 
chief ruler of the sy- 
nagogue believed on 
the Lord, with all his 
house : and many of 
the Corinthians hear- 
ing, believed, and 
were baptized. 

9 Then spake the 
Lord to Paul in the 
night by a vision, Be 
not afraid, but speak, 
and hold not thy 
peace : 

10 For I am with 
thee, and no man 
shall set on thee, to 
hurt thee : for I have 

very little purpose upon the generality A. D. 54. 
of so obdurate and prejudiced a people 

5 But however, as soon as Silas and 
Timothy came to him from Beroea, 
(where he left them, chap. xvi\ 15, 16.) 
he renewed his endeavours with a most 
passionate concern at their ingratitude 
and infidelity, laying before them all 
the clear proofs, and undeniable evi- 
dences from their own prophecies, that 
Jesus was the true Messiah. 

6 Till at last they flew unto such an 
abusive and outrageous carriage toward 
him, that he told them he had done his 
duty, that their destruction was from 
themselves ; and that since no good was 
to be done upon them, he would now 
preach to the Gentile Corinthians, (viz. 
to the idolatrous as well as the proselyte 
Gentiles,) and so shook his garment at 
them, as a token of his renouncing all 
further conversation with them. 

7, S Leaving their synagogues there- 
fore, he preached for the future in the 
house of a certain Jewish uncircumcised 
proselyte; w r here he converted the pre- 
sident of a synagogue, with his whole 
family, and abundance of the Corinthian 
Gentiles, who all received baptism. 

9, 10 And forhis encouragement under 
the malicious treatment he had, and was 
still like to find from the Jews, (especially 
now that he was preaching the kingdom 
of the Messiah to the Gentiles,) Christ 
appeared to him in a vision by night, 
and gave him assurance of very great 
success in his ministry there among the 
Gentile part of the city ; and that all 




A. D. 55. attempts of the Jews against him should 

be ineffectual. 

11 Whereupon he continued his mi- 
nistry there a year and a half together. 

12, 13 During which time, the Jews, 
in a riotous and tumultuous manner, 
seized upon Paul, and, upon a court- 
day, brought him before Gallio the Ro- 
man prefect, and accused him of blas- 
phemy against their religion. 

14-, 15, 16 But as he was going to 
defend himself against this malicious 
charge, the prefect prevented and saved 
him that trouble, by telling the Jews, if 
they could accuse the man of any thing 
that amounted to a breach of common 
right, or a disturbance of the public 
peace, he would take cognizance of it, 
according to the duty of his place; but 
to trouble him and the court with dis- 
putes who were the Messiah, or what 
was agreeable or contrary to their Jew- 
ish law, was impertinent in them, and 
none of his business to determine ; and 
so ordered them, with some resentment, 
to be turned out of court. 

17 Whereupon the common people, 
either to shew their zealous respect to 
the governor, or else to provoke him to 
interpose in this affair, routed the Jews, 
and gave Sosthenes, a president of one 
of their chief synagogues, and the prin- 

mueh people in this 

11 And he conti- 
nued there a year and 
six months, teaching 
the word of God a- 
niong them. 

12 And when Gallio 
was the deputy of 
Achaia, the Jews made 
insurrection with one 
accord against Paul, 
and brought him to 
the judgment seat, 

13 Saying, This 
fellow persuadeth men 
to worship God con- 
trary to the law. 

14 And when Paul 
was now about to 
open his mouth, Gal- 
lio'said unto the Jews, 
If it were a matter 
of wrong, or wicked 
lewdness, O ye Jews, 
reason would that I 
should bear with you : 

15 But if it be a 
question of words and 
names, and of your 
law, look ye to it : 
for I will be no judge 
of such matters. 

16 And he drave 
them from the judg- 
ment seat. 

17 Then all the 
* Greeks took Sosthe- 
nes the chief ruler of 
the synagogue, and 
beat him before the 
judgment seat : and 

* Ver. 17. The Greeks took Sosthenes, ftc. Note, Some good ma- 
nmscripts, the Copt, and Vul. versions, leave out"E\*Y>nc, the Greeks ; 
and one MS. reads 'Iou&moi, the Jews. If it were the Jews that beat 
Sosthenes, we may then suppose him to be now a Christian, or 
favourer of the Christians, as some learned men have thought. 
Let the reader judge. 



Gallio cared for none 
of those things. 

18 And Paul after 
this tarried there yet 
a good while, and 
then took his leave of 
the brethren, and sail- 
ed thence into Syria, 
and with him Priscilla 
and Aquila : having 
shorn his head in Cen- 
chrea : for he had a 

19 And he came 
to Ephesus, and left 
them there : but he 
himself entered into 
the synagogue, and 
reasoned with the 

20 When they de- 
sired him to tarry lon- 
ger time with them, 
he consented not ; 

21 Hut bade them 
farewell, saying, 1 
must by all means 
keep this feast that 
cometh in Jerusalem; 
but I will return again 
unto you, if God will. 
And he sailed from 

22 And when he 
had landed at C?e- 
sarea, and gone up and 
saluted the church, he 
went down to An- 

23 And after he had 
spent some time tiiere, 
he departed and went 
over all the country of 
Galatiaand Phrygiain 

cipal clamourer against Paul, some A. D. 55. 
blows in open court : and though this _________^ 

was an illegal proceeding, yet Gallio, be- 
ing under a resentment against the Jews, 
and taking it to be done out of no dis- 
respect to himself, took no notice of it, 
and let it pass. 

18 Paul continued at Corinth some 
time after this, and then took shipping 
for Syria along with Priscilla and Aquila, 
who being under a religious vow, (called 
the vow of the Nazarite,) had bis head 
shorn at Cenchrea, the vow being then 
expired. (See Numb. 


19, 90, 91 In this voyage, Paul took 
Ephesus in his way, and preached to 
the Jews there in their synagogue; then 
left Aquila and his wife there, with a 
promise to return to them again after 
he had been at the passover- feast at Je- 
rusalem, whither it was very proper for 
him to go at that solemnity, both to vi- 
sit, and consult with the apostles and 
heads of that principal church, and to 
prevent the suspicions and prejudices 
the Jews might take at his absence from 
so great a festival. 

22 From Ephesus therefore he sailed 
directly, and landed at Csesarea in Ga- 
lilee; thence up to Jerusalem, v here 
having kept this passover, and conferred! 
some time with the apostles and chatfcln 
governors, went to Antioch in Syria. 

23 After some time spent among the 
Christians of which church, he passed 
through Galatia and Phrygia, all along 
as he went exhorting the Christian con_ 




A. D. 5G. verts to patience and constancy in their 

• profession. 

24, 25 About this time, there arrived 
at Ephesus a Jew named Apollos, that 
was one of John Baptist's disciples, a 
person of great eloquence and learning 
in the Jewish Scriptures, who knew as 
much of the Christian religion as could 
be known from John Baptist's doctrine, 
and the ends of his baptism, viz. the 
duty of repentance, upon a full belief 
and expectation, that the time of the 
Messiah was now come, to save and re- 
deem mankind, upon the terms of sin- 
cere obedience and reformation of life. 

26 Accordingly as soon as he was 
come thither, he preached this doctrine 
in the Jewish synagogue, with a mighty 
strength of argument and eloquence. 
Which noble endowments of his, were 
soon ripened into a full and perfect un- 
derstanding of the life and religion of 
Jesus Chri st, by the particular instruc- 
tions of Aquila and Priscilla. 

27 After which complete conversion 
to the Christian faith, having a desire 
to go and propagate it in the province 
of Achaia or Greece, the Ephesian 
church gave him letters of recommend- 
ation to the Christians there ; and he 
did very eminent service in those places, 
both in establishing and confirming such 
as did believe, and in converting others. 

28 Especially the Jews, in whose as- 
semblies he demonstrated with wonder- 
ful clearness and conviction, from the 
prophetical writings, that Jesus must 
be the true Messiah, the Saviour of the 

order, strengthening 
all the disciples. 

24 And a certain 
Jew named Apollos, 
born at Alexandria, 
an eloquent man, and 
mighty in the Scrip- 
tures, came to Ephe- 

25 This man was 
instructed in the way 
of the Lord, and be- 
ing fervent in the spi- 
rit, he spake and 
taught diligently the 
things of the Lord, 
knowing only the bap- 
tism of John. 

26 And he began 
to speak boldly in 
the synagogue: whom 
when Aquila and Pris- 
cilla had heard, they 
took him unto them, 
and expounded unto 
him the way of God 
more perfectly. 

27 And when he 
was disposed to pass 
into Achaia, the bre- 
thren wrote, exhort- 
ing the disciples to 
receive him : who, 
when he was come, 
helped them much 
which had believed 
through grace. 

28 For he mightily 
convinced the Jews, 
and that publicly, 
shewing by the Scrip- 
tures that Jesus was 





Paul returns to Ephesus. Baptizeth several of John Baptist's disciples, 
and confers the Holy Ghost on them. He preacheth in the Jewish 
synagogues; but is forced to leave them under their obstinacy. 
Preaches in the school of Tyrannus ; works special miracles. Of the 
Jews exorcists ; some of them converted, and burn their magical 
books. A tumult raised against Paul by Demetrius the shrine-maker. 
The town-clerk makes a speech, and appeaseth it. 

1 AND it came to 
pass, that while 
Apollos was at Co- 
rinth, Paul having 
passed through the 
upper coasts, came to 
Ephesus, and finding 
certain disciples, 

2 He said unto 
them, Have ye re- 
ceived the Holy Ghost 
since ye believed ? and 
they said unto him, 
We have not so much 
as heard whether there 
be any Holy Ghost *. 

3 And he said un- 
to them, Unto what 
then were ye baptiz- 
ed ? and they said, 
Unto John's baptism. 

1 T3EF0RE Apollos was returned A. D. 57 

-■-' from Achaia, (see chap, xviii. 27-) 

Paul was returned from Jerusalem, and 
coming by Phrygia and Galatia, (the 
upper coasts of Asia the less,) was got 
to Ephesus, as he had promised Aquila 
and Priscilla he would do. (chap, 
xviii. 21.) 

2 There he found twelve persons 
that had been disciples of John the 
Baptist, and who believed Jesus to be 
the true Messiah, but had very probably 
left Jerusalem before the day of Pente- 
cost, and living in some remote parts 
where the Gospel had not yet been 
preached, had never yet heard of the 
miraculous effusion of the Holy Ghost 
upon the Christian church ; as they 
told Paul, when he demanded whether 
any of them had received that blessing 
or no. 

3 At which answer, he asked them 
what baptism they had, and what the 
substance of their profession was ? They 
replied, That John's baptism and doc- 
trine was all they had yet attained to. 

* Ver. 2. We have not so much as heard, #c. Strange ! that 
disciples of John Baptist, and believers in Christ, should never 
have heard of the Holy Spirit ! But the words have a plain refer- 
ence to the miraculous gifts of the Holy Ghost. And the meaning 
is not, Whether there be any Holy Ghost at all ; but whether there 
be as yet given any spiritual gifts to believers in Christ. Compare 
John vii. 31). 

VOL. I. K 




A. D. 57. 4 Whereupon Paul gave them fully 

to understand, that the profession of 

John Baptist was only preparatory to 
the Christian religion, engaging men to 
faith in a Messiah, that was shortly to 
appear, and to such a reformation of 
life as would qualify them for the bless- 
ings he was to bring with him. But 
whereas they believed that Christ was 
now actually come, it was needful they 
should be baptized into his name, and 
so receive a title to the peculiar privi- 
leges of his religion: one of which was, 
an extraordinary endowment of the 
Holy Ghost, on several persons in every 
church, now in the first propagation of 
the Gospel. 

5, 6', 7 The men thus fully instructed, 
were accordingly baptized into the 
Christian religion; after which, Paul, 
by solemn imposition of hands, con- 
ferred upon the whole twelve the mi- 
raculous powers of speaking diverse 
languages, and of understanding the 
Scripture prophecies, to qualify them to 
propagate and preach the Gospel. 

8 Paul then went every sabbath for 
three months together, into the Jewish 
synagogues at Ephesus, endeavouring 
with the utmost arguments and persua- 
sions to convert them to the Christian 

4 Then said Paul, 
John verily baptized 
with the baptism of 
repentance, saying 
unto the people, that 
they should believe on 
him which should 
come after him, that 
is, on Christ Jesus. 

5 When they heard 
this, they were bap- 
tized in the name of 
the Lord Jesus *. 

6 And when Paul 
had laid his hands up- 
on them, the Holy 
Ghost came on them ; 
and they spake with 
tongues, and prophe- 

7 And all the men 
were about twelve. 

S And he went into 
the synagogue, and 
spake boldly for the 
space of three months, 
disputing, and per- 
suading the things 
concerning the king- 
dom of God. 

* Ver. 5. When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the 
Lord Jesus. Note, This verse is understood, by Drusius, Beza, and 
others, to be not the words of Luke the historian, but a continua- 
tion of the speech of St. Paul: thus, When they (the people in 
ver. 4.) heard this, (i. e. this saying of John Baptist, ibid.) they (by 
being baptized by John's baptism) were really baptized in the name 
and into the religion of the Lord Jesus. And so were these twelve 
here, and had no occasion to be re-baptized. 



9 But when divers 
were hardened, and 
believed not, but 
spake evil of that way 
before the multitude, 
he departed from 
them, and separated 
the disciples, disput- 
ing daily in the school 
of one Tyrannus. 

10 And this con- 
tinued by the space of 
two years j so that all 
they which dwelt in 
Asia, heard the word 
of the Lord Jesus, 
both .lews and 

1 1 And God wrought 
special miracles by the 
hands of Paul: 

12 So that from 
his body were brought 
unto the sick hand- 
kerchiefs or aprons, 
and the diseases de- 
parted from them, and 
the evil spirits went 
out of them. 

13 Then certain of 
the vagabond Jews, 
exorcists, took upon 
them to call over them 
which had evil spirits, 
the name of the Lord 
Jesus, saying, We ad- 
jure you by Jesus, 
whom Paul preacheth. 

14 And there were 
seven sons of one Sce- 

9 But finding many of them, against A. D. HT. 

all reason and evidence, so obstinate and 

malicious, as not only to reject this holy 
religion, but to rail at, and openly re- 
vile it; he left their synagogue, and 

drew the Christian converts from as- 
sembling any longer there, and for the 
future preached in the school of one 

10 And continued so to do for two 
years together, with so good success, 
that the Jews and proselytes of almost 
all the countries of the lesser or pro- 
consular Asia, that resorted to Ephesus, 
had the opportunity of being taught the 
Christian faith. 

11, 12 And to give all that were any 
thing well disposed to believe the truth, 
the utmost arguments of conviction, it 
pleased God to bestow on Paul a power 
of working very strange and uncommon 
miracles among them ; for he not only 
cured the diseased and possessed people, 
by speaking to them, and being present 
with them, but even by sending to them 
any linen cloth, or garment touched 
with his body, he at a distance restored 
the sick, and cast out evil spirits from 
their bodies. 

13 This wonderful power of Paul A. D. 58. 

being taken notice of, and admired by 

all sorts of people, some Jews that used 

to make a trade of strolling about, with 
pretences to cure possessed people by 
magical arts and conjurations, hoped 
that if they made use of the name of 
Jesus, as Paul did, they might work 
the same effect ; and so tried it upon 
several, commanding the devils in the 
name of* Jesus, whom Paul preached, 
to be gone. 

14 Particularly seven of these strollers, 
that were all the sons of one of the chief 

* Ver. 13. Name of Jesus. See note on chap. ii. 21. 




A. D. 58 priests, attempted it upon a possessed 

person, all at the same time, in hopes, 

that if they could accomplish their de- 
sign, they* might lessen Paul's credit 
among the people. 

15 But to shew the vanity of their 
attempt, the evil spirit that possessed 
the poor man, was constrained by the 
divine power to cry out, and acknow- 
ledge the superior and uncontrollable 
authority of Jesus, and of Paul, as act- 
ing by his power : but as for them, he 
told them they had no power over him. 
A. D. 59. 16 And to* deter them and others 

. from any further attempt of that kind, 

the devil threw the man upon them with 
such strength and violence, that he tore 
off their clothes, beat them out of the 
house, and bruised them very much. 

17 Which being done in so public a 
manner, caused all the Jews and prose- 
lytes of that place to entertain a very 
great reverence for the name and reli- 
gion of Jesus Christ. 

18, 19, 20 Nay, it had so good an 
effect for the advancement of the Chris- 
tian profession, that those converts that 
had formerly dealt in any of these magi- 
cal pranks, and diabolical arts, came to 
the apostles, and confessed, repented of, 
and forsook them ; a good number of 
them bringing their books, out of which 
they learned their conjuring words, 
spells, and charms, and burned them 
publicly ; which, if sold at the ordinary 
price, would have given fifty thousand 
pieces of silver *. 

va a Jew, and chief 
of the priests, which 
did so. 

15 And the evil 
spirit answered and 
said, Jesus I know, 
and Paul I know 5 but 
who are ye } 

16 And the man 
in whom the evil spi- 
rit wasjeapedonthem, 
and overcame them, 
and prevailed against 
them, so that they 
fled out of that house 
naked and wounded. 

17 And this was 
known to all the Jews 
and Greeks also d vvell- 
ing at Ephesus; and 
fear fell on them all, 
and the name of the 
Lord Jesus was mag- 

18 And many that 
believed came, and 
confessed, and shewed 
their deeds. 

19 Many also of 
them which used cu- 
rious arts, brought 
their books together, 
and burned them be- 
fore all men : and 
they counted the price 
of them, and found it 
fifty thousand pieces 
of silver. 

* Ver. 19. Fifty thousand pieces of silver. Note, If these silver 
pieces were shekels of the Hebrew valuation, i. e. of each shekel being 
equal to about three sh Mings English money; the whole sum will 
amount to about seven thousand Jive hundred pounds. 




20 So mightily 
grew the word of 
God, and prevailed. 

21 After these 
things were ended, 
Paul purposed in the 
Spirit, when he had 
passed through Mace- 
donia, and Aehaia, to 
go to Jerusalem, say- 
ing, After I have been 
there, I must also see 

22 So he sent into 
Macedonia two of 
them that ministered 
unto him, Timotheus, 
and Erastus ; but he 
himself stayed in Asia 
for a season. 

23 And the same 
time there arose no 
small stir about that 

24 For a certain 
man named Deme- 
trius, a silver-smith, 
which made silver 
shrines for Diana, 
brought no small gain 
unto the craftsmen ; 

25 Whom he called 
together with the 
workmen of like oc- 
cupation, and said, 
Sirs, ye know that by 
this craft we have our 
wealth : 

26* Moreover, ye 
see and hear, that not 
alone at Ephesus, but 
almost throughout all 
Asia, this Paul hath 
persuaded and turned 
away much people, 
saying, that they be 
no gods which are 
made with hands : 

27 So that not onlv 

A. D. 60. 

21 After this, Paul, by direction of 
the Holy Spirit, intended to go to Je- 
rusalem, and afterward to Rome, but 
designed first to make a visit to the 
several churches he had before planted 
in Macedonia and Aehaia, or Greece, 
(chap. xvii. and xviii.) 

22 And accordingly sent Timothy 
and Erastus (two of his constant at- 
tendants) into Macedonia beforehand, 
to give them notice of his intended visit, 
but stayed himself at Ephesus a while 
longer, (probably to fix and settle se- 
veral matters relating to the govern- 
ment of that church.) 

23 During which stay of his, there 
happened a violent tumult at Ephesus 
against him and his doctrine. 

24, 25 This riot was occasioned by 
one Demetrius, whose trade was to 
make little silver chapels, representing 
the form of a temple, with Diana's 
image in it ; by the sale of which, he 
got great riches, and maintained abun- 
dance of workmen under him. These 
he got all together, sending for all the 
masters of the same trade in town, and 
represented to them in the most plau- 
sible and affecting manner, 

26, 27 That this honourable and 
gainful employment of theirs was now 
threatened with decay and ruin ; but 
that which ought more deeply to affect 
them, their religion was in danger, their 
great goddess Diana, her magnificent 
temple, her worship, so truly pompous, 
and universally esteemed, were now 
growing into contempt ; and all this by 
the attempts of Paid, who has been 
k 3 




A. D. 60. preaching up a new religion throughout 
almost all the provinces, and has per- 
verted abundance into a persuasion, that 
Diana is no deity, and that her images 
have no divinity residing in them. 

28 The whole company of these arti- 
ficers, enraged at this discourse, and dis- 
tracted between superstition and in- 
terest, cried out against Paul, and ex- 
tolled the divinity of their goddess 

29 And Demetrius having contrived 
this tumult upon a day, in which they 
were to celebrate games in honour of 
that deity in the theatre, one part 
whereof was to expose notorious crimi- 
nals to the wild beasts for the people's 
diversion : they raised and incensed the 
rabble, who went in search of Paul, but 
not finding him, they took two of his 
Christian friends and companions, and 
dragged them into the theatre, with an 
intent to throw them to the wild beasts 

30, 31 Paul hearing what was likely 
to befal his two friends, would have 
gone into the theatre, to have pleaded 
and made a public defence for himself 
and them : but the Christian converts 
being very earnest with him, and some 
of the governors, or masters of those 
games, that had a respect for him, giving 
him a kindly notice not to expose him- 
self to the present fury of the people, he 
desisted from that design. 

32 In the mean time, the rabble in- 
creased to prodigious numbers, and fell 
into such a confused hurry and clamour, 
that abundance that bore a part in the 
noise, knew not what it was for. 

this our craft is in 
danger to he set at 
nought ; but also that 
the temple of the 
great goddess Diana 
should be despised, 
and her magnificence 
should be destroyed, 
whom all Asia and the 
world worshippeth. 

2S And when they 
heard these sayings, 
they were full of 
wrath, and cried out, 
saying, Great is Dia- 
na of the Ephesians ! 

29 And the whole 
city was filled with 
confusion : and hav- 
ing caught Gaius and 
Aristarchus, men of 
Macedonia, Paul's 
companions in travel, 
they rushed with one 
accord into the thea- 

30 And when Paul 
would have entered in 
unto the people, the 
disciples suffered him 

31 And certain of 
the chief of Asia, 
which were his 
friends, sent unto him, 
desiring him that he 
would not adventure 
himself into the the- 

32 Some therefore 
cried one thing, and 
some another ; for the 
assembly was confus- 
ed : and the more 
part knew not where- 
fore they were come 



33 And they drew 
Alexander out of the 
multitude, the Jews 
putting him forward. 
And Alexander beck- 
oned with the hand, 
and would have made 
his defence unto the 

34 But when they 
knew that he was a 
Jew, all with one 
voice, about the space 
of two hours, cried 
out, Great is Diana of 
the Ephesians ! 

35 And when the 
town clerk had ap- 
peased the people, he 
said, Ye men of Ephe- 
sus, what man is there 
thatknoweth not how 
that the city of the 
Ephesians is a wor- 
shipper of the great 
goddess Diana, and of 
the image which fell 
down from Jupiter ? 

36 Seeing then that 
these things cannot be 
spoken against, ye 
ought to be quiet, 
and to do nothing 

33 In this confusion, the infidel Jews A. D. 60. 

would have persuaded one Alexander 

(a Christian convert) to try to appease 

them, by offering something in behalf 
of his two friends and their religion ; 
by which they hoped to have exposed 
Alexander to the people's rage, because 
he was turned Christian. 

34 But though he was a considerable 
man, and would have tried to do some- 
thing toward it ; yet he no sooner de- 
sired silence, in order to be heard, but 
the people knowing him to have been 
a Jew, (and so an utter enemy to image- 
worship,) renewed their clamour; and 
to prevent his speaking, continued it for 
two hours together, crying out to the 
honour of Diana. 

35 At last the chief president of the 
games stilled and composed them so far, 
as to get time to make the following 
speech to them ; How absurd and weak 
is it (says he) to have such a violent com- 
motion among a people, who all agree in 
the same sacred belief, the same * esta- 
blished religion and worship. 

36 If Ephesus still remains the fa- 
vourite ivorshipper of Diana, adorns her 
temple, and is blest with her image that 
descended from heaven, ivhat need of such 
popular fury to defend that which nobody 
does or can deny, with any probability of 
prevailing against it f 

* Ver. 35, 3G, 37. Who knoweth not that the city of Ephesus, #c. 
Seeing these things cannot be spoken against, 8sc. Nor blasphemers of 
your goddess, fcc. It being certain, that the apostles did absolutely 
deny the divinity of all heathen deities, and the lawfulness of 
image worship ; it is well observed by P. a Limborch, in his late 
excellent Commentary upon this place, that the town clerk in 
these expressions intended not so much to speak strictly and truly, 
as plausibly and artificially, in order to soothe and appease a tumul- 
tuous assembly. 

k 4 




A. D. 

00. 37 Now you have in a tumultuous man- 
— ner brought these two men into the theatre, 
with an intent to throw them to the wild 
beasts, who yet have neither sacrilegiously 
robbed any temple, nor put any open 
affront upon your religion, nor done any 
action that can legally be punished in 
such a manner. 

38 If Demetrius, or any of the silver- 
smiths, have received any private injuries 
from them, or any other persons, it is by 
no means fit or lawful for them to disturb 
the public and sacred games with such 
matters, when there are constant court- 
days kept on purpose, and the proconsuls 
attending to hear and decide them. 

39 But if they have any religious con- 
troversies or disputes, those ought to be 
discussed and settled in a legal assembly 
for that purpose, and not to be prosecuted 
in this outrageous manner. 

40 And I must tell you freely, you 
have done enough already to render us all 
guilty of a riot, and obnoxious to the se- 
verity of the Roman laws; and upon 
complaint made to the proconsids, we 
should be able to give but a very indif- 
ferent account of such a noisy and tumul- 
tuous concourse. 

41 This discourse having awed the 
people into a more quiet temper, the 
president adjourned * the celebration of 
the games for that day, and persuaded 
all to return home, to prevent any far- 
ther disturbance. 

37 For ye have 
brought hither these 
men, which are nei- 
ther robbers of 
churches, nor yet 
blasphemers of your 

38 Wherefore if 
Demetrius, and the 
craftsmen which are 
with him, have a 
matter against any 
man, the law is open, 
and there are depu- 
ties : let them implead 
one another. 

39 But if ye en- 
quire any thing con- 
cerning other mat- 
ters, it shall be deter- 
mined in a lawful as- 

40 For we are in 
danger to be called in 
question for this day's 
uproar, there being 
no cause whereby we 
may give an account 
of this concourse. 

41 And when he 
had thus spoken, he 
dismissed the assem- 


* Ver. 41. So I understand the phrase, ansXvat iv)v gjuetamay, He 
dismissed the assembly. But having expressed the sense that may 
also otherwise agree to our translation, 1 leave it to the reader's 




Paul visits the churches of Macedonia. Goes to Troas and preaches 
there. Eutychus restored to life. Pauls speech to the Ephesian 
clergy at Miletus. He takes his solemn leave of them. 

1 AND after the 
" uproar was 
ceased, Paul called 
unto him the disci- 
ples, and embraced 
them, and departed 
for to go into Mace- 

2 And when he 
had gone over those 
parts, and had given 
them much exhorta- 
tion, he came into 

3 And there abode 
three months : and 
when the Jews laid 
wait for him, as he 
was about to sail into 
Syria, he purposed to 
return through Mace- 

4 And there ac- 
companied him into 
Asia, Sopater of Be- 
rcea ; and of theThes- 
salonians, Aristar- 
chus, and Secundus ; 
and Gaius of Derbe, 
and Timotheus ; and 
of Asia, Tychicus and 

5 These going be- 
fore, tarried for us at 

6 And we sailed 

1 ^JOON after the commotion at A. D. 60. 

^ Ephesus was over, Paul assem- 
bled the Christians of that place toge- 
ther, and having taken his leave of them, 
followed Timothy * and Erastus into 

2 And after having visited the several 
f churches of that province, and given 
them all needful directions for their dis- 
cipline and conduct, with all proper ex- 
hortations to Christian perseverance, 
came into Achaia or Greece. 

3 Where he continued three months, 
and would have gone from thence 
directly for Syria; but understanding 
the Jews had laid a plot against his life, 
at the place where he was to take ship- 
ping, he altered his course, and went 
back again round by Macedonia. 

4, 5 And being then to pass through 
the lesser Asia, there went along with 
X Sopater of Bercea, Aristarchus and 
Secundus of Thessalonica, Gaius of 
Derbe, Timothy, Tychicus, and Tro- 
phimus ; who all went before, and stayed 
for us at Troas. 

6 Taking ship therefore at Philippi 

* Ver. 1. See chap. xix. 22. 

f Viz. Philippi, Amphipolis, Apollonia, Thessalonica, and 

X See chap. xvi. 10. the note there. 




A. D. 60. after the passover was ended, we were 
* five days getting over to Troas, where 

we stayed a week. 

7, 8 The last of the seven days that 
we tarried there, was the first day of 
the Jewish week, appointed by the 
apostles to be the Christian sabbath, or 
Lord's day, (in memory of Christ's re- 
surrection.) And the Christians of 
Troas being then assembled for divine 
worship, and celebration of the holy 
sacrament, Paul preached to them, and 
continued his discourse until midnight, 
because he was to leave them next 

9 His sermon being thus very long, 
one of the young Christians that sat 
upon a window was overcome with 
sleep, and fell down upon the floor, and 
was taken up for dead. 

10 But Paul, both to prevent all dis- 
turbance of the sacred assembly, and at 
the same time to confirm and endear 
his doctrine to them, went down from 
his place, and told the people about 
him he was not dead, but should re- 
cover, and do well again ; and then, in 
the most compassionate manner, em- 
bracing the young man, and putting up 
his prayers for him, immediately cured 

1 1 Then returning up to his seat, went 
on, and finished his discourse, admin- 

away from Philippi, 
after the days of un- 
leavened bread, and 
came unto them to 
Troas in five days, 
where we abode seven 

7 And upon the 
first * day of the week, 
when the disciples 
came together to 
break bread, Paul 
preached unto them* 
ready to depart on 
the morrow, and con- 
tinued his speech un- 
til midnight. 

8 And there were 
many lights in the 
upper chamber, where 
they were gathered 

9 And there sat in 
a window a certain 
young man, named 
Eutychus, beingfallen 
into a deep sleep : and 
as Paul was long 
preaching, he sunk 
down with sleep, and 
fell down from the 
third loft, and was 
taken up dead. 

10 And Paul went 
down, and fell on 
him, and embracing 
him, said, Trouble not 
yourselves j for his life 
is in him. 

11 When he there- 
fore was come up a- 

* Ver. 7. Upon the first day of the week, rn \x\.cl twv aa££aV«y. Vid. 
Bohmer Dissertat. pag. 21, 22. 




gain, and had broken 
bread, and eaten, and 
talked a long while, 
even till break of day, 
so he departed. 

12 And they brought 
the young man alive, 
and were not a little 

13 And we went 
before to ship, and 
sailed unto Assos, 
there intending to 
take in Paul : for so 
had he appointed, 
minding himself to 
go on foot. 

14 And when he 
met with us at Assos, 
we took him in, and 
came to Mitylene. 

15 And we sailed 
thence, and came the 
next day over-against 
Chios ; and the next 
day we arrived at Sa- 
mos, and tarried at 
Trogyllium ; and the 
next day we came to 

16" For Paul had 
determined to sail by 
Ephesus, because he 
would not spend the 
time in Asia ; for he 
hasted, if it were pos- 
sible for him, to be 
at Jerusalem the day 
of Pentecost. 

17 And from Mi- 
letus he sent to Ephe- 
sus, and called the el- 
ders of the church. 

istered the Lord's supper, and conversed A. D. 60. 

with them till day-light, at which time 

he took leave of them. 

12 The young person Eutychus's 
miraculous recovery was a particular 
comfort to his friends, and had a ge- 
neral good influence to confirm the 
faith and piety of the whole assembly. 

13, 14 * We of Paul's company then 
shipped off, and went to Assos, (a coast 
town just by,) whither he himself walked 
on foot, and there we took him aboard, 
and sailed to Mitylene ; 

15 Thence along the iEgean sea to 
the isle Samos, touching a little at Tro- 
gyllium upon the continent-side, and 
next day to Miletus, about ten miles 
beyond Ephesus. 

16 For Paul would not call in at 
Ephesus, because he could make no 
stay there, hasting as much as ever he 
could to get to Jerusalem by the feast 
of Pentecost, intending both to cele- 
brate that festival, and take the oppor- 
tunity of distributing the charitable col- 
lections he had made in Macedonia and 
elsewhere, for the poor Christians of 

17 However, knowing he should 

never have f another opportunity oft See v «r. 
being personally present with them, he 15, 
appointed the clergy of the church of 

* See chap. xvi. 10. the note there. 




A. D. 60. Ephesus to meet him at Miletus, to 

whom he made the following Speech. 

18, 19 Wherein he represented to 
them his behaviour and conduct of him- 
self among them, as an apostle and 
ambassador of Jesus Christ, his con- 
descension and humility as their spi- 
ritual governor; and his courage, pa- 
tience, and charity, under all the malice 
of infidel people, and of the Jews in 

20, 21 Then as to his diligence and 
sincerity as their teacher, That he had 
neither concealed nor neglected any 
point of Christian doctrine, that was 
any way necessary or conducive to the 
eternal salvation of themselves, or the 
due instruction of their people ; shewing 
them that repentance and reformation 
of life, and that sincere profession of 
Christ's religion, which was absolutely 
required to save the Jew that was cir- 
cumcised, and sufficient to save the 
Gentile without circumcision. 

22, 23 I am now (says he) going for 
Jerusalem, being assured by several pre- 
* See chap, dictions * of inspired and prophetical 
xxi. 4, n. men j sna ]i there be apprehended, im- 
prisoned, and hardly treated ; but what 
the final issue of it may be, I know not. 

24 Only whatever it shall prove to 
be, I am very easy and contented, while 

IS And when they 
were come to him, 
he said unto them, 
Ye know, from the 
first day that I came 
into Asia, after what 
manner I have been 
with you at all sea- 

19 Serving the Lord 
with all humility of 
mind, and with many 
tears and temptations 
which befel me by 
the lying in wait of 
the Jews. 

20 And how I kept 
back nothing that was 
profitable unto you, 
but have shewed you, 
and have taught you 
publicly, and from 
house to house, 

21 Testifying both 
to the Jews, and also 
to the Greeks, repent- 
ance toward God, 
and faith toward our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

22 And now, be- 
hold, I go bound in 
the Spirit unto Jeru- 
salem, not knowing 
the things that shall 
befal me there : 

23 Save that the 
Holy Ghostwitnesseth 
in every city, saying, 
That bonds and af- 
flictions abide me f . 

24 But none of 
these things move 

f Ver. 23. The Holy Ghost witnesseth in every city ; i. e. YIvivpccTMol 
singularum ecclesiarum quae secundum civitates distributee sunt. 
Dodwell's Dissert. Cyp. iv. 




me, neither count I 
my life dear unto my- 
self, so that I might 
finish my course with 
joy, and the ministry 
which I have received 
of the Lord Jesus, to 
testify the gospel of 
the grace of God. 

25 And now, be- 
hold, 1 know that ye 
all among whom I 
have gone preaching 
the kingdom of God, 
shall see my face no 

26 Wherefore I 
take you to record 
this day, that I am 
pure from the blood 
of all men. 

27 For I have not 
shunned to declare 
unto you all the coun- 
sel of God. 

28 Take heed there- 
fore unto yourselves, 
and to all the flock, 
over the which the 
Holy Ghost hath made 
you overseers, to feed 
the church of God, 
which he hath pur- 
chased with his own 

29 For I know 
this, that after my de- 
parting, shall grievous 

I am discharging the most honourable A. D, 60. 
and high office of preaching the gracious . 

terms of Christ's religion for the good 
of mankind ; and death itself will only 
put a happy and joyful period to those 
labours, the success whereof is the main 
end for which 1 desire to live. 

25 But whether I escape these dan- 
gers at Jerusalem or no, this I know, 
that I shall have no opportunity of see- 
ing you in these parts any more. 

26, 27 And now I take leave of you, 
with this solemn protestation and appeal 
to you, That whatever loss there shall 
hereafter be of any soul of you or your 
people, I ani clear of the guilt of it, by 
having so carefully and sincerely taught 
you all those religious duties by which 
it may be avoided. 

28 Wherefore let my example and 
doctrine, and a sense of the great charge 
and dignity of your ministerial function, 
excite you to the utmost diligence, in 
prudently governing, and carefully in- 
structing all degrees of people com- 
mitted to your charge; remembering 
it was the Holy Ghost, by whose di- 
rection and inspiration you were chosen 
and qualified for this most noble office ; 
that it is God's * church you govern, and 
have the care of those whom Christ so 
loved, as to redeem them by his own 

29, 30 I am the more earnest in 
pressing this special care upon you, as 
foreseeing what discouragements and 

* Ver. 28. To feed the church of God. The best copies read it, rov 
Kvf*w>, therchurch of the Lord. See Dr. Mills. It is very indifferent 
which way it be read ; for Christ, who purchased the church with 
his own blood, is both Lord and God. 




A. D. 60. dangers there will be upon you, from 
the persecution of cruel and savage un- 
believers; nay, and from many false 
and factious teachers among yourselves, 
that will pervert and seduce men from 
the truth, to make themselves the heads 
of a party, and gainers by a division. 

31 Be therefore upon your guard, 
and forget not with what a passionate 
concern I have often forewarned you of 
these mischiefs, from my very first 
preaching and presence among you. 

32 Which that you may effectually 
do, I heartily recommend you to the di- 
vine care, providence, and protecti-on, 
and to all the blessings and promises of 
the gospel, which, with your own sin- 
cere endeavour, will not fail to keep you 
steady and complete in all branches of 
your duty, and bring you to the eternal 
reward of all true believers. 

S3, 34* One thing more you must re- 
member to be my witnesses in ; that if 
any of these false and heretical teachers 
I warned you against should suggest, 
that I your apostle had any secular and 
worldly designs in preaching the Gospel, 
thereby the better to draw any from the 
faith, by diminishing my esteem and 
credit among you; you put a stop to 
such a malicious insinuation, by declar- 
ing, that I maintained myself and my 
friends, by working at my own trade. 

35 For you well know what an ex- 
ample I have shewn you, of endeavour- 
ing to remove this objection, by my 
own bodily labour and industry, how 
much I encouraged you to that admi- 
rable piece of charity, of supplying the 
wants of the sick and needy by our own 
pains, often repeating to you that ex- 
pression of Christ, It is happier for a 
man to give the least charity ; than to re- 
ceive the greatest. 

wolves enterin among 
you, not sparing the 

30 Also of your 
own selves shall men 
arise, speaking per- 
verse things, to draw 
away disciples after 

31 Therefore watch, 
and remember, that 
by th<f space of three 
years I ceased not to 
warn every one night 
and day with tears. 

32 And now, bre- 
thren, I commend you 
to God, and to the 
word of his grace, 
which is able to build 
you up, and to give 
you an inheritance a- 
mong all them which 
are sanctified. 

33 I have coveted 
no man's silver, or 
gold, or apparel. 

34 Yea, ye your- 
selves know, that 
these hands have mi- 
nistered unto my ne- 
cessities, and to them 
that were with me. 

35 I have shewed 
you all things, how 
that so labouring ye 
ought to support the 
weak ; and to remem- 
ber the words of the 
Lord Jesus, how he 
said, It is more blessed 
to give than to receive. 



36 And when he 
had thus spoken, he 
kneeled down, and 
prayed with them all. 

37 And they all 
wept sore, and fell on 
Paul's neck, and kissed 
him ; 

38 Sorrowing most 
of all for the words 
which he spake, that 
they should see his face 
no more. And they 
accompanied him unto 
the ship. 

36*, 37, 38 Paul, having concluded A. D. CO. 

his discourse, kneeled down, and offered : 

his solemn prayers for a good effect of 
it upon them ; they in the mean while 
expressing all the marks of love and 
concern at parting from him, without 
hopes of seeing him again. And they 
went with him to see him take ship. 


Paul's arrival at Tyre. Predictions of his great danger in going to 
Jerusalem. Yet he determines to go thither. Agabus's prediction 
at Ccesarea. Paul arrives at Jerusalem. The advice given hin\ by 
James, and the other apostles, relating to his conduct toward the 
Jews, and Jewish Christians. He follows it. He goes into the tem- 
ple. The Asian Jtws raise a tumult upon him. The Roman captain 
orders him into the castle, and gives him leave to speak for himself 
upon the castle staiis. 

i AND it came 
to pass, that 
after we were gotten 
from them, and had 
launched, we came 
with a straight course 
unto Coos, and the 
day following unto 
Rhodes, and from 
thence unto Patara. 

2 And finding a 
ship sailing over unto 
Phoenicia, we went a- 
board, and set forth. 

3 Now when we 
had discovered Cy- 
prus, we left it on the 
left hand, and sailed 
into Syria, and landed 
at Tyre : for there the 
ship was to unlade her 

1, % 


-*- choly 


this melan- 
in a nner from the 
clergy of Ephesus at Miletus, we sailed 
directly past the isles of Coos and 
Rhodes, and so to Patara, where hap- 
pening of a vessel bound to Tyre in Ca- 
naan, or Syrophcenicia, we went aboard 
her, and leaving Cyprus to the left 5 
went straight, and landed there. 




A. D. 60. 4 We stayed a week with the Chris- 

_tian converts of that place, some of 

which, by the spirit of prophecy, de- 
clared to Paul, (as several others had 
* Chap. xx. done before *,) that if he went to Jeru- 
22,23. salem, he would run a great hazard of 
his life, and therefore would have dis- 
suaded him from it. 

5, 6 Notwithstanding which, Paul 
knowing he had a just and necessary 
occasion to go thither, (and being not 
forbidden to do it by any express reve- 
lation,) pursued his intention; and so 
we parted with them, after we had put 
up our solemn prayers together by the 
ship side. 

7, 8, 9 From Tyre we came to Pto- 
lemais, and having paid a visit to the 
Christians there, went next day to Cae- 
sarea in Galilee, and lodged at the house 
of Philip the deacon, * whose four 
daughters keeping themselves in a state 
of virginity, for their higher advance- 
ment in piety and devotion, were en- 
dowed with the spirit of prophecy, i. e. 
either of understanding the scriptures 
to a great degree, or else of foretelling 
things to come. 

10, 11 During our stay there, (which 

4 And finding dis- 
ci pies ^ we tarried there 
seven days : who said 
to Paul through the 
spirit, that he should 
not go up to Jerusa- 

5 And when we had 
accomplished those 
days, we departed, 
and went our way, 
and they all brought 
us on our way, with 
wives and children, 
till we were out of the 
city : and we kneeled 
down on the shore, 
and prayed. 

6 And when we had 
taken our leave one 
with another, we took 
ship, and they return- 
ed home again. 

7 And when we 
had finished our course 
from Tyre, we came 
to Ptolemais, and sa- 
luted the brethren, 
and abode with them 
one day. 

8 And the next 
day we that were of 
Paul's company de- 
parted, and came unto 
Caesarea, and we en- 
tered into the house 
of Philip the evange- 
list, (which was one 
of the seven,) and a- 
bode with him. 

9 And the same 
man had four daugh- 
ters, virgins, which 
did prophesy. 

10 And as we tar- 

* See chap. vi. 



ried there many days, 
there came down from 
Judea a certain pro- 
phet, named Agabus. 

11 And when he 
was come unto us, he 
took Paul's girdle, and 
bound his own hands 
and feet, and said, 
Thus saith the Holy 
Ghost, So shall the 
Jews at Jerusalem 
bind the man that 
owneth this girdle, and 
shall deliver him into 
the hands of the Gen- 

12 And when we 
heard these things, 
both we, and they of 
that place, besought 
him not to go up to 

13 Then Paul an- 
swered, What mean 
ye to weep, and to 
break mine heart? for 
I am ready not to be 
bound only, but also 
to die at Jerusalem 
for the name of the 
Lord Jesus. 

14 And when he 
would not be persuad- 
ed, we ceased, saying, 
The will of the Lord 
be done. 

15 And after those 
days we took up our 
carriages, and went 
up to Jerusalem. 

16 There went with 
us also certain of the 

was pretty long,) there came Agabus A. I). 60 

to us, who took up Paul's * girdle, 

binding first his own hands, and then 
his feet with it ; and told us, that as 
certainly as he had bound himself, the 
Jews would bind Paul at Jerusalem, 
and deliver him to the Roman officer, 
if he pursued his journey thither. 

12 Upon which both we of his com- 
pany, and the Christians of Ceesarea, 
begged of him not to thrust himself 
into a certain and unavoidable danger. 

13 But Paul expostulated with us, 
why we should thus endeavour to 
fright and discourage him from doing 
what his apostolical duty obliged him 
to, upon a fear of danger, which he 
knew he must undergo some time or 
other, and was always ready to suffer 
persecution and death itself for the ad- 
vancement of the Gospel, and the reli- 
gion of Jesus Christ. 

14 Upon which we ceased our im- 
portunities, and referred all to the good 
will and pleasure of divine Providence. 

15, 16 Soon after this, we made 
ready to travel to Jerusalem, several of 
the Christians of Csesarea going with 
us, and conducted us to the house of 
one Mnason, that had long been a pro- 
fessor of the Christian faith, with whom 
we were to take lodgings. 

* See the like prophetical actions and representations in .Ter. 
xiii. 4, &c. and xxvii. 2, &c. 

VOL. i. l 



CHAPr xxr. 

A. D. 60. 



17, 18 The Christians of Jerusalem 
entertained us with great courtesy and 
expressions of satisfaction at our arrival, 
and the next day Paul carried us along 
with him to James the Bishop of Jeru- 
salem, who, upon notice of our coming, 
had got his presbyters and clergy about 
him to receive us. 

If) To whom Paul gave a particular 
account of the success of his ministry 
in this his last travel through Asia and 
Greece, especially among the Gentile 

90 Which relation that pious bishop, 
and the clergy assembled with him, re- 
ceived with all religious joy and thanks- 
giving to God ; and then recommended 
some prudential considerations to Paul, 
with respect to the Jewish converts of 
Jerusalem, that were now increased to 
vast numbers, and all still full of zeal 
for the observation of the Jewish law, 
insisting upon the sacrifices and cere- 
monies of it, as absolutely necessary to 
every one that had been born and 
brought up in that religion, though he 
did embrace the Christian faith. 

21 Now (said they) here has been a 
set of infidel Jews from those parts of 
the lesser * Asia, where you have been 
preaching, who have reported among 
these Jewish converts, that you have 
persuaded the Jews there to renounce 
the Mosaical law, and absolutely leave 
ofT all the rites and ceremonies of it; 
which they account the same thing as 
to apostatize from God. 

°/2 And what must be the natural 
conseijuence of such a prepossession 

disciples of Csesarea, 
and brought with them 
one Mnason of Cy- 
prus, an old disciple, 
with whom we should 

17 And when we 
were come to Jerusa- 
lem, the brethren re- 
ceived us gladly. 

18 And the day fol- 
lowing, Paul went in 
with us unto James, 
and all the elders were 

19 And when he 
had saluted them, he 
declared particularly 
what things God had 
wrought among the 
Gentiles by his mi- 

20 And when they 
heard it, they glori- 
fied the Lord, and said 
unto him, Thou seest, 
brother, how many 
thousands of Jews 
there are which be- 
lieve, and they are all 
zealous of the law* 

21 And they are 
informed of thee, that 
thou teachest all the 
Jews which are a- 
mong; the Gentiles to 
forsake Moses, say- 
ing, That they ought 
not to circumcise their 
children, neither to 
walk after the cus- 

22 What is it there- 
fore ? the multitude 




must needs come to- 
gether : for they will 
hear that thou art 

23 Do therefore 
this that we say to 
thee : We have four 
men which have a vow 
on them ; 

24 Them take, and 
purify thyself with 
them,and beatcharges 
with them, that they 
may shave their heads : 
and all may know, that 
those things whereof 
they were informed 
concerning thee, are 
nothing, but that thou 
thyself also walkest 
orderly, and keepest 
the law. 

25 As touching the 
Gentiles which be- 
lieve, we have written 
and concluded, that 
they observe no such 
thing, save only that 
they keep themselves 
from things offered to 
idols, and from blood, 
and from strangled, 
and from fornication. 

26 Then Paul took 
the men ; and the next 
day purifying himself 
with them, entered 
into the temple, to 
signify the accom- 
plishment of the days 
of purification, until 
that an offering should 
be offered for every 
one of them. 

27 And when the 
seven days were al- 

and false prejudice against you, but A. D. 60. 

that if you take no previous methods to 

undeceive them, they will rise against 
you in a tumultuous manner, as soon as 
ever they hear of your arrival ? 

23, 2;i To prevent which, be advised 
by us to join with four of our Christian 
converts that are under a vow of Naza- 
ritism, which is to expire within seven 
days. Make you the like religious vow 
for so many days, provide the sacrifices 
required by the law to be offered at the 
time of its expiration ; and being shaved 
all together, you may, by compliance in 
an innocent and indifferent thing, give 
a public demonstration you have not 
absolutely thrown off the Jewish law 
yourself, and so could never advise 
others to do it. 

25 As to the Gentile converts (viz. 
such as had been proselyted before to 
the Jewish religion) that never were 
circumcised, nor under an obligation to 
these observances, the decree we made 
when you were here before (ch. xv.) has 
made these Jewish Christians pretty 
easy, and willing they should be ex- 
empted from them : but as to you, they 
never will be satisfied without some 
public token of your respect to the Mo- 
saical law. 

26 Paul readily complied with their 
advice ; and accordingly going next day 
into the temple with the four men, de- 
clared himself to the priest to be under 
a religious vow for the seven days, and 
his intention to perform the sacrifices 
with them according to the law. (See 
Numb, vi.) 

27 But before the seven days were 
quite expired, some of the infidel Jews 

l 2 




A. D. 60. of Asia that had seen him * there, and 

spread this false report of him at Jeru- 

* See ch. salem, finding him in the temple, ga- 
xs. 19, 31. thered the rabble together, and appre- 
hended him, 

28 Crying out to every body to come 
and help them to secure a wicked fel- 
low, that had been all over their coun- 
try preaching against the law, the tem- 
ple, and its worship ; and that had 
brought heathen people along with 
him, even into the inner court, to the 
great dishonour and profanation of 
that sacred place. 

29 Now they had some days before 
seen Paul in company with Trophimus, 
a Gentile convert of Ephesus; and from 
thence maliciously and falsely reported, 
that he brought him into the temple 
along with him. 

30 At this outcry, all the people ran 
at him, and dragged him out of the 
temple, the keepers shutting the doors 
upon them, to prevent any further dis- 
turbance there. 

31, 32 As they were beating Paul, 
with an intent to kill him, the Roman 
captain that guarded the temple came 
with a band of soldiers, and prevented 
their design. 

33 Who, supposing he had com- 
mitted some notorious crime, ordered 
him first to be chained to two sol- 

most ended, the Jews 
which were of Asia, 
when they saw him 
in the temple, stirred 
up all the people, and 
laid hands on him, 

28 Crying out, Men 
of Israel, help : this 
is the man that teachr 
eth all men every 
where against the peo- 
ple, and the law, and 
this place : and far- 
ther, brought Greeks 
also into the temple, 
and hath polluted this 
holy place. 

29 (For they had 
seen before with him 
in the city, Trophi- 
mus an Ephesian, 
whom they supposed 
that Paul had brought 
into the temple.) 

30 And all the 
city was moved, and 
the people ran toge- 
ther: and they took 
Paul, and drew him 
out of the temple : 
and forthwith the 
doors were shut. 

31 And as they 
went about to kill 
him, tidings came 
unto the chief captain 
of the band, that all 
Jerusalem was in an 

32 Who imme- 
diately took soldiers, 
and centurions, and 
ran down unto them : 
and when they saw 
the chief captain and 
the soldiers, they left 
beating of Paul. 

33 Then the chief 
captain came near, and 
took him, and com- 



raanded him to be 
bound with two chains, 
and demanded who he 
was, and what he had 

34 And some cry- 
ed one thing, some 
another, among the 
multitude : and when 
he could not know 
the certainty for the 
tumult, he command- 
ed him to be carried 
into the castle. 

35 And when he 
came upon the stairs, 
so it was that he was 
borne of the soldiers, 
for the violence of 
the people. 

36 For the multi- 
tude of the people 
followed after, crying, 
Away with him. 

S7 And as Paul 
was to be led into the 
castle, he said unto the 
chief captain, May I 
speak unto thee ? who 
said, Canst thou speak 
Greek ? 

38 Art not thou 
that Egyptian, which 
before these days 
madest an uproar, and 
leddest out into the 
wilderness four thou- 
sand men that were 
murderers ? 

39 But Paul said, 
I am a man which am 
a Jew of Tarsus, a ci- 

diers * to secure him, and then demanded A. D. 60. 

of the people about him, who he was, 

and what he had done to incense them 
at such a rate. 

34- But the rude multitude giving a 
confused and different account of him, 
the captain sent him into the castle, till 
he could get better information. 

35, 36 The soldiers were forced to 
carry him upon their shoulders, to keep 
the people from him, who came after 
them, crying out, That he ought to be 

37 As ihey were going up the castle 
stairs, Paul asked the Roman captain, 
if he might take the liberty to speak to 
him in his own behalf? (addressing 
himself to him in the Greek language.) 

38 The officer told him, he did not 
expect to hear such a sort of person as 
he seemed to be speak that language ; 
for by the riot he had made, he took 
him to be the Egyptian false prophet, 
that a year or two ago had raised a se- 
dition in Judea, and was routed by 
Felix, but made his f escape, and was 
now taken again in the like attempt. 

39 Paul assured him he was no 
Egyptian, but a Jew, a native of Tarsus, 
one of the chief cities of Cilicia, a city 

* See chap. xii. 6, 7. 
f Josephus, lib. xx. cap. vi. 
vol. iii. book ii. chap. 8. 

Lardner's Credibil. Gosp. Hist, 






60. of considerable figure, and endowed 

with Roman privileges; upon which 

considerations, he hoped he would grant 
him the favour of speaking in his own 
behalf to the people, to whom he had 
been falsely and maliciously accused. 

40 Upon this, the captain gave him 
free leave ; and standing upon the 
stairs, he demanded silence, which, out 
of respect to the Roman officer, was 
soon made ; and then he made his de- 
fence in the Syriac language; which 
being the language then used by the 
natives of Jerusalem, was called the 
Hebrew tongue *. 

ty in Cilicia, a citizen 
of no mean city : and 
I beseech thee, suffer 
me to speak unto the 

40 And when he 
had given him li- 
cence, Paul stood on 
the stairs, and beckon- 
ed with the hand un- 
to the people : and 
when there was made 
a great silence, he 
spake unto them in 
the Hebrew tongue, 


Paul's speech to the Jews, concerning his conversion to Christianity. 
The Jews cry out against him in a tumultuous manner. The Roman 
captain orders him to he examined by scourging ; but, finding he teas 
a Roman freeman, he dares not execute it. He refers his case to the 
Jewish council. 


+ See ch. 
xxi. 40. 

1 ~\7"E Jews my brethren, and all 
■*• among you that are doctors of 
the law, hear now how unjustly I have 
been accused, and the good reasons I 
have for turning from a zealous Jew, to 
be an assertor of the Christian faith. 

2 (When the people found that he 
spoke the language of the town f, and 
so was not a stranger, but a right He- 
brew Jew, they listened the more pa- 
tiently to what he said.) 

3 Whereas then (said he) I have 
been falsely represented to you as a 
foreigner, and an absolute enemy to, 
and an apostate from, your law, it is 
very well known that I am an Hebrew 
Jew; and though born at Tarsus in 

1 ]%¥ EN, brethren, 
and fathers, 
hear ye my defence, 
which I make now 
unto you. 

9, (And when they 
heard that he spake in 
the Hebrew tongue to 
them, they kept the 
more silence, and he 

3 1 am verily a 
man which am a Jew, 
born in Tarsus, a city 
in Cilicia, yet brought 
up in this city, at the 
feet of Gamaliel, and 
taught according to 

* See the note on chap. i. 19./ind in chap. x. 2. 



the perfect manner of 
the law of the fathers, 
and was zealous to- 
wards God, as ye all 
are this day. 

4 And I persecuted 
this way unto the 
death, binding and de- 
livering into prisons 
both men and women. 

5 As also the high 
priest doth bear me 
witness, and all the 
estate of the elders ; 
from whom also I re- 
ceived letters unto the 
brethren, and went to 
Damascus, to bring 
them which were 
there, bound unto 
Jerusalem, to be pu- 

6 And it came to 
pass, that as I made 
my journey, and was 
come nigh unto Da- 
mascus about noon, 
suddenly there shone 
from heaven a great 
light round about me. 

7 And I fell unto 
the ground, and heard 
a voice saying unto 
me, Saul, Saul, why 
persecutest thou me ? 

Cilicia, yet I was educated in this very A. D. 61 

city under * Gamaliel, that eminent 

Pharisee, and great doctor of the law, 
instructed in the principles of that rigid 
and severe sect ; and as great a zealot 
for the Jewish law as any of you can 
pretend to be. 

4 And as for this profession of the 
Christian religion, I was so far from 
being ignorantly or hastily drawn into 
it by any inclination of my own, that 
with an uncommon aversion, I abhorred 
and persecuted, apprehended and impri- 
soned all that did so, as blasphemers 
against the sacred law of Moses. 

" 5 Of all which, your very high priest 
and his whole council can be my wit- 
nesses, whose chief instrument I was in 
that persecution, and to whom I ap- 
plied myself for a commission to the 
presidents of the synagogues of Damas- 
cus, to seize upon all Christians there, 
and send them to Jerusalem to be tried 
and punished as such prolliners of our 
religion, (chap. vi. 13.) 

6 And under this immoderate zeal 
had I continued, in all likelihood, to 
this day ; but that God was pleased to 
convince me of the error of it, by a 
glorious manifestation of himself, and 
his divine will to me, as I was going to 
execute the bloody commission. 

7 The light that then shined round us 
was so bright and amazing, that out of 
reverence and astonishment at so true 
an appearance of the divine Majesty, 
we all f fell prostrate upon the earth ; 

* Ver. 3. Brought up at the feet of Gamaliel. An expression 
taken from the form of the Jewish schools, the seats and benches 
whereof were so contrived, that the scholars always sat under- 
neath the desk of the rabbi or doctor. 

f See chap. ix. with which compare this whole oration, and the 
paraphrase, as also chap. xxvi. 





A. D. 61. when a voice directed to me said, Said, 
Saul, why perseeutest thou me ? 

8 To which I replied, If this be indeed 
the voice and appearance of the true 
God, tell me, I beseech thee, how I can 
be said to be a persecutor of hirn, for 
whose divine law I am thus eminently 
zealous ? He answered, It is the' voice 
of Jesus of Nazareth, the Son of God, 
the true Messiah, and that I was a per- 
secutor of his holy and true religion. 

9 My fellow-travellers did not hear 
the distinct words directed to me, but 
heard the dreadful thunder, and saw 
the miraculous light, and so are suf- 
ficient witnesses that it was a divine 
manifestation, as well as I. 

10 Thus miraculously convinced of 
my error, I begged to know what I 
should do to atone and obtain pardon 
for it ; and was commanded by the 
voice to go into Damascus, and wait 
for further orders from heaven. 

11 This light was also in. so particu- 
lar a manner glorious and bright to my 
eyes, that I became blind, and was 
forced to be led by my companions into 
the town, and remained so for three 
days ; 

12, 13 At the end of which, there 
came to me, by Christ's direction, one 
Ananias, an eminent Jewish proselyte, 
that was turned Christian; who, salut- 
ing me by the name of Brother Chris- 
tian, did, in the name of Jesus, imme- 
diately restore me to my perfect sight. 

14, 15 Telling me, that God was 
graciously pleased in so miraculous a 

8 And I answer- 
ed, Who art thou, 
Lord ? And he said 
unto me, I am Jesus 
of Nazareth, whom 
thou perseeutest. 

9 And they that 
were with me saw 
indeed the light, and 
were afraid ; but they 
heard not the voice 
of him that spake to 

10 And I said, 
What shall I do, Lord? 
And the Lord said un- 
to me, Arise, and go 
into Damascus, and 
there it shall be told 
thee of all things 
which are appointed 
for thee to do. 

11 And when I 
could not see for the 
glory of that light, 
being led by the hand 
of them that were 
with me, I came into 

12 And one Ana- 
nias, a devout man 
according to the law, 
having a good report 
of all the Jews that 
dwelt there, 

13 Came unto me, 
and stood, and said 
unto me, Brother 
Saul, receive thy 
sight. And the same 
hour I looked up upon 

14 And he said, 
The God of our fa- 



thers hath chosen 
thee, that thou should - 
est know his will, and 
see that Just One, and 
shouldest hear the 
voice of his mouth. 

15 For thou shalt 
be his witness unto 
all men of what thou 
hast seen and heard. 

16 And now why 
tarriest thou ? Arise, 
and be baptized : and 
wash away thy sins, 
calling on the name of 
the Lord. 

17 And it came to 
pass, that when I was 
come again to Jeru- 
salem, even while I 
prayed in the temple, 
I was in a trance ; 

18 And saw him 
saying unto me, Make 
haste, and get thee 
quickly out of Jeru- 
salem : for they will 
not receive thy testi- 
mony concerning me. 

19 And I said, 
Lord, they know that 
1 imprisoned, and beat 
in every synagogue 
them that believed on 
thee : 

$0 And when the 
blood of thy martyr 
Stephen was shed, I 
also was standing by, 
and consenting unto 
his death, and kept 
the raiment of them 
that slew him. 

manner to manifest * his Son Jesus A. D. 

Christ to me, and thus to convert me, 

in order to make me a special witness 
of the truth of his religion, and a 
preacher of his doctrine. 

16 And, knowing that I had, by sin- 
cere fasting and prayer, testified my re- 
pentance, he baptized me into the pro- 
fession of Christ's religion, and at the 
same time qualified me for his minister 
and apostle, by the gifts of the Holy 
Ghost f. 

17 After this my conversion, I came 
to Jerusalem, and in devout prayer, one 
day in the temple, I fell into an ecstasy, 
or a divine trance ; 

18 Wherein I clearly saw Jesus 
Christ, and heard him command me 
to make haste out of Jerusalem, and 
not then attempt to preach his Gospel 
to any of the Jews there, for that they 
would give no manner of credit to me, 
bat persecute and destroy me. 

19, 20 To which expression of his, 
methought I pleaded and argued thus : 
That whereas those Jews knew full well 
what a zealous and bitter adversary I 
had been against his religion ; how I 
begun to join in the first act of persecu- 
tion upon Stephen, and carried it on in 
so many instances afterward ; they could 
not but be convinced it must be upon 
some certain and irresistible grounds 
of persuasion, that I should thus preach 
up the faith I once destroyed, and con- 

* Ver. 14. And see the Just One, and hear the voice of his mouth. 
See the note on chap. ix. 7. 

t See chap. ix. 17- 




A. D. 61. sequently would hearken to me before 

— any other Christian apostle. 

21 He told me, the Jewish prejudices 
were too deep, and their malice too 
incurable, to be wrought upon even by 
this argument, and therefore bade me 
say no more, but retire for a time into 
some distant * parts, and convert what 
I could of the Gentile part of the world 
to his religion. 

22, 23 Thus far the people heard 
him with some tolerable patience ; but 
as soon as ever he mentioned his orders 
to preach the kingdom of the Messiah to 
the Gentiles, they flew into the utmost 
rage and clamour against him, as a 
fellow that ought immediately to be 
taken off for a blasphemer; stripping 
themselves, and flinging dust about, as 
ready to stone him forthwith. 

24 Upon which the Roman captain, 
concluding he must have been guilty 
of some notorious crime, bade the sol- 
diers carry him up into the castle, and 
examine him by a severe whipping, to 
make him confess what it was. 

25 As the soldiers were tying him, 
in order to his scourging, Paul de- 
manded of the centurion, or under- 
officer, whether his captain could an- 
swer it, to whip a Roman freeman, and 
especially before he was legally tried 
and convicted of any crime ? 

26 At which question, the centurion 
went and gave the captain the caution. 

21 And he said 
unto me, Depart : for 
I will send thee far 
hence, unto the Gen- 

22 And they gave 
him audience unto 
this word, and then 
lift up their voices, 
and said, Away with 
such a fellow from the 
earth : for it is not fit 
that he should live. 

23 And as they 
cried out, and cast 
off their clothes, and 
threw dust into the 

24 The chief cap- 
tain commanded him 
to be brought into the 
castle, and bade that 
he should be examin- 
ed by scourging; that 
hemight know where- 
fore they cried so a- 
gainst him. 

25 And as they 
bound him with 
thongs, Paul said un- 
to the centurion that 
stood by, Is it lawful 
for you to scourge a 
man that is a Roman, 
and uncondemned ? 

26 When the cen- 
turion heard that, he 
went and told the 
chief captain, saying, 
Take heed what thou 

* Ver. 21. Far hence unto the Gentiles, i. e. into Arabia. See 
chap. ix. 23. and the note there. 



doest : for this man is 
a Roman. 

27 Then the chief 
captain came and said 
unto him, Tell me, 
art thou a Roman ? 
He said, Yea. 

28 And the chief 
captain answered, 
With a great sum ob- 
tained I this freedom. 
And Paul said, But I 
was free born. 

29 Then straight- 
way they departed 
from him which 
should have examin- 
ed him: and the 
chief captain also was 
afraid, after he knew 
that he was a Roman, 
and because he had 
bound him. 

30 On the morrow, 
because he would have 
known the certainty 
wherefore he was ac- 
cused of the .lews, he 
loosed him from his 
bands, and command- 
ed the chief priests 
and all their council 
to appear, and brought 
Paul down, and set 
him before them. 

A.D. 61 

27 Who thereupon, well knowing 
how severe the Roman laws were 
against any indignities offered to a free 
citizen, came and asked Paul if he were 
free? And he told him, Yes, he was. 

28 Roman freedom (says the captain) 
is so honourable a privilege, that rather 
than be without it, I paid a good sum 
to purchase it. Paul replied, If yours 
be so honourable, mine is more so, for 
I am free-born. 

29 Upon this the captain ordered 
him to be untied, and was under some 
apprehension, even for binding a free- 
man before his condemnation. 

30 But however, to do justice to the 
Jews, and to himself, he summoned the 
high priest and his council next day, 
and brought Paul free and unfettered 
into court, to be fairly tried and ex- 





Paid'* behaviour in the Jewish council. The high-priest orders him to 
be struck in open court, for pleading his own innocency. Pauls ex- 
pression to him thereupon. His prudence with respect to the several 
sects of the Jews in court, whereby he divided them, and escaped their 
fury. Is carried into the castle again. A plot to murder him con- 
trived by the Sadducees. It is discovered, and the Roman captain 
carries him off to Ccesarea, to be tried before Felix. 

A. D. 61. 

1 \S soon as Paul was brought into 
-^*- court, where he knew he should 
meet with no fair and just dealing in 
his defence of himself as a Christian, 
his first business was to f look round 
the council, and people assembled, to 
find of what sects and parties of Jews 
they consisted, how they were divided, 
and on which side the majority lay, that 
so he might adapt his discourse with 
the greater prudence and advantage for 
his own safety. And then began with 
a solemn protestation, that though he 
was now clamoured against as a loose 
and irreligious person, he had yet all 
his life long lived and acted in a strict 
conformity to the dictates of his con- 
science, and the principles of his persua- 
sion X' While a Jew, he had a mighty 
zeal for the law, (though in some in- 
stances it was a misguided zeal ;) and 
now as a Christian, acted up to those 


that he thought 

obliged him to that profession. 

2 The high priest, incensed at him 
for such a bold justification of himself, 
called out to the people that stood next 

1 AND Paul earr 
nestly behold- 
ing the council, said, 
Men and brethren, I 
have lived in all good 
conscience before God 
until this day *. 

2 And the high 
priest Ananias com- 
manded them that 

* Ver. 1. Until this day. See note on Rom. v. 13. 

f Ver. 1. 'Ats/htxs ^e o TSavXos tw avn\lx, Paul earnestly beholding 
the council. The meaning of which words is accounted for in the 
paraphrase ; but I tind it taken due notice of by no commentators. 

X Ver. 1. / have lived in all good conscience before God unto this 
day. See 1 Tim. i. 13, 15. which are reconcileable to these words 
by our paraphrase. 



stood by him, to 
smite him on the 

3 Then said Paul 
unto him, God shall 
smite thee, thou whit- 
ed wall : for sittest 
thou to judge me af- 
ter the * law, and 
commandest me to be 
smitten contrary to 
the law ? 

4 And they that 
stood by said, Revil- 
est thou God's high 
priest ? 

5 Then said Paul 
I wist not, brethren ||, 
that he was the high 
priest : for it is writ- 
ten, Thou shalt not 
speak evil of the ruler 
of thy people. 

him at the bar, to strike him upon the A. D. 61 
face for it ; who accordingly did so. 

3 At this illegal and unwarrantable 
abuse, Paul was so moved, (and at the 
same time actuated by a divine and pro- 
phetical impulse,) as to tell the high 
priest he was a hypocrite f, for pretend- 
ing to fill the bench as a righteous and 
impartial judge, and yet commanding a 
man to be punished, before ever he had 
heard a word of the merits of his cause; 
and assured him withal, that Providence 
I would meet with him in as open and 
exemplary a manner for so doing. 

4 The people that stood by asked 
him, in a reproaching manner, how he 
dare affront God's high priest ? 

5 To which Paul replied, that he was 
very sensible of the great duty of reve- 
rence to magistrates, (according to that 
of Exod. xxii. 28.) and though he had 
gone beyond the bounds of it, calling 
the high priest hypocrite, yet it was 
owing purely to the provocation re- 
ceived by his illegal and injurious pro- 
ceeding : and therefore that he was as 
justifiable || in reviling him, as he could 
be in punishing a man before he was 
fairly heard, and duly convicted of any 
crime §. 

* Ver. 3. To judge me after the law, viz. the law of Levit. xix. 
15. Thou shalt do no unrighteousness in judgment, but in righteousness 
shalt thou judge thy neighbour. 

f Ver. 3. Thou whited wall. See Matt, xxiii. 27. 

X Ver. 3. God shall smite thee, thou whited wall. Which predic- 
tion of St. Paul's was fulfilled at the destruction of Jerusalem, in 
which he perished, according to St. Chrysostom and Dr. Light- 
foot ; but Josephus says, he was then deposed from his priesthood, 
and carried to Rome in chains. Antiq. 1. xx. cap. 5. 

|| Ver. 5. ovk fW on W\v a,%x^v$> I wis t not that it was the high 
priest. The critics being very much divided in their sentiments, 
whether St. Paul spake this as an excuse, or a justification of him- 
self, I have paraphrased it so as to express both. 

§ See chap. xxii. 25. John vii. 51. 



chap. xxur. 

D. 61. 6 To proceed then, Paul, finding the 

council and people in court consisted 

chiefly of Pharisees and Sadducees, that 
were violent opposers of one another in 
several religious opinions, and that the 
only method he had to escape their 
unanimous vote in his condemnation, 
would be to insist upon some particular 
point in his defence, that would divide 
and set them at difference among them- 
selves, declared himself to have been 
born and bred up a Pharisee, with 
whom he still agreed in that main and 
special article of religion, viz. A future 
state of rewards and punishments after 
death; and this is the great point (says 
he) for which 1 am now so much 
blackened and persecuted, and come to 
be tried for. 

7 The design took ; for the two 
parties, both in council and people, be- 
gan immediately to divide and dispute, 
the one for, the other against, this 

8 For this declaration of Paul was 
full against the Sadducees, who believed 
nothing at all of a future state, or the 
immortality of the soul, or that any 
angel or spirit existed separately with- 
out a body ; but it pleased the Phari- 
sees, who as zealously maintained the 
contrary opinions. 

9 So that out of pure opposition to 
the Sadducees, the Pharisaical doctors 
declared strenuously for Paul, (as to this 
point,) and that the account he had 

6 But when Paul 
perceived that the one 
part were Sadducees, 
and the other Phari- 
sees, he cried out in 
the council, Men and 
hrethren, I am a Pha- 
risee, tne son of a 
Pharisee : of the hope 
* and resurrection of 
the dead I am called 
in question. 

7 And when he 
had so said, there a- 
rose a dissension be- 
tween the Pharisees 
and the Sadducees : 
and the multitude 
was divided. 

8 For the Saddu- 
cees say that there is 
no resurrection, nei- 
ther angel nor spirit : 
hut the Pharisees con- 
fess both. 

9 And there arose a 
great cry : and the 
scribes that were of 
the Pharisees' part a- 

* Ver. 6. Of the hope and resurrection of the dead. Or, vttpl iXr*&>$ 
ku.1 uvaraa-suq rex^wv, of the hope (not and, but) even of the resurrec- 
tion of the dead, supposing the word xai to be in the original copy. 
For the Syriac, Arabic, and iEthiop. versions omit it. It is the 
hope, the great hope, viz. of a resurrection ; the hope towards God. 
chap. xxiv. 15, 21. the hope of the fathers, xxvi. 6. the hope of 
Israel,, xitviii. 20. 



rose, and strove, say- 
ing, We find no evil 
in this man : but if a 
spirit or an angel hath 
spoken to him, let us 
not fight against God. 

10 And when there 
arose a great dissen- 
sion, the chief cap- 
tain, fearing lest Paul 
should have been pull- 
ed in pieces of them, 
commanded the sol- 
diers to go down, and 
to take him by force 
from among them, 
and to bring him into 
the castle. 

11 And the night 
following, the Lord 
stood by him, and said, 
Be of good cheer, 
Paul : for as thou hast 
testified of me in Je- 
rusalem, so must thou 
bear witness also at 

12 And when it 
was day, certain of 
the Jews banded to- 
gether, and bound 
themselves under a 
curse, saying, That 
they would neither 
eat nor drink till they 
had killed Paul. 

13 And they were 
more than forty that 
had made this con- 

14 And they came 
to the chief priests and 
elders, and said, We 
have bound ourselves 
under a great curse, 
that we will eat no- 

given of a divine appearance made to A. D. 61. 

him (chap xxii.) might be possible , 

enough, and had no manner of blas- 
phemy in it ; for it might be made by 
an angel, or some other spirit by God's 
appointment ; so that in a rash and in- 
considerate manner to reject and disbe- 
lieve such divine messages, was the 
same thing as to distrust God himself. 

10 The Sadducees cried out so vio- 
lently against this, and the dispute grew 
to such a head, that the captain ordered 
his guards to go to the bar, and take 
Paul, and carry him into the castle 
again, for fear he should have been 
killed in the rout. 

11 The night following Jesus ap- 
peared to Paul in a vision, to comfort 
and encourage him under his sufferings, 
assuring him he should escape all the 
malice of the Jews, and have an oppor- 
tunity of preaching his religion at Rome 
itself, as he had done at Jerusalem. (See 
chap. xxv. 11.) 

12, 13 The Sadducees were so ex- 
asperated to hear Paul defended in 
open court, and to find he was likely to 
come off clear, that next day a company 
of their party took a mutual oath, nei- 
ther to eat nor drink till they had mur- 
dered him. 

14 And the better to accomplish this 
wicked effect of their zeal and rage, 
they came to those members of the 
council that were of their own party, 
(and who they knew would gladly join 
with them,) and acquainted them with 
the design. 




A.D. 61. 

15 Which was laid thus, viz. That 
those doctors of the council should go 
to the Roman captain, and acquaint 
him, they had got some fresh evidences 
against Paul to prove him a seditious 
person ; and if they could get the cap- 
tain to bring him into court next day 
to a second hearing, these ruffians were 
to assault and murder him as he came 
from the castle to the bar. 

16 But before the design could be 
brought to bear, it got wind, and a 
nephew of Paul's having some intima- 
tion of it, went into the castle, and told 
him of it. 

17, 18 Upon which advice, Paul sent 
for the centurion that guarded him, 
and begged of him to carry his nephew 
to the captain, for he had something of 
considerable moment to impart to him; 
who accordingly did so. 

19 The captain took the young man 
into a private room, and demanded his 
business ; 

20, 21 Who discovered the whole 
particulars of theSadducees' plot against 
Paul, and earnestly requested him not 
to bring him any more into court ; and 
so defeated their mutinous design. 

thing until we have 
slain Paul. 

15 Now therefore 
ye with the council 
signify to the chief 
captain, that he bring 
him down unto you 
to morrow, as though 
ye would enquire 
something more per- 
fectly concerning him: 
and we, or ever he 
come near, are ready 
to kill him. 

16 And when Paul's 
sister's son heard of 
their lying in wait, 
he went and entered 
into the castle, and 
told Paul. 

17 Then Paul call- 
ed one of the centu- 
rions unto him, and 
said, Bring this young 
man unto the chief 
captain : for he hath 
a certain thing to tell 

18 So he took him, 
and brought him to 
the chief captain, and 
said, Paul the prisoner 
called me unto him, 
and prayed me to 
bring this young man 
unto thee, who hath 
something to say unto 

19 Then the chief 
captain took him by 
the hand, and went 
with him aside pri- 
vately, and asked him, 
What is it that thou 
hast to tell me ? 

20 And lie said, 
The Jews have agreed 
to desire thee, that 
thou wouldest bring 
down Paul to morrow 



into the council, as 
though they would 
enquire somewhat of 
him more perfectly : 

21 But do not thou 
yield unto them : for 
there lie in wait for 
him of them more 
than forty men, which 
have bound them- 
selves with an oath, 
that they will neither 
eat nor drink till they 
have killed him : and 
now they are ready, 
looking for a promise 
from thee. 

22 So the chief 
captain then let the 
young man depart, 
and charged him, See 
thou tell no man that 
thou hast shewed these 
things to me. 

23 And he called 
unto him two centu- 
rions, saying, Make 
ready two hundred 
soldiers to go to Cse- 
sarea, and horsemen 
threescore and ten, and 
spearmen two hun- 
dred, at the third hour 
of the night. 

24 And provide 
them beasts, that they 
may set Paul on, and 
bring him safe unto 
Felix the governor. 

25 And he wrote 
a letter after this man- 
ner : 

26 Claudius Ly- 
sias, unto the most 
excellent governor Fe- 
lix, sendetti greeting. 

27 This man was 
taken of the Jews, 
and should have been 
killed of them : then 

VOL, I. 

A. D. 61. 

22 The captain assured him lie would 
take care of it, but charged the young 
man to keep the secret, for fear he should 
by any tumultuous assaults be hindered 
from preventing it. 

23, 24 He then forthwith ordered 
two centurions to provide a guard of 
four hundred and seventy horse and 
foot to go to Caesarea that night at nine 
o'clock, and conduct Paul thither, and 
deliver him to Felix the Roman pro- 
curator of Judea, who kept his residence 
in that town. 

25, 26, 27 And by them sent Felix 
a letter, in which he acquaints him, 
That the person he had sent him under 
this guard, was lately taken up by the 
Jews in the temple, and had like to 
have been murdered in a most riotous 
manner, if he had not rescued him by 
a band of his soldiers, which he thought 
himself bound to do, both to keep the 
peace, and to preserve the life of a 
Roman free man, as Paul was. 





A. D. 61. 

2$, 29 But that however to do the 
Jews justice, he had given the man a 
trial before their high-priest and coun- 
cil, where he could find nothing but 
quarrels and disputes between the mem- 
bers of it, about niceties of their own 
religion, and not any thing proved 
against the prisoner that amounted to 
death, or so much as imprisonment, 
by the Roman law, nor indeed by their 
own neither. 

30 Next day (saith he) I found some 
of the Sadducees had laid a plot to 
murder him, which I have taken care 
to prevent, by sending him to you, and 
referring the matter to your hearing ; 
and have accordingly given notice to 
the council to appear at your court, if 
they intended any further prosecution 
against him. Farewell. 

31, 32 The guard took Paul, and 
carried him that night seventeen miles, 
as far as Antipatris : and next morning 
the foot left him to be conveyed by the 
horse to Caesarea, and returned back to 
their officer at Jerusalem. 

33 The horse arrived, and delivered 
their letter with their prisoner to Felix. 

34 As soon as Felix had read it, he 
asked Paul what province he belonged 
to, and where his freedom lay ; he told 
him at Tarsus in Cilicia. 

came I with an army, 
and rescued him, hav- 
ing* understood that 
he was a Roman. 

28 And when I 
would have known 
the cause wherefore 
they accused him, I 
brought him forth in- 
to their council : 

29 Whom I per- 
ceived to be accused 
of questions of their 
law, but to have no- 
thinglaid to his charge 
worthy of death or of 

30 And when it 
was told me, how 
that the Jews laid 
wait for the man, I 
sent straightway to 
thee, and gave com- 
mandment to his ac- 
cusers also, to say be- 
fore thee what they 
had against him. Fare- 

31 Then the sol- 
diers, as it was com- 
manded them, took 
Paul, and brought him 
by night to Antipatris. 

32 On the morrow 
they left the horsemen 
to go with him, and 
returned to the castle. 

33 Who when they 
came to Caesarea, and 
delivered the epistle 
to the governor, pre- 
sented Paul also be- 
fore him. 

34 And when the 
governor had read the 
letter, he asked of 
what province he 
was. And when he 
understood that he 
was of Cilicia 3 



35 I will hear thee, 35 Well, says Felix, the high-priest A. D. 6* 

said he, when thine and council shall be summoned hither, 

accusers are also come. an( i vou & i la n have a fair trial before 

And he commanded me> And j n the mean time ordered 

him to be kept in him to be kept in one of the apartments 

Herod's judgment- 

of Herod's court of justice. 


Paul's trial at Ccesarea before Felix and the Jewish council. Tertullus 
opens the cause against him. Paul's defence of himself . Felix defers 
the sentence, and treats Paul with humanity in his confinement. 
Felix sends for Paul, to give him a private account of his religion. 
Paul's discourse to Felix. The effect it had on him. He leaves 
Paul in confinement to his successor Festus. 

1 AND after five 
days, Ananias 
the high-priest de- 
scended with the eld- 
ers, and with a cer- 
tain orator named Ter- 
tullus, who informed 
the governor against 

2 And when he 
was called forth, Ter- 
tullus began to accuse 
him, saying, Seeing 
that by thee we en- 
joy great quietness, 
and that very worthy 
* deeds are done un- 
to this nation by thy 

3 We accept it al- 
ways, and in all 
places, most noble 
Felix, with all thank- 

1 "E^IVE days after Paul w T as put into 
■*■ Felix's custody at Caesarea, (chap. 
xiii. 33, &c.) the high-priest, and se- 
veral of the great council, (especially 
such of the Sadducces as were most in- 
veterate against him,) came thither to 
attend upon Felix, and to follow their 
prosecution; bringing with them one 
Tertullus, a Roman lawyer, and a fa- 
mous pleader, to manage for them. 

2, 3 The court being set, and Paul 
called to the bar, Tertullus began to 
open the charge with a flattering ora- 
tion in praise of Felix, the happiness 
they enjoyed under his management 
and government, with all expressions 
of gratitude for it ; the better to bias 
him in favour of his cause : wherein he 
acted a most fulsome and hypocritical 
part ; for though Felix had done .some 
good actions in the beginning of his go- 
vernment, he had been ever since a noto- 
rious oppressor of the people, and was 
accused for it to Nero f. 

* Ver. 2. Very worthy deeds, or K<zrop%pxTuv ympiwv, regulations 
made. See Joseph us as quoted below, 
t See Josephus, lib. xx. cap. vii. 





A. D. 61. 4, 5, 6 Then he came to his charge, 

which consisted of three parts ; in the 

first whereof Paul was accused as a per- 
son of seditious practices among the 
Jews in several parts of the Roman em- 
pire; next, that he made himself the 
head of a dangerous and heretical sect 
of religion, called Nazarenes, (i. e. 
Christians,) from one Jesus of Naza- 
reth ; and then, that he had profaned 
the temple, by bringing heathens un- 
circumcised into it, contrary to the law. 

7, 8 For which crimes he was ap- 
prehended, in order to be tried and 
punished by the Jewish law ; but Lysias 
the captain of the temple rescued him 
by his soldiery, and sent him hither to 
be tried before you. The truth of all 
which particulars (says he) the high- 
priest and council can now testify. 

9 Then the high-priest, and the doc- 
tors that were of his side, declared it all 
to be true. 

10 His accusation being thus laid, 
Felix bade Paul make his defence. 
Which he be^an with an acknowlede:- 
ment, That it was some advantage and 
encouragement to him to plead his 
cause before a judge, that had been se- 
veral years the procurator of Judea, 
and was thereby acquainted with so 
much of the Jewish religion, and the 
turbulent disposition of that people, as 
would soon discover to him their ma- 

4 Notwithstanding, 
that I be not further 
tedious unto thee, I 
pray thee, that thou 
wouldest hear us of 
thy clemency a few 

5 For we have 
found this man a pes- 
tilent fellow, and a 
mover of sedition a- 
mong all the Jews 
throughout the world, 
and a ringleader of 
the sect of the Naza- 
renes : 

6* Who also hath 
gone about to profane 
the temple : whom 
we took, and would 
have judged according 
to our law. 

7 But the chief 
captain Lysias came 
upon us, and with 
great violence took 
him away out of our 

8 Commanding his 
accusers to come unto 
thee, by examining of 
whom, thyself mayest 
take knowledge of all 
these things whereof 
we accuse him. 

9 And the Jews al- 
so assented, saying, 
that these things were 

10 Then Paul, af- 
ter that the governor 
had beckoned unto 
him to speak, answer- 
ed, Forasmuch as I 
know that thou hast 
been of many years a 
judge unto this nation, 
I do the more cheer- 
fully answer for my- 
self : 



lice, and his innocency in the present A. D. 61 


1 1 Because that 
thou mayest under- 
stand, that there are 
yet but twelve days 
since I went up to Je- 
rusalem for to wor- 

12 And they nei- 
ther found me in the 
temple disputing with 
any man, neither 
raising up the people, 
neither in the syna- 
gogues, nor in the 
city : 

13 Neither can 
they prove the things 
whereof they now ac- 
cuse me. 

14 But this I con- 
fess unto thee, that 
after the way which 
they call heresy, so 
worship 1 the God of 
my fathers, believing 
all things which are 
written in the law and 
the prophets ; 

15 And have hope 
toward God, which 
they themselves also 
allow, that there shall 
be a resurrection of 
the dead, both of the 
just and unjust. 

16 And herein do 
I exercise myself, to 
have always a consci- 
ence void of offence 
toward God and to- 
ward men. 

17 Now after ma- 
ny years, I came to 

11, 12, 13 Now as to the first part 
of my accusation, viz, that of sedition ; 
be pleased to know, that about twelve 
days since I came up to Jerusalem to 
keep the solemn feast of Pentecost ap- 
pointed by the law ; from which time 
to this, I preached no doctrine in pub- 
lic, either in the temple, synagogue, or 
any other open place in the city ; much 
less had I any concourse of people about 
me for any seditious purpose ; but at- 
tended the stated worship of the tem- 
ple, in a religious and peaceable man- 
ner. Nay, while they throw this gene- 
ral charge of sedition upon me, they 
have not one particular to instance in, 
that can amount to the least proof of it. 

14 As to the charge of being the 
head of a heresy ; I freely own myself 
to be a Christian; which religion is no 
other than that which the God of Israel 
intended to establish under the great 
Messiah; nor has Jesus, its divine Au- 
thor, nor any of its doctrines or wor- 
ship, any thing in them, but what an- 
swers to the ultimate end, and the very 
design of their own law, and is agreeable 
to all the predictions of their prophets. 

15 Now the main drift of this Chris- 
tian profession, lies in this one article. 
That there shall be a future life after this, 
a state of rewards and punishments to 
every man according to his behaviour in 
this world; which is a doctrine that all 
Jews, except the Sadducees, allow and 
approve of. 

16 And upon this persuasion it is, 
that I and all good Christians, make it 
our utmost and constant care to live in 
strict piety to God, and in an exact 
justice and charity towards all mankind. 

17 Then as to profaning of the tem- 
ple, it is directly contrary to the design 

m 3 




A. D. 61. for which I came to Jerusalem, and bring alms to my na- 
—false in fact, from my behaviour in that ti° n .> ail[ l offerings. 

place of sacred worship. The design I 

came upon, was to bring contributions 

to some of my poor countrymen, from 

their brethren in other parts *, where 1 

had been collecting them; and at the 

same time, to keep the feast of Pente- 
cost, and perform a vow f I had made, 

by proper offerings to Gjd, agreeable 

to the law. 

18 During $ which my attendance 
in the temple, with only four men with 
me, that were under the same vow of 
the Nazarite as I was, all of us perform- 
ing our sacred duty in a legal and peace- 
able manner, some Asian Jews raised 
the multitude upon me, as a profaner 
of the temple. Which malicious and 
rash suggestion, they grounded merely 
upon seeing me one day walk along the 
streets with one Trophimus, a Gentile 
Christian of Ephesus; and when they 
came into court, could give no manner 
of evidence for the truth of it. 

19 And if they could now have done 
it, they would not have failed of being 

20 As for the high-priest and the 
Jews that are present, they can be no 
witnesses, for they saw nothing of me 
until I was brought before them into 
court. And if I was convicted there of 
any one crime or misbehaviour, let them 

21 All that I said then in court was, 
that out of pure party cause I was ac- 
cused by the Sadducees, for owning a 

future state, and a future judgment : in 

IS Whereupon;}: cer- 
ium Jews from Asia 
found me purified in 
the temple, neither 
with multitude, nor 
with tumult : 

19 Who ought to 
have been here before 
thee, and object, if 
they had ought against 

20 Or else let these 
same here say, if they 
have found any evil 
doing in me, while I 
stood before the coun- 


21 Except it be for 
this one voice, that I 
cried standing among 
them, Touching the 

* Viz. in Macedonia and Achaia, chap, xviii. 18. 
+ Chap. xxi. 

X Ver. 18. Whereupon, hole, — during which time, or things. Luke 
xii. 1. 



resurrection of the 
dead, 1 am called in 
question by you this 

22 And when Fe- 
lix heard these things, 
having more perfect 
knowledge of that 
way, he deferred 
them, and said, When 
Lysias the chief cap- 
tain shall come down, 
I will know the ut- 
termost of your mat- 

23 And he com- 
manded a centurion 
to keep Paul, and to 
let him have liberty, 
and that he should 
forbid none of his 
acquaintance to mi- 
nister or come unto 

24 And after cer- 
tain days, when Fe- 
lix came with his wife 
Drusilla, which was 
a Jewess, he sent for 
Paul, and heard him 
concerning the faith 
of Christ. 

25 And as he rea- 
soned of righteous- 
ness, temperance, and 
judgment to come, 
Felix trembled, and 
answered, Go thy 
way for this time ; 
when I have a conve- 

which the Pharisees pleaded for, and A. D. 61. 

acquitted me; and that whole honour- 

able sect may be as well arraigned for 
that doctrine as I am. 

22 Felix plainly perceived their evi- 
dence amounted to nothing, and so 
would pass no sentence in the case, but 
told the high-priest he would make it 
his business to inform himself about 
Paul's religion, * and see what princi- 
ples it had that tended to the disturb- 
ance of the government; and as to the 
riot, he would hear what Lysias, who 
was then present, said ; and then would 
give judgment accordingly. 

23 In the mean time, though he still 
kept Paul under confinement by a 
guard upon him, yet he ordered all his 
friends and acquaintance should have 
free access to him. 

24 Some time after, Felix and his 
wife Drusilla, sent for Paul to their 
lodgings, to give them an account * of 
his Christian religion. 

25 In which conference, Paul took 
the opportunity to enlarge most pathe- 
tically upon those particular points that 
most nearly touched upon the vices they 
were both notoriously guilty of, viz. jus- 
tice, chastity, and the future judgment 
upon the breach of such duties. Now 

* Ver. 22. 'Axpi&Vspov tftus t<* wspl twj 6£ou, Hav'mg more perfect 
knowledge of that waij. These words may either signify, That Fe- 
lix very well knew so much of the Christian religion, as to see it 
had nothing in its principles against the peace of the government ; 
or else, That he would endeavour to inform himself in it. The 
latter sense seems best to agree with the 24th verse. 

M 4 




A. D. 61. Felix had been a most unjust oppressor* 

of the people in his government; Dru- 

silla had left her own f husband to 
marry him; the nature and terrible 
consequences of both which crimes, the 
apostle laid so home to their consci- 
ences, as put Felix into a dreadful ap- 
prehension, so that he interrupted his 
discourse, and bade him retire, until he 
should have leisure to hear him again. 

26 Yet this discourse, and the pre- 
sent effects of it, soon cooled, and wore 
off the mind of that wicked man ; for 
though he sent for Paul again, and se- 
veral times gave him a hearing, his only 
design was to get him to offer a bribe 
for his deliverance. 

27 And with this base intent he kept 
him a prisoner for above two years, 
when the emperor removed him from 
his government, and put Festus into his 
place ; and though Felix knew in his 
conscience Paul was innocent, and ought 
to have been discharged ; yet, now at 
his going out of office, to please the Jews, 
for fear they should inform against him 
for his many exorbitant practices, left 
him a prisoner to his successor Festus. 

nient season, 1 
call for thee. 


26 He hoped al- 
so that money should 
have been given him 
of Paul, that he might 
loose him : wherefore 
he sent for him the 
oftener, and com- 
muned with him. 

27 But after two 
years, Porcius Festus 
came into Felix's 
room : and Felix, 
willing to shew the 
Jews a pleasure, left 
Paul bound. 

* Tacitus's Hist. lib. v. 

f Josephus's Hist. lib. xx. 




Paul tried again at Caesarea before Festus. He insists on his Roman 
freedom, and refuseth to be tried in the Jewish council at Jerusalem. 
It is determined he must go to Rome to be tried, as he had appealed 
to Ccesar. His hearing before Agrippa. 

I iyOW when Fes- 
tus was come 
into the province, 
after three days he 
ascended from Caesarea 
to Jerusalem. 

2 Then the high- 
priest and the chief 
of the Jews informed 
him against Paul, and 
besought him, 

3 And desired fa- 
vour against him, that 
he would send for him 
to Jerusalem, laying 
wait in the way to kill 

4 But Festus an- 
swered, that Paul 
should be kept at 
Caesarea, and that he 
himself would depart 
shortly thither. 

5 Let them there- 
fore, said he, which 
among you are able, 
go down with me, and 
accuse this man, if 
there be any wicked- 
ness in him. 

6 And when he 
had tarried among 
them more than ten 
days, he went down 
unto Caesarea, and 
the next day sitting 
in the judgment-seat, 
commanded Paul to 
be brought. 

7 And when he 
was come, the Jews 

1 IS soon as Festus was settled in A. D. 61. 

-^ his procuratorsbip at Caesarea in 

Felix's room, he went up to Jerusalem, 
the capital city of his province, to pay 
a visit to the high-priest and Jewish 

% 3 Who with that part of them 
that were Sadducees, entertained the 
new governor with an account of Paul 
and his pretended crimes, earnestly re- 
questing he would send for him from 
Csesarea, and try him before their coun- 
cil at Jerusalem. But their secret in- 
tent was to way-lay him, and murder 
him upon the road. 

4, 5 Festus told them, he knew no 
reason w T hy he should not be tried 
where he was ; and as he himself was 
shortly going thither, where he kept his 
residence, if they would send their evi- 
dences along with him, they should 
have him tried. 

6 About ten days after, he went ac- 
cordingly ; and next morning after his 
arrival, brought Paul into court. 

7 The deputies of the high priest and 
council fell again to their old charge, 
but could prove nothing of it. 




A. D. 61. 

8 Paul making the same defence he 
had done before to Felix. (Chap, xxiv.) 

!) And though Festus saw plainly 
they could make nothing out against 
him, yet, upon fresh importunities, 
willing to gratify the Jewish court, con- 
sented to have him carried to Jerusalem; 
but as by the Roman laws he could not 
do it without his own consent, asked 
Paul if he were willing to go thither ? 

10 But Paul knew the implacable 
malice of his Jewish adversaries too well, 
to consent to such a proposal; and 
therefore told Festus, that as a Roman 
citizen, he was subject to be tried by no 
laws but those of the empire ; and so in- 
sisted upon the privilege. Nay, (says 
he,) if I were liable to their court, yet, 
as you yourself must own, they have 
proved me guilty of no breach of the 
Jewish law, and therefore there can be 
no occasion for my going thither. 

11 If I have committed any capital 
crime against the imperial laws, I am 
free to submit to the punishment of it: 
but if not, it would be a barbarous and 
illegal thing in you to throw me into 
the hands of a court that are my pro- 
fessed enemies; and to prevent your 
design, / appeal to tlie emperor. 

12 Upon which, Festus consulted 
with the Roman officers about him ; and 

which came down 
from Jerusalem stood 
round about, and laid 
many and grievous 
complaints against 
Paul, which they 
could not prove. 

8 While he an- 
swered for himself, 
Neither against the 
law of the Jews, nei- 
ther against the tem- 
ple, nor yet against 
Caesar, have I offended 
any thing at all. 

9 But Festus, will- 
ing to do the Jews 
a pleasure, answered 
Paul, and said, Wilt 
thou go up to Jeru- 
salem, and there be 
judged of these things 
before me } 

10 Then said Paul, 
I stand at Caesar's 
judgment-seat, where 
I ought to be judged : 
to the Jews have I 
done no wrong, as 
thou very well know- 

11 For if I be an 
offender, or have com-* 
mitted any thing wor- 
thy of death, I refuse 
not to die : but if 
there be none of these 
things whereof these 
accuse me, no man 
may deliver me unto 
them : I appeal unto 

12 Then Festus, 
when he had confer- 



red with the council, 
answered, Hast thou 
appealed unto Caesar ? 
unto Ceesar shalt thou 

13 And after cer- 
tain days, king Agrip- 
pa and Bernice came 
unto Csesarea to salute 

14 And when they 
had been there many 
days, Festus declared 
Paul's cause unto the 
king, saying, There is 
a certain man left in 
bonds by Felix : 

1 5 About whom, 
when I was at Jerusa- 
lem, the chief priests 
and the elders of the 
Jews informed me, 
desiring to have judg- 
ment against him. 

16 To whom I an- 
swered, It is not the 
manner of the Ro- 
mans to deliver any 
man to die, before 
that he which is ac- 
cused have the accu- 
sers face to face, and 
have license to answer 
for himself concern- 
ing the crime laid 
against him. 

17 Therefore when 
they were come hi- 
ther, without any de- 
lay, on the morrow 
1 sat on the judgment- 
seat, and I command- 
ed the man to be 
brought forth. 

18 Against whom 
when the accusers 
stood up, they brought 

knowing that this appeal to the emperor, A. D. 61. 

had put a stop to all further proceedings 

against Paul, in either his or the Jewish 
court, told him his privilege could not 
be denied him, and so he must go to 
Rome, and be judged by the emperor 

13, 14 Some time after this, Agrippa 
the tetrarch of Galilee, and his sister 
Bernice, came to pay Festus a compli- 
ment upon his accession to his govern- 
ment; and he acquainted him with Paul's 

15, 16 How the Jewish council would 
have persuaded him to have passed sen- 
tence of death upon the man without a 
fair trial, and merely upon their verbal 
accusation. But that he could not an- 
swer to do so by the Roman laws. 

17j 18, 19 And that he had given 
him a trial, expecting they could have 
proved some notorious crime or other 
against him ; but found upon the hear- 
ing, it was nothing but a quarrel about 
some points of the Jewish religion; and 
particularly about a matter of fact, whe- 
ther one Jesus, whom the Jews had 
crucified, were risen from the dead 
again, as Paul affirmed he was. 




A.D. 61. 

20 Now I thought these disputes 
did no way concern me, nor the peace 
of the government, but related wholly 
to the Jewish religion ; and therefore I 
asked the prisoner, whether he would 
be tried by the high-priest's court, who 
were the proper judges of such matters. 

2\ But I perceive the man has no 
opinion of the justice of that bench, and, 
to be sure to avoid it, has appealed to 
Ccesar ; and so I must keep him until I 
can send him to Rome. 

22 Agrippa having a mind to hear 
what Paul could say for himself; To- 
morrow, says Festus, you shall. 

23 Accordingly next day, Agrippa 
and his sister appeared in court, with a 
splendid train of officers and servants, 
with the gentry of the town waiting 
upon them; and so Paul was brought 

24, 25 Festus opened the case, as it 
had passed between the Jews and him ; 
the conclusion whereof was, that Paul 
had appealed to Casar, and must be 
sent to Rome. 

none accusation of 
such things as I sup- 
posed : 

19 But had certain 
questions against him 
of their own super- 
stition, and of one 
Jesus, which was 
dead, whom Paul af- 
firmed to be alive. 

20 And because I 
doubted of such man- 
ner of questions, I 
asked him whether 
he would go to Jeru- 
salem, and be there 
judged of these mat- 

21 But when Paul 
had appealed to be re- 
served unto the hear- 
ing of Augustus, I 
commanded him to be 
kept till I might send 
him to Caesar. 

22 Then Agrippa 
said unto Festus, I 
would also hear the 
man myself. To-mor- 
row, said he, thou 
shalt hear him. 

23 And on the mor- 
row, when Agrippa 
was come, and Ber- 
nice, with great pomp, 
and were entered into 
the place of hearing, 
with the chief cap- 
tains, and principal 
men of the city, at 
Festus' commandment 
Paul was brought 

24 And Festus said, 
King Agrippa, and all 
men which are here 
present with us, ye 
see this man, about 
whom all the multi- 
tude of the Jews have 




dealt with me, both 
at Jerusalem, and also 
here, crying that he 
ought not to live any 

25 But when I found 
that he had commit- 
ted nothing worthy of 
death, and that he 
himself had appealed 
to Augustus, I have 
determined to send 

26 Of whom I have 
no certain thing to 
write unto my lord ; 
wherefore I have 
brought him forth be- 
fore you, and specially 
before thee, O king 
Agrippa, that after 
examination had, I 
might have somewhat 
to write. 

27 For it seemeth 
to me unreasonable, to 
send a prisoner, and 
not withal to signify 
the crimes laid against 

A.D. 61 

26, 97 Now (says he) I cannot send 
him without the state of his case along 
with him ; and I had a mind Agrippa 
should hear him, and give me his ad- 
vice, how, and what I should write to 
the emperor, about a man that was 
really convicted of no crime. 


Pauls defence of himself before King Agrippa. His account of his 
conversion. Festus tells him he is mad. Paul's answer to him. It 
is agreed that he must go to Rome, and be tried before the emperor. 

1 rpHEN Agrippa 
said unto Paul, 
Thou art permitted 
to speak for thyself. 
Then Paul stretched 
forth the hand, and 
answered for himself; 
2 I think myself 
happy, king Agrippa, 
because I shall answer 
for myself this day 
before thee, touching 

1 T^ESTUS having represented the A. D. 62. 

*• matter to Agrippa and the court, ■ 

(chap. xxv. 15, &c.) Agrippa bade 
Paul give him the particulars of his de- 

% 3 Paul began with expressions of 
the great satisfaction it was to him, to 
have an opportunity of pleading his 
cause before a person so well skilled in 




A. D. 6% the Jewish religion and laws, and who, 

• upon a patient hearing, could not fail 

to judge and declare his innocency. 

4, 5 Now these very Jews (says he) 
that have so unjustly accused me for an 
enemy of their law, if they had been so 
fair as to dare to speak the truth, could 
themselves have testified that I was 
born and educated a Pharisee, the most 
severe * in points of faith, and most ex- 
act in the ceremonial duties of all the 
Jewish sects; and so lived and con- 
versed for many years at Jerusalem. 

6 Nay, and the very article of faith 
I am now accused of, is no other than 
that great divine promise made to Abra- 
ham and the patriarchs, viz. the pro- 
mise of Christ the Messiah, and of our 
resurrection and future state, now 
proved and demonstrated by his rising 
from the dead. 

7 An article this, that all orthodox 
Jews have ever believed, and is the 
spring and foundation of all the divine 
worship they constantly pay to God. 
It is this I am arraigned for ; but it is 
by the Sadducees, who believe no future 
state at all. 

8 Now I challenge these adversaries 
to give me any one reason, why a God 
of infinite justice and wisdom, should 

all the things whereof 
I am accused of the 
Jews : 

3 Especially, be- 
cause I know thee to 
be expert in all cus- 
toms and questions 
which are among the 
Jews : wherefore I 
beseech thee to hear 
me patiently. 

4 My manner of 
life from my youth, 
which was ' at the 
first among mine own 
nation at Jerusalem, 
know all the Jews, 

5 Which knew me 
from the beginning, 
(if they would testi- 
fy,) that after the most 
straitest sect of our re- 
ligion, I lived a Pha- 

6 And now I stand, 
and am judged for the 
hope of the promise 
made of God unto 
our fathers : 

7 Unto which pro- 
mise our twelve tribes, 
instantly serving God 
day and night, hope 
to come ; for which 
hope's sake, king A- 
grippa, I am accused 
of the Jews. 

8 Why should it be 
thought a thing incre- 
dible with you, that 

* Ver. 5. The most straitest sect. The word Pharisee comes from 
a Hebrew word, that signifies to separate. For they desired to be 
distinguished from all other Jews, upon pretence of greater nicety 
and exactness in legal observances. 



God should raise the 

9 I verily thought 
with myself, that I 
ought to do many 
things contrary to the 
name of Jesus of Na- 

10 Which thing I 
also did in Jerusa- 
lem : and many of the 
saints did I shut up 
in prison , having re- 
ceived authority from 
the chief priests ; and 
when they were put 
to death, I gave my 
voice against them. 

11 And I punished 
them oft in every sy- 
nagogue, and com- 
pelled them to blas- 
pheme : and being 
exceedingly mad a- 
gainst them, I perse- 
cuted them even unto 
strange cities. 

12 Whereupon as 
I went to Damascus, 
with authority and 
commission from the 
chief priests, 

13 At mid-day, O 
king, I saw in the way 
a light from heaven, 
above the brightness 
of the sun, shining 
round about me, and 
them which journeyed 
with me. 

14 And when we 
were all fallen to the 
earth, I heard a voice 
speaking unto me, and 

not appoint a future state of rewards A. D. 62. 

and punishments; or why his infinite 

power should not enable him to raise 
the dead to life again ? 

9, 10, 11 As to my profession of 
these promises to be fulfilled in Jesus 
of Nazareth, owning his Messiahship 
and resurrection; when you consider 
the violent prejudices I had against all 
people of that persuasion, both by my 
education and temper; how many of 
them I voted to prisons and death at 
Jerusalem, what a severe commission I 
obtained from the council, to punish, 
banish, and persecute them wlierever 
I found them, and by all methods of 
hard usage to make them renounce 
their profession; you cannot think I 
turned Christian out of any light and 
frivolous considerations, but from clear 
and weighty evidences. Now the oc- 
casion and manner of my conversion 
was this : 

12, 13 As I was upon the road to 
Damascus, in pursuance of that bloody 
commission * against the Christians of 
those parts, we were surrounded with a 
glorious appearance of the divine Ma- 
jesty, in a light that eclipsed the sun. 

14 The brightness and terror whereof, 
caused me and my fellow-travellers to 
fall prostrate upon the earth; when a 
voice from the divine glory, directed to 

See chap. ix. and xxii. and compare this relation with them, 




A. D. 62. me by name, asked, Why I persecuted 
. his disciples, and thus pretended to with- 
stand the irresistible evidences and power 
of God's true religion f 

15 When, in the utmost degree of 
astonishment, I cried to know what tre- 
mendous voice this was, I was an- 
swered, It was the voice of Jesus of 
Nazareth, the Son of God, the true Mes- 
siah, of whose disciples I was so unmer- 
ciful a persecutor. 

16 Arise therefore, (said Jesus to me,) 
and be now convinced of your error; 
for I have in this miraculous manner 
discovered myself to you for your con- 
version, in order to make you an emi- 
nent apostle and preacher of the truth 
of my religion, whereof now you are 
convinced, and in which I will particu- 
larly instruct you afterward. 

17 And in whatever dangers you 
shall be involved by your publication 
of this my religion, 1 will, by my power 
and providence, protect you against 
either Jews or Gentiles. 

18 For the conversion of both which 
people, I now ordain you an apostle 
and preacher, to convert them from 
their idolatry, recover them from their 
ignorance, superstition, and immora- 
lities; that from being slaves of sin and 
Satan, they may become the children 
of God, and heirs of eternal happiness, 
by a sincere faith in me, and practice 
of the duties of my religion. 

19 Thus I was converted : and how, 
O king Agrippa, could any man, with- 
out the most inexcusable obstinacy, 
stand out against such a demonstration 
from Heaven itself ! 

20 I could not ; and therefore imme- 
*■ See chap, diately being * baptized, and invested 
x - with the powers of the Holy Ghost, I 

saying in the Hebrew 
tongue, Saul, Saul, 
why persecutest thou 
me ? it is hard for 
thee to kick against 
the pricks. 

15 And I said, Who 
art tiiou, Lord ? And 
he said, I am Jesus 
whom thou persecut- 

16 But arise, and 
stand upon thy feet: 
for I have appeared 
unto thee for this pur- 
pose, to make thee a 
minister and awitness, 
both of these things 
which thou hast seen, 
and of those things in 
the which I shall ap- 
pear to thee ; 

17 Delivering thee 
from the people, and 
from the Gentiles, un- 
to whom now I send 
thee ; 

IS To open their 
eyes, and to turn them 
from darkness tolight, 
and from the power of 
Satan unto God, that 
they may receive for- 
giveness of sins, and 
inheritance among 
them which are sanc- 
tified by faith that is 
in me. 

19 Whereupon, O 
king Agrippa, I was 
not disobedient unto 
the heavenly vision : 

20 But shewed first 
unto them of Damas- 
cus, and at Jerusalem, 
and throughout all the 



coasts of Juriea, and 
then to the Gentiles, 
that they should re- 
pent and turn to God, 
and do works meet 
for repentance. 

21 For these causes 
the Jews caught me in 
the temple, and went 
about to kill me. 

22 Having there- 
fore obtained help of 
God, I continue un- 
to this day, witness- 
ing both to small and 
great, saying none o- 
ther things than those 
which the prophets 
and Moses did say 
should come : 

23 That % Christ 
should suffer, and that 
he should be the first 
that should rise from || 
the dead, and should 
shew light unto the 
people, and to the 

24 And as he thus 
spake for himself, Fe- 
stus said with a loud 
voice, Paul, thou art 
beside thyself ; much 
learning doth make 
thee mad. 

25 But he said, I 

set myself, in all places I came at, to A. D. 62. 

convert both Jews and Gentiles, by 

preaching this sincere repentance, faith, 
and obedience in Christ the Messiah. 

21 And having done this in several 
parts of the * lesser Asia, some of those 
Jews meeting me afterward in the tem- 
ple, raised the people on purpose to de- 
stroy me. 

22 But through the divine f Provi- + See ver. 
dence, I have hitherto escaped the 17 - 
effects of their malice, and continue to 
preach the same doctrine of Christ's 
Messiahship, and his resurrection ; which 
indeed is the thing aimed at by Moses, 

and answers exactly to the predictions 
of the prophets. 

23 For those prophecies concerning 
the Messiah, do in no wise represent 
him as a temporal monarch, triumphing 
in the conquest of nations, and in the 
destruction of mankind ; but as a suf- 
fering J Saviour, that should by the 
merits of his deatli redeem the world 
from the punishment of their past sins ; 
and by the conquest of death by his 
|| resurrection, give all mankind a pledge 
and assurance of life and immortality, 
upon the terms of sincere faith and obe- 

24= At this discourse of Paul's, Festus, 
being a person utterly unacquainted 
with either Jewish or Christian no- 
tions, took him to be beside himself, 
and told him, he had studied himself 
out of his wits. 

25 Paul very modestly replied, that 

* Chapters xvi, xvii, xviii, and xix. 

X Ver. 23. d Xjtroj wa^roj, That Christ was capable of suffering, 
awl was to suffer. See the notes on preface to I John iv. 3. 

|| Ver. 23. Be the first that should rise from the dead. See note 
on chap. xiii. 34. 

VOL. i. n 




A. D. 62. he gave no symptoms of any irregular 

transport, but had spoken only clear and 

plain matters of fact ; 

26 For the truth of which, in the 
main, he was willing to appeal to King 
Agrippa, who could tell, that the life, 
death, and resurrection of Jesus (and 
his own conversion too) were not mere 
inventions of his own, but things of 
public fame and cognizance through- 
out all the Jewish land- 

27 Then addressing himself to Agrip- 
pa, You, O king, (says he,) by being a 
Jew, must be supposed to believe the 
prophetical writings to be of divine in- 
spiration. See then if all their repre- 
sentations of the Messiah are not most 
eminently fulfilled in Jesus Christ. 

28 The king replied, That the ac- 
count he had given of his conversion, 
and the reasons for his religion, had 
almost induced him to be a Christian*. 

2J) Paul told him, he wished and 
prayed, that both himself and the whole 
court were Christians in every respect 
as he was, excepting the circumstance 
of suffering for it as he did. 

30, 31 And thus ended Paul's third 
hearing at Ceesarea. The court rose, 
and, in conference afterward, all agreed, 
he was guilty of no crime that deserved 
so much as imprisonment. 

am not mad, most no- 
ble Festus, but speak 
forth the words of 
truth and soberness. 

26 For the king 
knoweth of these 
things, before whom 
also I speak freely ; 
for I am persuaded 
that none of these 
things are hidden from 
him : for this thing 
was not done in a cor- 

27 King Agrippa, 
believest thou the pro- 
phets ? I know that 
thou believest. 

28 Then Agrippa 
said unto Paul, Al- 
most thou persuadest 
me to be a Christian. 

29 And Paul said, 
I would to God, that 
not only thou, but al- 
so all that hear me 
this day, were both 
almost, and altogether 
such as I am, except 
these bonds. 

30 And when he 
had thus spoken, the 
king rose up, and the 
governor, and Ber- 
nice, and they that sat 
with them. 

31 And when they 
were gone aside, they 
talked between them- 

* Ver. 28. Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian. But whether 
this was said by way of banter, or in good earnest, is hardly to be 
determined. It is clear that Agrippa never did turn Christian, 
whatever present effect this discourse might have on him. 



Selves, saying, This 
man doth nothing 
worthy of death, or 
of bonds. 

32 Then said A- 
grippa unto Festus, 
This man might have 
been set at liberty, if 
he had not appealed 
unto Caesar. 

AD. 62. 

32 Agrippa telling Festus that he 
ought to have been discharged ; but 
that as he had appealed to the emperor, 
he must now be sent to Rome, and re- 
ferred to Nero. 


Pauls voyage to Rome, to be tried before Nero. An account of his 
shipwreck and escape in the isle of Malta. 

1 A ND when it was 
determined that 
we should sail into 
Italy, they delivered 
Paul and certain other 
prisoners, unto one 
named Julius, a cen- 
turion of Augustus' 

2 And entering in- 
to a ship of Adramyt- 
tium, we launched, 
meaning to sail by the 
coasts of Asia, one A- 
r is tare h us, a Macedo- 
nian of Thessalonica, 
being with us. 

3 And the next 
day we touched at 
Sidon. And Julius 
courteously entreated 
Paul, and gave him 
liberty to go unto his 
friends to refresh him- 

4 And when we 
had launched from 
thence, we sailed un- 
der Cyprus, because 

i rpHE prediction of Christ to Paul 
■*■ (chap, xxiii. 11.) that he should 
preach the Gospel at Rome itself, was 
now going to be fulfilled ; for upon his 
appeal to Cffisar, Festus delivered him 
and some other prisoners to Julius, a 
captain of the legion of Augustus, to 
ship off for Italy. 

2 We were put aboard a vessel of 
Adramyttium, (a sea-port town of 
Mysia,) and so were to coast along the 
lesser Asia; Aristarchus being the 
only Christian acquaintance beside my- 
self * that Paul had in the ship. 

3 Touching at Sidon, as we made 
for the coast, Julius was so civil to 
Paul, as to let him go and see his 
Christian friends there for his refresh- 

4, 5 Thence we were forced by the 
wind to go round the isle of Cyprus; 
and so by Cilicia and Pamphylia, came 
to Myra in Lycia. 

* See the note on chap. xvi. 10. 




A. D. 62. 

6 When the captain happening on 
an Alexandrian bound for Italy, put us 
aboard her. 

7, 8 The wind continued so cross, 
that we were a great while, and with 
much difficulty, getting to Cnidus, and 
at last were forced to get under the isle 
of Crete, over against the promontory 
of Salmone; and could hardly reach 
Lasea by the Fair Havens. 

9, 10 By this loss of time, our voyage 
became very dangerous, for the great 
fast of expiation was past, (i. e. about 
Michaelmas time) and those seas very 
stormy. Insomuch that Paul advised 
them to winter there, unless they would 
run the hazard of the vessel and their 
own lives. 

11 But the captain was advised by 
the master that owned the vessel, who 
was of a contrary mind. 

1 c 2 And so indeed was the major part 

the winds were con- 

5 And when we had 
sailed over the sea of 
Ciliciaand Pamphylia, 
we came to Myra, a 
city of Lycia. 

6 And there the 
centurion found a ship 
of Alexandria sailing 
into Italy ; and he put 
us therein. 

7 And when we 
had sailed slowly ma- 
ny days, and scarce 
were come over a- 
gainst Cnidus, the 
wind not suffering 
us, we sailed under 
Crete, over against 
Salmone : 

8 And hardly pass- 
ing it, came unto a 
place which is called 
The fair havens, nigh 
whereunto was the 
city of Lasea. 

9 Now when much 
time was spent, and 
when sailing was now 
dangerous, because 
the fast was now al- 
ready past, Paul ad- 
monished them, 

10 And said unto 
them, Sirs, I per- 
ceive that this voyage 
will be with hurt and 
much damage, not 
only of the lading of 
the ship, but also of 
our lives. 

II Nevertheless, 
the centurion believ- 
ed the master and 
the owner of the 
ship, more than those 
things which were 
spoken by Paul. 

12 And because 



the haven was not 
commodious to win- 
ter in, the more part 
advised to depart 
thence also, if by any 
means they might at- 
tain to Phoenice, and 
there to winter, 
which is an haven of 
Crete, and lieth to- 
ward the south-west 
and north-west. 

13 And when the 
south wind blew soft- 
ly, supposing that 
they had obtained 
their purpose, loosing 
thence, they sailed 
close by Crete. 

14 But not long 
after there arose a- 
gainst it a tempestu- 
ous wind, called Eu- 

15 And when the 
ship was caught, and 
could not bear up in- 
to the wind, we let 
her drive. 

16 And running un- 
der a certain island, 
which is called Clau- 
da, we had much 
work to come by the 
boat : 

17 Which when 
they had taken up, 
they used helps, vm- 
dergirding the ship : 
and fearing lest they 
should fall into the 
quick-sands, strake 

of the crew, (the haven being a very A. D. 62. 

bad one;) and were by any means for 

getting to Phoenice, a good port in the 
same isle, that had a harbour with a 
double channel, one to the south-west, 
the other to the north-west. 

13 As soon as they were got out of 
harbour, the wind coming to the south, 
a gentle side-gale, they did not question 
but to gain it, and keep coasting along. 

14, 15 But they were soon disap- 
pointed, by a most terrible * north-cast 
wind, that forced us, against all we 
could do, to let her drive. 

16, 17 We were driven under the 
isle of Clauda, where we had much ado 
to hale in our boat; but at last got it, 
and binding the ship as well as we 
could, to keep her from splitting, struck 
all her sails, and drove along. 

* Ver. 14. Called Euroclydon. The best critics think the true 
reading of this word should be tvpvotx.v\tov ; and that it does not sig- 
nify the name of any particular wind, but the quarter from whence 
it blows, viz. the north-east. Euroaquilo, as the vulgar Latin. See 
Dr. Bently's Remarks on Freethinking, part i. page 69, 70. 

N 3 




A. D. 62. 

18, ] 9 Next day, and the day after, 
the storm held so hard, that we were 
forced to throw a great deal of goods 
overboard, and as much as we could 
spare of the very tackle. 

20 It held so long without either sun 
or stars to steer by, that we could not 
but conclude, we should split upon 
some sand or other. 

we had wrought 

21, 22 But when 
hard, and eat little for a fortnight toge- 
ther, Paul, by way of gentle reprimand, 
asked the captain and the crew, what 
they had gained by not taking his ad- 
vice : but however (says he) be not dis- 
couraged ; for though the vessel is lost, 
your lives shall be ail saved. 

23, 24 And to assure you of the 
truth of what I say, the true God, 
whose apostle I am, and whose religion 
I profess, sent his angel this very night, 
to comfort me in this distress, and to 
assure me I should escape it, and get 
safe to Rome, to be tried by Caesar ; 
and that moreover for my sake you 
should all save your lives, if you would 
be advised by me. 

25, 26 Be of good courage then, for 
1 am certain God will perform his pro- 
mise. And by divine information, 1 

sail, and so were dri- 

18 And being ex- 
ceedingly tossed with 
a tempest, the next 
day they lighted the 
ship ; 

19 And the third 
day we cast out with 
our own hands the 
tackling of the ship. 

20 And when nei- 
ther sun nor stars in 
many days appeared, 
and no small tempest 
lay on us, all hope 
that we should be 
saved was then taken 

21 But after long 
abstinence, Paul stood 
forth in the midst of 
them, and said, Sirs, 
ye should have heark- 
ened unto me, and 
not have loosed from 
Crete, to have gained 
this harm and loss : 

22 And now I ex- 
hort you to be of good 
cheer : for there shall 
be no loss of any 
man's life among you, 
but of the ship. 

23 For there stood 
by me this night the 
angel of God, whose 
I am , and whom I 

24 Saying, Fear 
not Paul, thou must 
be brought before 
Caesar; and, lo, God 
hath given thee all 
them that sail with 

25 Wherefore, sirs, 
be of good cheer ; for 
1 believe God, that it 



shall be even as it was 
told me. 

26 Howbeit, we 
must be cast upon a 
certain island. 

27 But when the 
fourteenth night was 
come, as we were 
driven up and down 
in Adria, about mid- 
night, the shipinen 
deemed that they 
drew near to some 

28 And sounded, 
and found it twenty 
fathoms : and when 
they had gone a little 
further, they sounded 
again, and found it 
fifteen fathoms. 

29 Then fearing 
lest we should have 
fallen upon rocks,, 
they cast four anchors 
out of the stern, and 
wished for the day. 

30 And as the ship- 
men were about to 
flee out of the ship, 
when they had let 
down the boat into 
the sea, under colour 
as though they would 
have cast anchors out 
of the fore-ship, 

31 Paul said to the 
centurion, and to the 
soldiers, Except these 
abide in the ship, ye 
cannot be saved. 

tell you beforehand, we shall be cast A. D. 62. 
upon a certain island. ~ 

27 The fourteenth night after this 
storm began, as we were driven about 
that part of the Mediterranean * that 
runs into the Gulf of Venice, the mari- 
ners guessed they were near some shore. 

28 And found it pretty certain, by 
the decrease of their soundings as they 
drove along. 

29 For fear of rocks, therefore, they 
put out all anchors from the stern, and 
lay by, wishing for day-light to discover 
the shore. 

30 They saw it next morning, and 
the mariners would have secretly got 
the boat, and made off; to cover which 
design, they pretended to go down, and 
let another anchor from the ship-head. 

31 But Paul (most probably by di- 
vine suggestion) knowing their purpose, 
told the captain, That though he had 
assured them, by divine information, 
their lives were safe, yet it was upon 
the natural condition that every one 
should do his best endeavour for it ; 
and if he suffered the mariners that 
were to guide the ship to go off and 
leave her, they should all be lost. 

* Ver. 27- That this was called by, and included in the name of 
Adria, see Dr. Wells's Geograph. New Testam. part ii. page 148. 

N 4 




A. D. 62. 32 To prevent them therefore, the 

.captain ordered his soldiers to cut the 

boat off, and set her adrift. 

33, 34 Morning coming on, Paul 
advised the whole crew to eat and drink 
a full meal after their hard labour, and 
very little refreshment. You ought to 
do it (says he) for your * health's sake, 
and the better to enable you to work 
for your escape to land; which, with 
God's blessing, and your own endea- 
vours, you will certainly do. 

35, 36, 37 And he, to encourage 
them the more, ordered the table to be 
spread, said grace before them all, and 
then began to eat; they all followed 
his example with cheerfulness and sa- 
tisfaction in the hopes he had given 

38 Then confiding in what Paul had 
said, That the ship would be lost, and 
they must escape for their lives, they 
flung their provisions overboard. 

3D Full day-light being come, they 
could see the shore, but could not tell 
what land it was ; and seeing a creek, 

32 Then the sol- 
diers cut off the ropes 
of the boat, and let 
her fall off. 

33 And while the 
day was coming on, 
Paul besought them 
all to take meat, say- 
ing, This day is the 
fourteenth day that 
ye have tarried, and 
continued fasting, 
having taken nothing. 

34 Wherefore I 
pray you to take some 
meat : for this is for 
your health : for there 
shall not an hair fall 
from the head of any 
of you. 

35 And when he 
had thus spoken, he 
took bread, and gave 
thanks to God in pre- 
sence of them all : 
and when he had 
broken it, he began 
to eat. 

36 Then were they 
all of good cheer, and 
they also took some 

37 And we were in 
all in the ship, two 
hundred and three- 
score and sixteen 

38 And when they 
had eaten enough, 
they lighted the ship, 
and cast out the wheat 
into the sea. 

39 And when it 
was day, they knew 
not the land : but 
they discovered a cer- 

* Ver. 34. U^o; r»s v^rs^ag amn^ixg, For your health, i. e. either in 
general, or it will strengthen you to swim and save yourselves. 



tain creek, with a 
shore, into the which 
they were minded, if 
it were possible, to 
thrust in the ship. 

40 And when they 
had taken up the an- 
chors, they commit- 
ted themselves unto 
the sea, and loosed 
the rudder-bands, and 
hoised up the main 
sail to the wind, and 
made toward shore. 

41 And falling into 
a place where two seas 
met, they ran the ship 
aground, and the fore 
part stuck fast, and 
remained immoveable, 
but the hinder part 
was broken with the 
violence of the waves. 

42 And the soldi- 
ers' counsel was to kill 
the prisoners, lest any 
of them should swim 
out and escape. 

43 But the centu- 
rion, willing to save 
Paul, kept them from 
their purpose ; and 
commanded that they 
which could swim 
should cast themselves 
first into the sea, and 
get to land : 

44 And the rest, 
some on boards, and 
some on broken pieces 
of the ship : and so 
it came to pass, that 
they escaped all safe 
+ o land. 

they resolved to thrust into it if it were A. D. 63. 

40 And accordingly weighed anchor, 
hoisted sail, and tried for it. 

41 But before they could reach quite 
into it, fell aground between two seas, 
that beat the stern apieces, while the 
head lay fast. 

42 The soldiers, seeing things come 
to extremity, advised the captain to kill 
the prisoners, that so he might be an- 
swerable for none of their escapes. 

43 But for Paul's sake, he gave them 
all leave that could swim to make to 
shore, and help the rest ; 

44 Who, with God's assistance, 
swimming upon planks and wrecks, got 
every one of them safe to shore. 





Pauls treatment in the isle of Malta. Is bit by a viper without harm; 
and is taken for a deity. The governor's father cured by Paul, with 
many others. He proceeds to Rome. Is met by some Christians on 
the road. Has only one soldier to guard him, and freely converseth 
with his friends. He preacheth to the Jews at Rome. The success 
he had in it. 

A. D. 63. 1 |^1 ETTING thus all safe ashore, 
VT we soon l earnec ] by the inhabit- 
ants the name of the island to be Me- 
lita, (now called the isle of Malta.) 

2 Those barbarous and uncultivated 
people treated us with unexpected hu- 
manity, receiving us into their houses, 
and made fires to dry and warm us. 

3 As Paul was turning the wood 
upon the fire, a viper fastened upon his 

4 The ignorant inhabitants, knowing 
Paul to be a prisoner for some supposed 
crimes, and judging of every thing 
merely by events, concluded him to be 
a malefactor indeed; and that though 
Providence had let him escape the sea, 
yet it had now overtaken him in an ex- 
emplary manner. 

5 Paul shook the viper into the fire, 
without the least harm received by it, 

6 But the people, being acquainted 
with the desperate venom of that crea- 
ture, expected he would soon have 
dropped for dead; but convinced by a 
sufficient time it had no manner of 

1 AND when they 
were escaped, 
then they knew that 
the island was called 

2 And the barba- 
rous people shewed us 
no little kindness : for 
they kindled a fire, 
and received us every- 
one because of the 
present rain, and be- 
cause of the cold. 

3 And when Paul 
had gathered a bun- 
dle of sticks, and laid 
them on the fire, there 
came a viper out of 
the heat, and fastened 
on his hand. 

4 And when the 
barbarians saw the ve- 
nomous beast on his 
hand, they said a- 
mong themselves, No 
doubt this man is 
a murderer, whom 
though he hath escap- 
ed the sea, yet venge- 
ance suffereth not to 

5 And he shook off 
the beast into the fire, 
and felt no harm. 

6 Howbeit, they 
looked when lie should 
have swoln, or fallen 
down dead suddenly : 
but after they had 



looked a great while, 
and saw no harm come 
to him, they changed 
their minds, and said 
that he was a god. 

7 In the same quar- 
ters were possessions 
of the chief man of 
the island, whose 
name was Publius, 
who received us, and 
lodged us three days 

8 And it came to 
pass, that the father 
of Publius lay sick of 
a fever,, and of a 
bloody flux : to whom 
Paul entered in, and 
prayed, and laid his 
hands on him, and 
healed him. 

9 So when this 
was done, others also, 
which had diseases in 
the island, came, and 
were healed : 

10 Who also ho- 
noured us with many 
honours ; and when we 
departed, they laded 
us with such things 
as were necessary. 

11 And after three 
months we departed 
in a ship of Alexan- 
dria, which had win- 
tered in the isle, whose 
sign was Castor and 

12 And landing at 
Syracuse, we tarried 
there three days. 

13 And from thence, 
we set a compass, and 
came to Rhegium ; 
and after one clay the 

effect upon him, they concluded him to A. D. 63. 
be a kind of * deity. — 

7 Near to the place where we got 
ashore, the Roman governor Publius 
kept his residence, who out of respect to 
the captain (Julius) that guarded us, 
sent for us home, and entertained us 
with great civility. 

S The governor's father at that time 
lay sick of a fever, attended with a 
dysentery, to whom Paul went, and by 
prayer and imposition of hands restored 
him immediately to perfect health. 

9 The fame of which miraculous cure, 
induced abundance of other people to 
bring their sick friends to him ; and he 
cured them all. 

10 The people, in gratitude for such 
benefits, gave us plenty of all provisions, 
and at parting, furnished us with all 
necessaries for our voyage. 

11 At three months' end we went 
aboard an Alexandrian that wintered 
in the isle, called Castor and Pollux, 

12, 13, 14 Landing at Syracuse in 
Sicily, thence we turned a little, and 
touched at Rhegium, the first port in 
Italy ; and next day, with a southerly 
wind, reached Puteoli ; where some 
Christian brethren requested us to stay 

* It is supposed by learned men, that they took him to be Her- 




A. D. 63. a week ; and then we went by land to 

• Rome. 

* See ch. 
xii. 6. 

15 The Roman Christians, hearing 
of our arrival in Italy, came to meet us^ 
some as far as Appii-forum, others as 
far as the Three Taverns. For which 
great expression of brotherly kindness, 
Paul was very thankful bo"th to God 
and to them. 

16* When we were got thither, the 
captain delivered all the other prisoners 
to the proper officer, called the prefect 
of the prcetorium ; but either by his own 
recommendation, or by Felix's letter in 
his behalf, he got leave for Paul to live 
in a house of his own, with only one 
soldier * to guard him. 

17, 18, 19 Three days after Paul was 
fixed in his lodging, he sent for the 
principal Jews, and told them his case, 
and the occasion of his coming thither, 
his false and malicious accusation to 
Felix and Festus, and his constraint to 
appeal to the emperor: but to fence 
against any prejudice these Romish 
Jews might take at him, he assured 
them, that in this appeal he would be 
no informer against his countrymen of 
Judea, (though they had so ill used 
him,) but only stand upon his own de- 
fence, and clear himself. 

south-wind blew, and 
we came the next day 
to Puteoli : 

14 Where we found 
brethren, and were 
desired to tarry with 
them seven days : and 
so we went toward 

15 And from thence, 
when the brethren 
heard of us, they 
came to meet us as 
far as Appii-forum, 
and the Three Ta- 
verns : whom when 
Paul saw, he thanked 
God, and took cou- 

16 And when we 
came to Rome, the 
centurion delivered 
the prisoners to the 
captain of the guard : 
but Paul was suffered 
to dwell by himself, 
with a soldier that 
kept him. 

17 And it came to 
pass, that after three 
days, Paul called the 
chief of the Jews to- 
gether. And when 
they were come to- 
gether, he said unto 
them, Men and bre- 
thren, though I have 
committed nothing a- 
gainst the people or 
customs of our fathers, 
yet was I delivered 
prisoner from Jerusa- 
lem into the hands of 
the Romans. 

1 8 Who when they 
had examined me, 
would have let me 
go, because there 
was no cause of death 
in me. 



19 But when the 
Jews spake against it, 
I was constrained to 
appeal unto Caesar ; 
not that I had ought 
to accuse my nation 

20 For this cause 
therefore have I call- 
ed for you, to see you, 
and to speak with 
you : because that for 
the hope * of Israel I 
am bound with this 

21 And they said 
unto him, We nei- 
ther received letters 
out of Judea concern- 
ing thee, neither any 
of the brethren that 
came shewed or spake 
any harm of thee. 

22 But we desire 
to hear of thee what 
thou thinkest : for as 
concerning this sect, 
we know that every 
where it is spoken a- 

23 And when they 
had appointed him a 
day, there came many 
to him into his lodg- 
ing, to whom he ex- 
pounded and testified 
the kingdom of God, 
persuading them con- 
cerning Jesus, both 
out of the law of Mo- 
ses, and out of the 
prophets, from morn- 
ing till evening. 

24 And some be- 
lieved the things 

A. D.63. 

20 Now (says he) the reason I sent 
for you was to acquaint you with this 
my hard usage, and to assure you, that 
the only pretence for it was, my preach- 
ing a doctrine owned and believed by 
all orthodox Jews, viz. the coming of 
the Messiah, and a * future state. 

21 They told him, They had no in- 
formation nor complaints from Judea 
against him, either by writing, or word 
of mouth. 

22 Only they found in general, that 
this Christian religion he professed 
had a bad character, and therefore de- 
sired him to give them some account 
what the doctrines of it were. 

23 Paul set them a day to do it in at 
his lodgings, where, to a numerous as- 
sembly of them, he gave them the his- 
tory of the life and actions of Jesus 
Christ, and shewed them the nature of 
his religion ; demonstrating him to be 
the true Messiah, in whom were most 
eminently fulfilled the grand designs of 
the Mosaical law, and all the predic- 
tions and descriptions of their prophets, 
in a discourse for a whole day together. 

24 Which converted some of them, 
but had no effect upon others. 

* Ver. 20. The hope of Israel. See note on chap, xxiii. 6. 


A PARAPHRASE ON THE chap, xxviii. 

A. D. 63. 


25 As the infidel Jews were going 
away, Paul freely told them, they ex- 
actly answered the character the pro- 
phet Isaiah had given of some of their 
forefathers, (Isa. vi. 10.) 


26, 27 In which he represented them 
as an obstinate anal incurable generation 
of men, that by their wilful lusts and sin- 
ful prejudices, had made themselves deaf 
to all divine admonitions, threatening 

l S*> 

and persuasions; and so frustrated all 
the reasonable and merciful means of their 
conversion and salvation. 

28 Know therefore, (says he,) that 
all these gracious privileges of the re- 
ligion and kingdom of the Messiah, 
which you have so ungratefully rejected, 
shall be offered to the Gentile world, 
who will give them a better reception 
than you have done. 

29 With this the Jews went off, and 
had violent disputes among themselves 
about these matters. 

30, 31 In the mean while Paul was 
permitted (though yet a prisoner) to 
dwell in his own hired house, where he 

which were 
and some 

25 And when they 
not among 

themselves, they de- 
parted, after that Paul 
had spoken one word, 
Well spake the Holy 
Ghost by Esaias the 
prophet, unto our 

26 Saying, Go un- 
to this people, and 
say, Hearing ye shall 
hear, and shall not 
understand ; and see- 
ing ye shall see, and 
not perceive : 

27 For the heart 
of this people is wax- 
ed gross, and their 
ears are dull of hear- 
ing, and their eyes 
have they closed, lest 
they should see with 
their ears, and under- 
stand with their heart, 
and should be con- 
verted, and I should 
heal them. 

28 Be it known 
therefore unto you, 
that the salvation of 
God is sent unto the 
Gentiles, and that 
they will hear it. 

29 And when he 
had said these words, 
the Jews departed, 
and had great rea- 
soning among them- 

30 And Paul dwelt 
two whole years in his 
own hired house, and 



received all that came 
in unto him, 

31 Preaching the 
kingdom of God, and 
teaching those things 
which concern the 
Lord Jesus Christ, 
with all confidence, 
no man forbidding 

entertained, and, with the utmost free- A. D. 63, 

dom, preached the Christian religion to — 

all sorts of people, both Jews and Gen- 







vot, f. 


THE sum and substance of the Christian religion 
is contained in the history of the life and death, the 
doctrine and discourses of our blessed Saviour in 
the four Gospels. The epistolary writings of the 
apostles were occasional, and intended only to con- 
firm the churches, to whom they were written, in the 
same rules of Gospel faith and practice they had be- 
fore been instructed in. They are accommodated to 
the particular disputes and controversies, errors or 
false notions, that were then set on foot among Chris- 
tian people. 

Wherefore to a due understanding of the far greater 
part of these sacred writings, the principal thing re- 
quisite is an insight into the grounds of the contro- 
versies therein handled, and the persons that broached 
and spread the false notions therein opposed and con- 
futed. The two Epistles to the Romans and Galatians 
are, for the main, written upon one and the same 
occasion, and levelled at the same erroneous doctrines ; 
for which reason, I intend this for a sufficient pre- 
face to them both. The sum of the case is this: 

Before the coming of Christ, the Jews being the 
only people in covenant with God, and his proper 
church ; they, instead of an humble thankfulness for 
such a privilege and favour, proudly looked upon 

11)6 PREFACE. 

themselves to have the only right and title to it for 
ever. All other nations of the world they contemned 
and despised, as utterly unworthy of any divine pri- 
vilege, favour, providence, or protection. Their Mes- 
siah they expected to be a glorious temporal prince, 
who should raise their church and nation to an excess 
of external greatness and splendor, and become the 
wonder and amazement, but not the Saviour, of the 
Gentile world. These notions were so rooted in 
them before and at our Saviour's time, that his very 
apostles, in a great measure, retained them after his 
death, until St. Peter was convinced of the contrary, 
by an express revelation in Acts x. The Jews that 
did embrace the faith of the Gospel, had still such a 
reverence fur their ceremonial law, that they would 
not endure to converse with a Gentile Christian that 
was not circumcised. But the college of apostles, all 
fully convinced by St. Peter's case with Cornelius, 
declared in full council, that God intended to receive 
the Gentiles into the Christian covenant, without 
their observation of the Mosaical ceremonies a . Yet 
notwithstanding this authoritative determination, the 
Jewish Christians did, many of them, retain their zeal 
for that law, and pressed it as absolutely necessary 
along with the Gospel religion, in order to men's 

Any one who reads the apostolic Epistles (parti- 
cularly those of St. Paul) with any care and atten- 
tion, will find their constant method to have been, 
first to explain the particular point debated in the 

a See Acts xv. 


church, or amongst the persons they wrote to, and 
was the occasion of their writing ; and, in the next 
place, to give them such exhortations to every Chris- 
tian duty and virtue, as would be at all times, and in 
every church, of every age, necessary and of absolute 
importance ; having a special eye to the particular 
virtues those disputes might most probably tempt 
them to the neglect of. Now the former part of 
these epistolary writings cannot be rightly understood 
any other way, than by attending carefully to the 
state of the questions therein handled and deter- 
mined. And therefore the errors and vain disputes, 
that are to be seen in many writings of these latter 
ages of Christianity, concerning faith and works, jus- 
tification and sanctification, election and reprobation, 
and such like ; that have confounded, vexed, and 
distracted the minds of many Christians ; have all 
arisen from this one grand mistake, of applying cer- 
tain particular phrases, or passages, in these writings, 
to themselves, or to any other particular persons, 
which plainly appear to have referred to the then 
state and condition, not of particular persons, but of 
whole churches, of the Jewish or Gentile part. It is 
this mistake that has first troubled the hearts, and so 
diverted the minds of many otherwise good men, 
from attending to the more excellent parts of these 
writings, the moral and weighty exhortations given 
to Christians ; and, by puzzling them about former 
controversies, that do very little if at all concern us 
now, have turned off their thoughts from the great 
matters of the law, which are most easy to be under- 
stood, and of infinite obligation to be put in practice. 



These questions therefore, viz. Whether the Gen- 
tiles were at all to be admitted into the church and 
kingdom of Christ the Messiah ? Or, at least, Whe- 
ther both they and the Jews ought not to observe 
the ceremonial law along with the Christian ? Whe- 
ther the true religion were so appropriated and con- 
fined to the Jewish nation, and the Jewish land, as 
that for their obstinacy they could never be cast off 
and excluded the church of God ? These, I say, are 
the substance of this Epistle, without attending to 
which, the very terms and phrases made use of in it, 
must appear improper, the reasonings hard, intricate, 
and contradictory ; but with this key they are exact, 
strong, regular, and conclusive. The two first of 
these questions are handled in the eight first chapters, 
and some particular branches of them, in the 13th, 
14th, and 15th. The other is treated on in the 9th, 
10th, and 11th. These, and all the occasional ex- 
hortations to Christian peaceableness and purity, I 
have regularly digested in the contents of each 








St. Paul declares his Apostolical commission from Jesus Christ, to 
preach the Gospel-religion both to Jews and Gentiles. Expresses his 
desire of visiting the Roman Christians, to confirm and strengthen 
them in the faith ; especially to satisfy them in this particular point, 
viz. That both Jew and Gentile were under an absolute necessity and 
obligation of relying wholly upon the Gospel-religion for pardon and 
salvation. He proves this, first, with respect to the Gentiles, from 
the consideration of their long inexcusable idolatry, and enormous 
vices and transgressions. From ver. IS. to the end. 


"DAUL, a servant 1 T>AUL, who from a zealous per- Written 

of Jesus Christ, A seC utor of the Christian religion, A. D. 57. 
called to be an a 
stle, separated fun 
to the gospel of God. 

* called to be an a- j s now become a disciple of Jesus Christ, 
postle, separated fun- being converted by him, in a singular 

* Ver. 1. Called. See Acts ix. xxii. and xxvi. 

f Ibid. 'AQu^o-ptvos, Separated to the gospel. It being not abso- 
lutely certain, whether this phrase relates to his call to the apostle- 
ship in general, or to his special separation to preach to the Gen- 
tiles, Acts xiii. 2. 1 have expressed it with a just latitude to both. 
It is remarkable in what a variety this great apostle expresses his 
own character in his several Epistles to the Christian churches j styl- 
ing himself, in some, an apostle of Christ, specially called and sepa- 
rated, &c. in others, the servant of God, and of Jesus Christ ; in 
others, the prisoner of Jesus Christ ; and in that to the Hebrews 
without any name. For the justness and propriety of this, see the 
paraphrase on Philemon in Mr. Locke's manner, ver. 1. 





A. D. 57, and extraordinary manner, and by 

his particular commission appointed 

and selected to be an apostle and 
preacher of the Gospel-doctrine. 

( 2 (Viz. The doctrine and religion of 
the Messiah, so much spoken of, and 
promised to the Jewish nation, and to 
the whole world, in the writings of 
Moses and the prophets. 

3 All which characters and predic- 
tions are most eminently and exactly 
fulfilled in Jesus Christ, who was 
born of a virgin, of the family * of 

4 But was demonstrated to be more 
than man, even the divine Word, the 
Son of God, the Saviour of mankind, 
by that fulness of the f Holy Spirit that 
dwelt in him, and evidenced itself most 
especially by his resurrection from the 
dead, as those prophecies foretold. 

5 From whom thus raised and ex- 
alted to be Head of the church and 
Lord of all things, I have received the 
great favour and honourable X office of 
an apostle, to convert both Jews and 
Gentiles to his || religion for the glory 
of his name. 

<2 (Which he had 
promised afore by his 
prophets in the holy 

3 Concerning his 
Son Jesus Christ our 
Lord, which was 
made of the seed of 
* David according to 
the flesh ; 

4 And declared to 
be the Son of God 
with power, accord- 
ing to the Spirit of 
holiness, by the re- 
surrection from the 

5 By whom we 
have received I grace 
and apostleship for 
obedience to the faith 
among all nations for 
his name : 

* Matt. i. 1. Acts ii. 30. 2 Tim. ii. 8. According to the flesh. This 
phrase xara o-a^x, in this, and many other places, properly denotes 
the descent or family relation of a person. Thus Rom. iv. 1. ix. 3, 5. 
1 Cor. x. 18. Abraham our father after the flesh. My kinsmen after 
the flesh. Israel after the flesh ; and Christ after, or in, the flesh. 

t Ver. 4. 'Ev Svmfxu Kocra rivEt^a dyiuo-vmc , I think ought to be 
translated, By the power of the Holy Spirit. Avvatxic kcctx Uvwfxx, is, 
The power of the Spirit; and being so rendered, makes the clearest 
connection. Compare 2 Tim. i. S. 2 Cor. viii. <2. 

X Ver. 5. Xa'^iv kou cctto^-oayiv , grace and apostleship, is plainly a He- 
braism, and signifies, the favour or honour of the apostleship. 

|| Ver. 5. 'Tir\§ tou ov6fj.ot.Toc oivtov, For his name. These words may 
be connected either to grace and apostleship, and then the sense is, 
for his religion; or else to the latter clause, for the obedience of faith 
among all nations; and then I think they best signify, for the honour 
of his name. But I have expressed them both. 




6 Among whom 
are ye also the called 
of Jesus Christ : 

7 To all that be 
in Rome, beloved of 
God, called to be 
saints : Grace to you, 
and peace f from God 
our Father, and the 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

8 First, I thank 
my God through Je- 
sus Christ for you all, 
that your faith is 
spoken of throughout 
the whole world. 

9 For God is my 
witness, whom I serve 
with my spirit in the 
gospel of his Son, 
that without ceasing 
I make mention of 
you always in my 
prayers ; 

10 Making request 
(if by any means now 
at length I might have 
a prosperous journey 
by the will of God) 
to come unto you. 

11 For I long to 
see you, that I may 
impart unto you some 
spiritual gift, to the 
end you may be esta- 
blished : 

12 That is, that I 
may be comforted to- 
gether with you, by 

6 Of which Gentile part of this A. D. 57. 

church, you Christians of the famous 

city of Rome are now become a prin- 
cipal branch*.) 

7 To you, Gentile converts, and to 
all the Roman professors of this faith, 
I Paul write this Epistle, wishing you 
the continuance of all divine favours and 
blessings from God the Father, by our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

8 First expressing my hearty praise 
and thanksgiving to God, through 
Jesus Christ the fountain of all our 
blessings, for your conversion to his 
true religion, for which you are so ce- 
lebrated and remarkable. 

V, 10 And in this expression you 
may believe me sincere ; for God him- 
self, whose true and faithful servant I 
endeavour to the utmost to approve 
myself, as an apostle of the Gospel, can 
testify, that I never pray to him, with- 
out praying for you, and begging his 
providence would so order it, that I 
might safely arrive at Rome to see you ; 

11, 12 Which is a thing I very much 
wish for, and that to no other end and 
purpose, but to confirm and strengthen 
you in your Christian profession, by 
giving you some seasonable counsels, 
or by imparting some spiritual gifts 
and endowments of the Holy Ghost to 
you, for our mutual comfort and satis- 

* Note, Let the judicious reader consider, whether the including 
these 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th verses in one parenthesis, would 
not make the clearest construction. 

f Ver. 7. From God the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ ; or, «ro 
0EW ITaTfo; rtpuiv, ia\ Kv^iov 'ina-ov X^ov,from God the Father of us, 
and of the Lord Jesus Christ, agreeably to Acts xv. 11. Rom. xvi. 
24. 2 Cor. xiii. 13. and elsewhere. 




A. D. 57. 

13 And indeed I have often resolved 
with myself to come and visit you, and 
do myself and you the pleasure of pro- 
moting and enlarging the Gospel reli- 
gion at Rome as well as in other places, 
but have been hitherto prevented *. 

14, 15 For as I am obliged by my 
apostolical commission, to preach and 
propagate the Christian doctrine to all 
countries f, and people of all ranks, 
degrees, and capacities, I have no rea- 
son but to be ready and desirous to do 
it to you also at Rome. 

16 For though I am sensible this 
Gospel of Christ is likely to meet with 
no little opposition from the vices and 
prejudices of mankind ; though some 
of its doctrines will bear hard upon the 
false wisdom and pride of the Gentile 
philosophers, and others upon the ma- 
lice and haughtiness of the Jews ; though 
its professors may now seem mean and 
contemptible, yet it is attended with 
such evidences of truth, with such de- 
monstrations of divine power, wisdom, 
and goodness towards mankind, as will 
recommend it to all impartial and con- 
sidering men, as the best and only me- 
thod of happiness and salvation, both 
to Jew and Gentile, that will sincerely 
believe and obey it. 

17 I therefore neither must, nor can, 

the mutual faith, both 
of you and me. 

13 Now I would 
not have you ignorant, 
brethren, that often- 
times I purposed to 
come unto you, (but 
was * let hitherto,) 
that I might have 
some fruit among you 
also, even as among 
other Gentiles. 

14 I am debtor 
both to the Greeks 
and to the Barbarians, 
both to the wise and 
to the unwise. 

15 So, as much as 
in me is, I am ready 
to preach the gospel 
to you that are at 
Rome also. 

16 For I am not 
ashamed of the gospel 
of Christ : for it is the 
power of God unto 
salvation, to every one 
that believeth, to the 
Jew first, and also to 
the Greek. 

17 For therein is 

* Ver. 13. Prevented. Probably by the unexpected opposition 
and hardships he met with in Asia and Greece, from whence this 
Epistle was written. See Acts xiii. and xx. &c. 

f Ver. 14. See chap. xi. xii. xv. xvi. and Gal. ii. 0. 




the * righteousness of 
God revealed from 
faith to faith : as it 
is written, The just 
shall live by faith. 

18 For the wrath 
of God is revealed 
from heaven against 
all ungodliness, and 
unrighteousness of 
men, who hold the 
truth in unrighteous- 
ness f. 

be afraid or ashamed to preach it, even A. D. 57. 

in Rome itself, the great metropolis of , 

the world; because I know, that this 
method of God's redeeming and saving 
mankind by their embracing the faith, 
and living up to the religion of Christ *, 
is revealed to the world with a gracious 
design to bring in all, both Jews and 
Gentiles, under the covenant and happy 
privileges of it; according to those 
words of the prophet, The just man shall 
live by his faith. [See Galat. iii. 11, 12.1 
18 And that there is an absolute 
necessity, this faith in Christ should 
now be preached to and embraced by 
all men without exception, is plain from 
that deplorable condition of vice and 
wickedness, under which, both Gentile 
and Jew lie now involved. And first as 
to the Gentiles, they are known to have 
been long and universally guilty of such 
exorbitant practices f, as must needs 
hinder in their minds all discernment 
of divine truth, and subject them to 
the eternal wrath and displeasure of 

* Ver. 17. Aikxiovvvv) yoc% ©sou awoxaXi/ViETai Ik wi'rEwj ti$ mlrw. The 
righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith. Mr. Limborch and 
Mr. Locke take the phrase from faith to faith, to signify wholly by 
faith, from two parallel phrases, in chap. vi. 19. and 2 Cor. iii. 18. 
But I think those phrases are exactly of the same signification with 
this, and therefore judge this construction most natural, viz. Aixaio- 
orvw ®iov Ik nirwc, i. e. God's method of justifying us by faith in Christ, 
is revealed, gig w*V*v, i. e. to bring in all, both Jews and. Gentiles, to 
believe and embrace it ; for that is the scope of the apostle's argu- 
ment. See ver. 18, &c. However, supposing this ph rase from faith 
to faith, be of the same signification with that of from glory to glory, 
yet the sense of it is not the same as wholly by faith, but a higher 
degree of faith. And this indeed might be the apostle's meaning, 
That God's method of justifying men, was now revealed in order 
to bring them to a higher and happier degree of faith in God (t. e. 
to more perfect religion) than either Gentile or Jew had yet been 
acquainted with. And of these two the judicious reader may take 
his choice. 

f Ver. 18. Who hold the truth in unrighteousness, or withhold and 
suppress the truth by iniquity, xaTE^cvT&.y ?v «&*«*. 




A. D. 57. 1 9 Nor can they plead perfect igno- 

ranee in their excuse; for the very 

light of natural reason was sufficient to 
have guided them into so much know- 
ledge of God's nature and will, as 
would have kept them from such ab- 
surd violations of their duty ; 

20 The divine wisdom, power, and 
goodness, that shines out in the very 
creation of the world, and in the con- 
stant government and providence over 
it, being enough alone to render all 
gross idolatry and heinous impiety ut- 
terly inexcusable. 

21 So that they lived without pay- 
ing any just worship to God, void of 
all dutiful and thankful behaviour to- 
ward him, and lost themselves in the 
most irrational conceptions, and false 
reasonings about him, even while they 
had sufficient light to instruct them 

22 Yet under this degree of folly 
and ignorance, did many of them 
usurp the title of wise men and philo- 

23 An ignorance so affectedly stupid, 
that while common reason would have 
represented God to them as a spiritual, 
uncompounded, incorruptible existence, 
they impiously resembled him to the 
meanest of corruptible creatures, wor- 
shipping him under the shape of mortal 
men, nay even of birds, and beasts, and 

24 For which heedless and wilful 
depravation of their understandings, 
God in just judgment gave them up to 
all the woful effects of it in most abomi- 
nable practices, even to the lewdness of 
the Sodomites and Canaanites, the most 
dishonourable and shameful to human 

25, 2G, 27 It was but just, I say, for 

1 9 Because that 
which may be known 
of God, is manifest in 
them ; for God hath 
shewed it unto tbem. 

20 For the invi- 
sible things of him 
from the creation of 
the world are clearly 
seen, being under- 
stood by the things 
that are made, even 
his eternal power and 
Godhead ; so that they 
are without excuse. 

21 Because that 
when they knew God, 
they glorified him not 
as God, neither were 
thankful, but became 
vain in their imagi- 
nations, and their 
foolish heart was 
darkened : 

22 Professing them- 
selves to be wise, they 
became fools, 

23 And changed 
the glory of the un- 
corruptible God, into 
an image made like to 
corruptible man, and 
to birds, and four- 
footed beasts, and 
creeping things. 

24 Wherefore God 
also gave them up to 
unclean ness, through 
the lusts of their own 
hearts, to dishonour 
their own bodies be- 
tween themselves : 

25 Who changed 




the truth of God into 
a lie, and worshipped 
and served the crea- 
ture more * thrm the 
Creator, who is bless- 
ed for ever. Amen. 

26 For this cause 
God gave them up 
unto vile affections : 
for even their women 
did change the natural 
use into that which is 
against nature. 

27 And likewise also 
the men, leaving the 
natural use of the wo- 
man, burned in their 
lust one toward an- 
other, men with men 
working that which is 
unseemly, and receiv- 
ing in themselves that 
reco in pence of their 
error which was meet. 

28 And even as 
they did not like to 
retain God in their 
knowledge, God gave 
them f over to a re- 
probate mind, to do 
those things which are 
not convenient J : 

God to leave such people, both m en A. D. 57 

and women, to commit things the most . 

unnatural to their sex, and dishonour- 
able to human nature, who, by wor- 
shipping the vilest creatures, had done 
such dishonour to their almighty and 
blessed Creator. 


28 And when they had the 
of truer and more just notions of God, 
they neglected and would make no im- 
provement of them, it was but a right- 
eous punishment for God to give them 
over to the perfect swing of a rash, in- 
judicious, | and unthinking temper, that 

* Ver. 25. More than the Creator. Not beside the Creator, (as 
some learned men imagine,) but <?«§«, above or more. For this 
word, when set between two nouns, does, in the New' Testament, 
denote a comparison. Thus Rom. xiv. 5. One esteems one day, vsu$x, 
above another. So Heb. i. 9. God hath anointed thee, waga, above 
thy fellows: and elsewhere. 

f Ver. 28. Efe aSojupof vouv, To a reprobate mind. The word a^o- 
x.i(xos being capable of two senses, viz. either rejected or disapproved, 
or else that of undisceming or injudicious, I have comprehended 
them both. 

% Ibid. Tot (M-n KccSwonot, Things which were not convenient. The 
meaning is, Things no way agreeable to human nature, as the follow- 
ing catalogues of vices plainly shews. I have therefore, I think, 
justly paraphrased it most abominable vices, taking our translation 
to be very dry, and short of expressing the spirit of the apostle in 
this phrase. This way of speaking is very common in the Old 
Testament. Thus, the use of a. false balance, and to have respect of 




A. D. 57. must render them odious to God, by 
the habitual practice of the most abo- 
minable vices ; 

29, 30, 31 Such as injustice, un- 
cleanness, treachery, covetousness, ma- 
lice, envy, murder, contention, cheating, 
mischievousness, whispering, defama- 
tion, hatred of God and goodness, 
abusiveness, haughtiness, flattery, in- 
vention, disobedience to parents, perfect 
unthoughtfulness, falsity to our words, 
oaths, and promises ; want of natural 
affection, implacableness, and inhu- 

32 Yet ail or some of these crimes, 
were the generality of heathen people 
guilty of, while reason and nature, nay 
several of their own laws, declared them 
such actions as deserved death, and 
consequently they ought to have con- 
cluded God must severely punish them; 
yet so desperately were they sunk in 
impiety, as not only to commit them 
themselves, but freely to communicate 
with, and even encourage others in the 
practice of them. And this is abundantly 
sufficient tb prove the Gentiles to be under 
the absolute want of Christ as a Sa- 
viour, by faith in whom alone they can be 
pardoned and redeemed. 

29 Being filled with 
all unrighteousness, 
fornication, wicked- 
ness, covetousness, 
maliciousness, full of 
envy, murder, de- 
bate, deceit, malig- 
nity, whisperers, 

30 Backbiters, hat- 
ers of God, despite- 
ful, proud, boasters, 
inventors of evil 
things, disobedient to 
parents ; 

31 Without un- 
derstanding, covenant 
breakers ; without na- 
tural affection, im- 
placable, unmerciful : 

3*2 Who knowing 
the judgment of God, 
(that they which com- 
mit such things are 
worthy of death,) not 
only do the same, but 
have pleasure in them 
that do them. 

persons, are said to be not good, Prov. xx. 23. xxviii. 21. i. e. exceed- 
ingly evil. And the sacrificing of children to Molech, are said to be 
things which God commanded not, nor entered into his heart, Jer. vii. 
31. xix. 5. i.e. which he severely forbade. See also Rev. iii. 2. 





The same impartial justice of God that must needs subject the Gentile 
sinners to divine wrath and punishment, must fall equally upon the 
Jews, while they are guilty of the same vices. For a wicked Jew 
therefore to condemn them as incapable of the Gospel and kingdom 
of the Messiah, is to cast himself by the same argument. God's future 
and solemn judgment will pass upon all men, in proportion to the 
light and advantages they have enjoyed, improved, or neglected. 
Outward privileges of religion not the thing that saves men. Sins 
against a revealed law, made the Jews more guilty than the heathens 
were. Wherefore they also must rely upon the sole mercies of Christ 
the Redeemer. 


thou art inex- 
cusable, O man, who- 
soever thou art that 
judgest : for wherein 
thou judgest another, 
thou condemnest thy- 
self ; for thoii that 
judgest, doest the same 

2 But we are sure 
that the judgment of 
God is according to 
truth, against them 
which commit such 

3 And thinkest 
thou this, O man, that 
judgest them which do 
such things, and doest 
the same, that thou 
shalt escape the judg- 
ment of God ) 

4 Or despisest thou 
the riches of his good- 
ness, and forbearance, 

1 ]VTOW if it be thus true, that the A.D. 57. 

r*v wrath of God is justly due upon 

the heinous and wilful impieties of all 
mankind ; and the Gentile part of the 
world is so plain an example of it, 
(chap, i.) it must needs follow, that if 
you Jews insult and condemn them 
upon this account, as utterly incapable 
of the Gospel-covenant and kingdom 
of the Messiah, you must condemn 
yourselves at the same time, because 
you are guilty of the same crimes. 

2 You may indeed be thus severe in 
your thoughts of their condition, and 
partial to yourselves ; but certain it is, 
both from the nature and will of God, 
that such degrees of wickedness must 
render all sorts of people, without dis- 
tinction, obnoxious to his just judg- 

3 And how can you so much as 
imagine, while you thus imperiously 
pass sentence upon others for trans- 
gressing the laws of nature, that you 
Jews can ever escape the divine venge- 
ance for committing the same things 
against the express law of Moses? 

4 Nay, is it not the highest affront 
to the divine mercy and patience to- 
ward you, that instead of improving it 




57. as the most winning engagement to 
— your own repentance and reformation, 
you should only abuse it into an argu- 
ment for insulting and despising the 
rest of mankind. 

5 Certainly your obstinate refusal of 
the Gospel terms of pardon and salva- 
tion, will be a dreadful aggravation of 
all your former crimes, in the day of 
God's final judgment. 

6 Who will then, with an exact and 
impartial justice, bestow his bounteous 
rewards, and inflict severe punishments, 
upon all people of every nation and 
profession whatever, in proportion to 
the knowledge they have had of his di- 
vine will. 

7 He will bestow eternal glory and 
happiness upon all (whether Jews or 
Gentiles) who endeavour after it, by 
constantly adhering to the religion of 
Jesus Christ. 

8, 9 And, on the contrary, will inflict 
most exquisite and terrible punishments 
upon all that by wilful and obstinate 
prejudices of humour, lusts, or passions, 
refuse to believe and live up to it ; upon 
wicked and unbelieving Jews, in pro- 
portion to their greater ingratitude in 
refusing the first offers of it f made to 
them ; and upon unbelieving Gentiles, 
in a just proportion to theirs also. 

10, 11 But glory, honour, and peace, 
shall then be the reward of all true dis- 
ciples of Christ, of whatever nation : 
for God will make no distinctions on 
account of any former privileges or re- 
lations of people to him. 

* and long suffering, 
not knowing that the 
goodness of God lead- 
eth thee to repent- 
ance } 

5 But after thy 
hardness and impeni- 
tent heart, treasurest 
up unto thyself wrath 
against the day of 
wrath, and revelation 
of the righteous judg- 
ment of God. 

6 Who will render 
to every man accord- 
ing to his deeds : 

7 To them, who 
by patient continu- 
ance in well doing, 
seek for glory, and 
honour, and immorta- 
lity, eternal life : 

8 But unto them 
that are contentious, 
and do not obey the 
truth, but obey un- 
righteousness, indig- 
nation and wrath, 

9 Tribulation and 
anguish upon every 
soul of man that doeth 
evil, of the Jew first, 
and also of the Gen- 
tile f. 

10 But glory, ho- 
nour, and peace, to 
every man that work- 
eth good, to the Jew 
first, and also to the 

* Ver. 4. Forbearance and long suffering. Compare 2 Pet. iii. 15, 
16. and see Dr. Mill's Prolegom. §. 28. 

t Ver. 9. To the Jew first. See Acts xiii. 46. 




11 For there is 
no respect of persons 
with God. 

12 For as many as 
have sinned without 
law, shall also perish 
without law : and as 
many as have sinned 
in the law, shall be 
judged by the law ; 

A. P. 

13 (For not the 
hearers of the law are 
just before God, but 
the doers of the law 
shall be justified. 

14 For when the 
Gentiles which have 
not the law, do by 
nature the things 
contained in the law ; 
these having not the 
law, are a law unto 
themselves : 

15 Which shew the 
work of the law writ- 
ten in their hearts, 
their conscience also 
bearing witness, and 
their thoughts the 
mean while accusing, 
or else excusing one 
another :) 

16 In the day when 
God shall judge the * 

12 Nay, and God will not only, }n 
that day, reward every one, as a Chris- 
tian believer, indifferently, but will ex- 
ercise perfect justice and mercy, even 
to heathens that never had any oppor- 
tunity of knowing his revealed wi]l. 
Those that transgressed against the 
mere light of nature, shall be judged 
and punished only by the laws of na- 
ture; whilst the Jews that sinned against 
the revealed law of Moses, shall receive 
a punishment proportionable to the 
abuse of such a greater light. 

13 For you are infinitely mistaken, 
if you think the bare external privilege 
of being under the covenant of Abra- 
ham, and profession of the Jewish re- 
lio-ion, is enough to save you; no, 
nothing but a life suitable to the laws 
you are under, will do that. 

14 And you are as much in the wrong 
when you conclude those good hea- 
thens can no way be justified and saved, 
because they have had no written and 
positive laws of God as you Jews have ; 
for if they perform the same moral and 
substantial duties, by their industrious 
use of the light of reason and nature, 
that a Jew does, by direction of the 
written law, they are so far a law unto 
themselves ; 

15 That is, their own reason and 
consciences, by which they honestly 
judge between what is good and evil, 
lawful and unlawful to be done, is the 
same moral rule to them, as the written 
law is to you ; and they shall be con- 
demned or acquitted, according to the 
improvements they make of the plain 
dictates of it. 

16 This impartial distribution of di- 
vine justice, both to Jew and Gentile, 

* V T er. 16. When God shall j^dge the secrets of men, ra x ? : 
YOI,. J. p 




A. D. 57. 1 say, shall be made at the great and 

solemn day of judgment ; when Jesus 

Christ, appointed by God the Father 
to be the Judge of the whole world, 
shall pass sentence upon all the secret, 
as well as open actions of all men, 
(weighing the conditions, circumstances, 
and advantages of every one,) according 
to the Gospel-doctrine that I have 

17? 18 Nor can your being Jews, 
exempt you from the just punishment 
due to your former wickedness, and 
present infidelity, any more than theirs 
will them. For pray consider, you are 
indeed Jews, and have the privilege of 
a revealed law of God ; in this you 
exalt yourselves as a peculiar people, 
brought up in the knowledge of the di- 
vine will, skilful in the most excellent 
points of religion # , and perfect judges 
between things lawful and forbidden. 

19, 20 The poor heathens you call 
the blind and the ignorant ; yourselves 
you style doctors and rabbies. The 
proselytes that come over to be in- 
structed in your religion, you call babes 
and fools, and infants in understanding; 
and yourselves masters -and teachers of 
truth, as having a complete scheme of 
all divine duties and precepts. 

21, 22 Now what a shameful thing 
is it, that you who prescribe rules as 
absolutely necessary to others f, should 

secrets of men by Je- 
sus Christ, according 
to my Gospel. 

17 Behold, thou 
art called a Jew, and 
restest in the law, and 
makest thy boast of 
God : 

18 And knowest 
his will, and approv- 
est the * things that 
are more excellent, 
being instructed out 
of the law. 

19 And art confi- 
dent that thou thyself 
art a guide of the 
blind, a light of them 
which are in darkness, 

20 An instructor of 
the foolish, a teacher 
of babes, which hast 
the form of know- 
ledge, and of the truth 
in the law. 

21 Thou therefore 
which teachest an- 
other, teachest thou 

aiSpvruv. The meaning of this phrase is, not that God is to judge 
the secret in opposition to the open actions of men, but is to judge 
of and reward all men by their inward moral dispositions and qua- 
lifications, in contradistinction to their external and formal profes- 
sion of religion ; agreeably to the 28th and c 29th verses. 

* Ver. 18. Td .W^ovTa, The things that are most excellent; the 
word signifying either the most sublime points of religion, or else 
the difference between things lawful and forbidden. 1 have ex- 
pressed both senses. 

f Ver. 21. See Matt, xxiii. 3, 4. Agreeably to which passage, 




not thyself ? thou 
that preachest, A man 
should not steal, dost 
thou steal ? 

22 Thou that say- 
est, A man should not 
commit adultery, dost 
thou commit adulte- 
ry } thou that abhor- 
rest idols, dost thou 
commit sacrilege ) 

23 Thou that mak- 
est thy boast of the 
law, through break- 
ing the law dishonour- 
est thou God ? 

24 For the name 
of God is blasphemed 
among the Gentiles, 
through you, as it is 
written : 

25 For circumci- 
sion verily profiteth, 
if thou keep the law : 
but if thou be a break- 
er of the law, thy 
circumcision is made 

26 Therefore, if 
the uncircumcision 
keep the righteous- 
ness of the law, shall 
not his uncircumci- 
sion be counted for 
circumcision ? 

27 And shall not 
uncircumcision which 

openly break and violate them your- A. D. 

selves ? That you should steal while 

you pronounce punishment due for 
stealing ; declare adultery to be unlaw- 
ful* and yet be yourselves adulterers ; 
and pretend to abhor idolatry, and yet 
sacrilegiously rob God by a thousand 
other wavs? 

23 Can you, do you think, thus 
openly discredit your profession, and 
dishonour God the divine Author of it, 
and yet boast yourselves under the vio- 
lations of its plainest duties, without the 
most terrible punishments for it ? 

24 For I must tell you plainly, The 
vices of the Jewish nation are now so 
scandalous, that you have brought the 
same contempt upon the Mosaical re- 
ligion, as was done formerly by David, 
2 Sam. xii. 14. and by your forefathers 
in Ezek. xxxvi. 20, 23. 

25 It is a great blessing and advan- 
tage indeed, to be of the true church of 
God, if you live agreeably to the laws 
of it ; but otherwise it is the same thing 
as if you had continued heathens still, 
and had never been circumcised at all. 

26 Nay, an honest heathen that was 
never received into the church by cir- 
cumcision, if he fulfils the moral duties 
of religion to the best of his natural 
power, shall be accepted and propor- 
tionably rewarded for his improvements 
in true virtue, as much as if he had 
been a member of the Jewish church. 

27 And as much as you are apt to 
insult and exclude such an one from 

the apostle seems in these expressions to aim particularly at the 
Scribes and Pharisees. But that the Jewish nation was now gene- 
rally guilty of the same crimes that the worst of heathens had been, 
the reader may see in Josephus of the Jewish Wars, lib. vi. chap. 
xxvii.26. and chap, xxxvii. and in lib. v. chip, xxxiv. and elsewhere. 

r J 




A. X). 57. all divine favours and privileges of the 

church of God, he shall, by his careful 

performance of these natural duties, be 
an argument to aggravate your punish- 
ment, for transgressing the revealed 
law of God ; and his acceptance of the 
religion of Christ shall doubly con- 
demn you that stand out against your 
own Messiah. 
^ 28, 2.9 For I tell you again, mere 
circumcision and outward profession, 
does not make any man a true Israelite 
and a son of Abraham. He only is 
truly such, who answers the design of 
his religion, by imitating and following 
the faith and piety of Abraham ; and 
though all your boastings and applauses 
are spent upon the name and form of 
religion, it is inward principles and 
purity that God will commend, and 
eternally reward us for. 

is by nature, if it ful- 
fil the law, judge 
thee, who by the let- 
ter, and circumcision, 
dost transgress the 
law ? 

2S For he is not 
a Jew, which is one 
outwardly j neither is 
that circumcision, 
which is outward in 
the flesh : 

29 But he is a Jew, 
which is one inward- 
ly; and circumcision 
is that of the heart, 
in the spirit, and not 
in the letter, whose 
praise is not of men. 
but of God. 


The Jew or Jewish Christian objects, That if the Gentiles are equally 
capable of the benefits of Christ as themselves, the covenant of Abra- 
ham and of Moses ivas of no advantage at all to the Jewish nation. 
The apGstle answers this, by shewing the advantage of a written and 
revealed law to the Jews, above the mere law of nature to the Gentiles. 
But that now, by their notorious transgression of that revealed law, 
the Jews had rendered themselves equally obnoxious to the divine 
wrath with the Gentiles ; so that all were upon the level, and had 
all one and the same gracious condition of Christ's redemption, with- 
out any further regard to the ceremonial law, which was utterly 
unable to atone for such habitual violations of the moral laws of God. 

1 "OUT now, if all, both Gentiles 
•*-* and Jews, do lie under an equal 
necessity, and are equally capable of the 
Gospel pardon and salvation, as I have 
proved, (chap. i. ii.) the Jews *, and 

1 XyHAT advan- 
tage then 
hath the Jew ? or 
what profit is there of 
circumcision ? 

* Jews and Jewish converts. The apostle's argument is equally 
applicable to the prejudices of both ; nor is it easy to say, to which 
of them the discourse of these, and a considerable part of the fol- 
lowing chapters, is particularly directed. 




l 2 Much every way : 
chiefly, because that 
unto them were com- 
mitted the oracles of 

3 For what if some 
did not believe ? shall 
their unbelief make 
the faith of God with- 
out effect } 

4 God forbid : yea, 
let God be true, but 
every man a liar ; as 
it is written, That 
thou mightest be jus- 
tified in thy sayings, 
and mightest over- 
come when thou art 

5 But if our un- 
righteousness com- 
mend the righteous- 
ness of God, what 
shall we say ? Is God 
unrighteous, who tak- 
eth vengeance ? (* I 
speak as a man.) 

you Jewish converts, will object and A. D. 57. 

say, What advantage was it then to us 

to be ever Jews, or in covenant with 
God at all, if at last the Gentiles are as 
acceptable in their piety, and have as 
great a privilege in Christ the Messiah 
as we have ? 

2 I answer, it was a great privilege 
to have the written law of God, and to 
be acquainted with those scriptures, 
which were not only more clear and 
express in point of duties than the bare 
laws of nature, but served also to in- 
struct and train you up to the faith and 
religion of Christ the Messiah. 

3 And though it is too true, the 
Jewish nation has been generally un- 
grateful under these happy advantages, 
and shew their ingratitude now to the 
last degree in rejecting their Saviour ; 
yet God is still pleased to stand to his 
promise made to Abraham; and the 
mercy and favour of these privileges is 
the same, or rather greater, for being 
conferred on so undeserving a people. 

4< For whatever the perverse beha- 
viour and base returns of mankind 
may be under the dispensations of di- 
vine mercies or judgments, God is still 
the same merciful and wise Governor, 
and according to that of Psalm li. 4. 
appears perfectly so in all his dealings 
with us. 

5 But perhaps you may urge me 
further, (I put it now in the language 
of some contentious * Jews,) if the di- 
vine favour and mercy shews itself more 
abundant and exalted, by giving such 
privileges, and punctually performing 
his promises to so ungrateful and per- 

* Ver. 5. Kax' a>V rov M*< Wj J s V mk as a man ' Tlmt thiS expres " 
sion does not always signify to speak as a bare natural heathen would 
do, (as the very learned and reverend Dr. Whitby thinks it does,) 
I take to be clear from the use of it in this place, where the ohjec- 





• Gen. 

xviii. 25. 

A. D. 57. verse a nation ns we, why should God 
punish us for it? Does it not seem un- 
just to be so severe upon those very 
crimes that magnify and illustrate his 

6 God forbid any man should be 
thus perverse, as to draw so false and 
dangerous a conclusion ! For if God 
could be any way unjust in punishing, 
he would be* but ill qualified to be the 
Judge of all * the world, because a just 
and wise judge must punish as well as 

7, 8 You say. that when I allow the 
favours of God to any people, to be 
more gloriously sot off by their ingra- 
titude under .them, I do as good as in- 
fer, Ingratitude cannot justly be punished; 
that men may sin on, because the more 
they sin, the more illustrious is the mercy 
they sin against. But this is a most ma- 
licious turn put upon my words. For 
though good done against evil, and fa- 
vours against ingratitude, are indeed 
magnified the one by the other; yet the 
lustre set upon the good, is not owing 
to the nature of the evil, or the design 
of him that commits it, but to the ge- 
nerous temper of him that does the good. 
The evil h really aggravated, not less- 
ened in its guilt and punishment upon 
this account ; and so they will find it to 
their cost, who thus maliciously pervert 
my doctrine. 

'9 To return then to the former ob- 
jection. What diirerence is there be- 
tween Jew and Gentile ? Why, I say, 
there has been all along a considerable 
one in respect of the written law; but 

6 God forbid : for 
then how shall God 
judge the world ? 

7 For if the truth 
of God hath more a- 
oounded through my 
life unto his glory ; 
why yet an) I also 
judged as a sinner ? 

8 And not rather, 
as we be slanderously 
reported, and as some 
affirm that we say, Let 
us do evil, that good 
may come ? whose 
damnation is just. 

9 What then 1 are 
we better than they ? 
No, in no wise : for 
we have before prov- 
ed both Jews and 

tion proposed is evidently a Jewish one, as the allusion made use 
of, chap. vi. 19. is to a Roman usage of slaves. As therefore x«t' at- 
•Vt-vv, signifies human in general ; so x»t' a»S§wro» xiyuv, is to speak 
iici homintm, agreeably to the notions of the persons one is arguing 
withal, and to argue from those notions. 




Gentiles, that they 
are all under sin ; 

10 As it is written, 
There is none righte- 
ous, no not one : 

now under the Gospel, as all are found A. D. h7- 

to be sinners, either against the laws of ■ 

nature, or against that of Moses, all 
stand in equal necessity of a Redeemer, 
are alike capable of his redemption, and 
there is no difference at all left. 

10 For it is too notorious, the Jews 
of this age do but too well deserve the 
descriptions given by the Psalmist, Ps. 
xiv. for, excepting some few particular 
persons, it may be said of the generality, 
that there is none that doeth good, no not 


11 There is none 
that understandeth, 
there is none that 
seeketh after God. 

12 They are all 
gone out of the way, 
they are together be- 
come unprofitable, 
there is none that do- 
eth good, no not one. 

13 Their throat is 
an open sepulchre j 
with their tongues 
they have used deceit j 
the poison of asps is 
under their lips : 

14 Whose mouth 
is full of cursing and 
bitterness : 

15 Their feet are 
swift to shed blood : 

16 Destruction and 
misery are in their 

17 And the way of 
peace have they not 
known : 

18 There is no 
fear of God before 
their eyes. 

19 Now we know, 
that what things so- 

1 1 There is none that understandeth, 
(or considereth,) there is none that seeketh 
after God. 

12 They are all gone out of the way, 
they are altogether become unprofitable ; 
there is none that doeth good, no not one. 

1 3 Their throat is as an open sepulchre, 
(filthy in their language and conversation ;) 
ivith their tongues they have used, deceit ; 
the poison of asps is under their lips : 

14 Whose mouth is full of cursing and 
bitterness : 

1 5 Their feet are swift (to carry them) 
to shed blood : 

16 Destruction and misery are in their 

ways : 

17 And the way of peace have they not 
known : 

1 8 There is no fear of God before their 

19 I know indeed that you and your 
doctors * take these expressions of the 

* Ver. 19. See Dr. Lightfoot, Heb. and Talmud. Exerc. on the 
foregoing verses. 





A. D. :>7. Psalmist to be meant of the heat] 


• but be that as it will, it is certain that 
whatever characters and black descrip- 
tions of vice and wickedness are given 
in any part of the Old Testament, must 
hold much more black in their nature, 
and fatal in their consequences upon 
the people that live under the light and 
benefit of those writings, if they be guilty 
of them ; * which is enough to silence 
you for ever from your boastings and 
pretences of being in a better state than 
the Gentiles are now. 

£0 You must not therefore expect to 
be justified by the Jewish law, a law 
that has laid you under a peremptory 
and plain curse, for your notorious 
breaches of its precepts, and of which 
you have made no other advantage, but 
to prove yourselves under perfect guilt 
and condemnation. 

21 And happy is it for you, that 
God has now proposed to you, and all 
mankind, the offers of pardon and sal- 
vation under the Gospel; not upon the 
rigorous terms of the observance of all 
the numerous precepts of that law, but 
upon terms more merciful ; the same 
that your writings of the Old Testa- 
ment f often spoke of and promised ; 

22 I mean that of faith in Christ the 
Messiah, and obedience to his moral and 
spiritual religion, upon w^hich all the 
world, Jew and Gentile, are to be ac- 
cepted, by virtue of what he has done 
and suffered for them. 

23, 24 Because as all are in the 
same absolute want of a Redeemer, by 

ever the law saith, it 
saith to them who are 
under the law : * that 
every mouth may be 
stopped,, and all the 
world may become 
guilty before God. 

20 Therefore by 
the deeds of the law 
there shall no flesh be 
justified in his sight: 
for by the law is" the 
knowledge of sin. » 

21 But now the 
righteousness of God 
without the law is 
manifested, being wit- 
nessed by the law and 
the prophets ; 

22 Even the righ- 
teousness of God 
ivhich is by faith of 
Jesus Christ unto all, 
and upon all them that 
believe ; for there is 
no difference : 

23 For all have sin- 
ned, and come short 
of the glory of God ; 

* Ver. 11). Iva, kjoLv rop*. <Pz<x,y*, So that every month is stopped. 

f Ver. 21. Witnessed by the law and the prophets, i. e. the Old Tes- 
tament. Thus Abraham, Abel, Enoch, and Job, and all the pa- 
triarchs, were saved by faith. Thus the prophets foretold the just 
should live by faith, in all their predictions of the times of the 
Messiah. See Isa. i. 16, 17. Jer. xxxi. 31. See Heb. xi. 




24 Being justified 
freely by his grace, 
through the redemp- 
tion that is in Jesus 
Christ : 

25 Whom God hath 
set forth to be a propi- 
tiation, through faith 
in his blood, * to de- 
clare his righteousness 
for the remission of 
sins that are past, 
through the forbear- 
ance of God. 

26 * To declare, I 
say, at this time his 
righteousness: that he 
might be just, .and the 
justifier of him which 
believeth in Jesus. 

27 Where is boast- 
ing then ? It is ex- 
cluded. By what law? 
of works? Nay j but 
by the law of faith. 

2S Therefore we 
conclude, that a man 
is justified by faith 
without the deeds of 
the law. 

29 Is he the God 
of the Jews only r is 
he not also of the 

their wilful transgressions, so God will A. D. 57. 

apply the free mercies of his redemption 

to all alike, that will accept and live up 
to the conditions of it. 

25 And upon this sincere faith and 
obedience, mast all mankind now apply 
to him for pardon and happiness, as 
the Jews were wont to do to the mercy-- 
seat upon the day of expiation. And m 
this method of man's redemption, hath 
God displayed, in the most wonderful 
manner, his divine justice, wisdom, 
truth, and mercy, as Governor of the 

26 His divine justice and wisdom in 
requiring a satisfaction for the sins of 
men, and at ths same time his mercy 
and veracity, both in giving the promise 
to Abraham, in fulfilling it to so un- 
grateful a nation as the Jews, and in 
receiving all mankind to pardon and 
eternal happiness upon such gracious 
and merciful terms as that of faith and 
obedience to Christ. 

27 And if this be now the general 
and only condition offered to us all, 
what are all your insulting triumphs 
over the Gentile world come to? In- 
deed if your notions of mere legal privi- 
leges were true, you might value your- 
selves and exclude them ; but the Gospel 
covenant has cut you short of all such 

28 For it is clear from what I have 
said, that both they and you are to be 
pardoned and saved by the faith of the 
Gospel, and that your legal observances 
can have no share in it. 

29, 30 And is it not now evident, 
that though God was pleased to permit 
the Gentile world to remain a long time 

* Ver. 25, 26. To declare his righteousness, Tvfc Sixouoo-vwi? aviS, 
his mercy and compassion. So Mkouos, Matt. i. 19. is a merciful man. 




A, D. 57. in ignorance, without any express reve- 

lation of his will to them ; yet he did 

not intend to leave them for ever desti- 
tute, or shut out of his church ; but al- 
ways designed to shew himself their 
merciful God and Creator, as well as 
yours, by bringing you all, one day, 
under the gracious covenant and privi- 
leges of Jesus Christ the Messiah. 

31 Nor can you say, that this doc- 
trine makes your law useless, or any 
way contradicts it ; for it is confirmed 
by the design of the lave, and is agree- 
able to the predictions of your own 

Gentiles? Yes, of the 
Gentiles also : 

30 Seeing it is one 
God which shall jus- 
tify the circumcision 
by faith, and uncir- 
cumcision through 

31 Do we then 
make void the law- 
through faith ? God 
forbid : yea, we esta- 
blish the law. 


The apostle goes on to shew, that justification, and the favour of God, 
is not to be obtained by ceremonial performances, but by religious 
faith: from the instance of Abraham, the father of the Jewish church. 
His faith made him acceptable to God before ever he was circumcised. 
Therefore all that imitate his faith, by believing in fesus Christ, may 
be pardoned and saved without circumcision. This faith alone makes 
men his spiritual children, according to the promise. So that to say, 
mere legal performances can save the Jews as his posterity, is as much 
as to say, it was not his religious faith that justified and saved him. 

1 ri^HAT by your notorious trans- 1 

-*- gressions of the law then, the 
Jews as well as Gentiles are under the 
absolute want of the Gospel pardon 
and redemption, I have proved, (chap, 
ii. and iii.) and that the ceremonial ob- 
servances of the Mosaical law, are not 
the things that can justify and save you, 
I shall now further prove to you, from 
the undeniable instance of Abraham the 
father * of our nation. I ask there- 
fore, was he justified and rewarded by 

VyHAT shall we 

say then, that 

Abraham * our father, 

as pertaining to the 

flesh, hath found ? 

* Ver. 1. xaTc^ a-d^xa, concerning the flesh. Whether this phrase 
is to be joined to -crai-*^, father, or to ibgnninu, hath found, is not abso- 
lutely to be determined. And though the latter seem6 much the more 
natural construction, I have expressed them both. See chap. i. S. 




1 For if Abraham 
were justified by 
works, he hath where- 
of to glory, but not 
before God. 

3 For what saith 
the Scripture ? * Abra- 
ham believed God, 
and it was counted f 
unto him for righte- 

4 Now to him that 
worketh is the reward 
not reckoned of grace, 
but of debt. 

5 But to him that 
worketh not, but be- 
lieveth on him that 
justifieth the ungodly, 
his faith is counted for 

virtue of a mere external privilege, and A. D. 57. 
the bare performance of circumcision f — — 

2 If he were indeed, he might have 
boasted and prided himself above all 
other people, as you now do. But it is 
plain, Abraham did not do so ; as well 
knowing it was the free bounty of God 
rewarding his moral obedience, and not 
any outward privilege, or performance, 
that justified and saved him. 

3 But, look upon the Scripture ac- 
count of it, and that will make it plainer. 
It is there said f, (Gen. xv. 6.) That 

for an eminent act of faith, God ivas so 
highly pleased with him, that though 
Abraham might have many failings and 
imperfections, he was accepted, as if he 
were perfectly and completely righteous, 

4 God, I say, out of perfect bounty, 
thus accepted him; for if Abraham 
% had done any thing that by its own 
virtue could have rendered him a per- 
fectly good man, the acceptance and re- 
ward had been a just debt, and not a 
favour conferred on him. 

5 Whereas, on the contrary, it is evi- 
dent, God declared him righteous, par- 
doned, and accepted, and then gave him 
the covenant and the promise, not as one 
that had absolutely deserved it by J any 
performances, or could claim it by any 
privilege, but as a free and gracious re- 
ward for his faith in Jam, who by the 
goodness and bountifulness of the divine 
nature, is always ready to pardon and 
accept all those who sincerely believe 
and obey him. 

* Ver. 1, 3. Abraham. See the same argument made use of in 
Gal. iii. 

f Ver. 3. 'E\oyia-%, It was counted unto him, plainly signifies, the. 
putting or adding to the balance of one's account, out of pure gift and 

X Ver. 4, 5. To him that worketh, and, to him that worketh not; T> 
i^ya^Ojur'vw, koci tw /**? l^yu^ofxtvu, viz. rv 'a£%xc2u, as the connection of 
the apostle's discourse plainly requires. 




A. D. 57. 6, 7> 8 And this manner of God's 

■ pardoning or justifying men is the same 

that David means, (Psal. xxxii. I, 2.) 
even while your law was in force; for 
you cannot understand those words of 
the man that is justified by virtue of his 
awn complete holiness, (much less any 
external privileges of the law,) but of 
the sincere man, that is pardoned for 
his past sins, by the mercy of God upon 
the sincerity of his repentance and faith. 

9, 10 Well then, it will be an easy 
matter to know, whether this great bless- 
ing of pardon and acceptance with God 
were intended to be confined to the 
Jewish church, and not extended to the 
Gentile world, purely because they are 
uncircumcised. Look upon Abraham's 
case again, was he accepted before he 
w r as circumcised, or after it? Before it 
certainly, (Gen. xvi. 6.) 

11 And the external performance of 
circumcising himself and his family was 
so far from being any way the cause and 
reason of his justification, that it was no- 
thing else but a sign and pledge that 
God gave him, to shew him, and to be 
a memorandum to his posterity, how ac- 
ceptable his faith was, and how sure he 
would be to reward it in him and them 
that imitated it. And as Abraham was 
justified before circumcision; it is plain, 
that all people whatever that follow his 
faith, may be saved without it. For as 
it was faith in God that made him the 
father and pattern of true believers ; so 
whoever has that faith, though he be a 
Gentile, is his true son *. 

6 Even as David 
also described the 
blessedness of the man 
unto whom God im- 
puteth righteousness 
without works, 

7 Saying, Blessed 
are they whose ini- 
quities are forgiven, 
and whose sins are co- 

S Blessed is the man 
to whom the Lord 
will not impute sin. 

9 Cometh this bless- 
edness then upon the 
circumcision only, or 
upon the uncircumci- 
sion also? For we say, 
that faith was reckon- 
ed to Abraham for 

10 How was it 
then reckoned } when 
he was in circumci- 
sion, or in uncircum- 
cision ? not in circum- 
cision, but in uncir- 

11 And he receiv- 
ed the sign of circum- 
cision, a seal of the 
righteousness of the 
faith, which he had 
yet being uncircum- 
cised : that he might 
be the father of all 
them that believe, 
though they be not 
circumcised ; that 
righteousness might 
be imputed unto them 

* Ver. 11. Ei\- to itvvu aCrov -ar*TE§a ttuvTuv tvv ■mrwonuv. So that 




12 And the father 
of the circumcision to 
them who are not of 
the circumcision only, 
but also walk in the 
6teps of that faith of 
our father Abraham, 
which he had, being yet 

13 For the pro- 
mise that he should 
be the heir of the 
world, was not to A- 
braham, or to his seed 
through the law, but 
through the righteous- 
ness of faith. 

14 For if they 
which are of the law 
be heirs, faith is made 
void, and the promise 
made of none effect. 

15 Because the law 
worketh wrath : for 
where no law is, there 
is no transgression. 

12 And then he is the father of the A. D. 57. 

Jews also, but a spiritual father, not to all 

the nation barely as his posterity by 
circumcision ; but to such Jews only as 
imitate that faith of his that saved him, 
before ever he was circumcised at all. 

13, 14 For as it would be most ab- 
surd for you to say, the promise of 
Abraham's being the father of all true 
believers, was given him by virtue of 
circumcision * that was after it, (much 
less by your whole law * that was given 
four hundred years afterward,) but 
you must make it to have been the re- 
ward of his faith ; so to say, this pro- 
mise is entailed upon your nation his 
natural posterity, merely as circumcised, 
and as subjects of the Mosaical law, is 
to make his faith signify nothing in the 
case, and the promise to have no re- 
lation to it. 

15 And indeed you cannot have it 
by the law, which is a dispensation 
abounding with duties, and severe curses 
and penalties annexed to the breach 
of them : and as you have managed 
yourselves under it, in a wilful violation 
of its precepts, all the advantage that I 
see you have gained by it, is a load of 
guilt it has laid you under; and had 
such a sinful people as you had no re- 

he is the Father of all believers. In the same sense of the phrase 
in chap. i. *20. and in ver. lb', of this chapter, where sk ro &ou ought 
to be rendered, so thai. 

* Ver. 13, 14, 15. The law, may in these verses signify circumcision, 
as the sacramental rite that obliged them to the whole law, or else the 
whole law itself. Certain it is the apostle uses this word in some- 
times a fuller, at other times in a more limited signification ; taking 
it in some passages for the whole mass of the Jewish law, in others 
for only the ceremonial part of it, and in some for the whole Old 
Testament writings. I have distinguished them in my paraphrase 
as the sense and connection requires, and refer the reader to the 
particulars in the Index. 




A. D. 57.velation of God's will at all, you had 

been much less obnoxious to the divine 

displeasure than you now are. 

16 It must therefore be had by the 
imitation of Abraham's faith. And 
surely God has now done much better 
for you and all the world, in making it 
so: it being a condition much more 
gracious * and mild than the observ- 
ance of your law ; and the most perfect 
manner" of fulfilling the promise made 
to him, by making it extend to all vir- 
tuous and faithful people, whether cir- 
cumcised or not. 

17 (For in that sense only the Scrip- 
ture calls him, The father of many na- 
tions,) and as such a spiritual fat her and 
example was he looked upon by that 
God f in whom he so fully believed, as 
to trust he could quicken and revive the 
decayed bodies of himself and Sarah, 
though almost dead with age ; and do 
things to us the most unaccountable 
and seemingly impossible, with as much 
certainty, as if they were already effected. 

18 For this was the excellency of his 
faith, that when by the course of nature 
he saw no possibility of his having any 
children ; yet upon the divine promise 
he assured himself of a numerous off- 
spring, for which he was called the Fa- 
ther of all true believers of all nations, and 
promised a seed as numerous as the stars 
of heaven. 

19, 20, 21 The divine promise, I 
say, made by the God of nature, made 
him justly lay aside all objections arising 

16 Therefore it is 
of faith, that it might 
* be by grace ; to the 
end the promise might 
be sure to all the seed, 
not to that only which 
is of the law, but to 
that also which is of 
the faith of Abraham, 
who is the father of 
us all. 

17 (As it is writ- 
ten, I have made thee 
a father of many nati- 
ons,) before him whom 
he believed, ei?- w God, 
who quickeneth the 
dead, and calleth those 
things which be not, 
as though they were. 

18 Who against 
hope believed in hope, 
that he might become 
the father of many 
nations : according to 
that which was spok- 
en, So shall thy seed 

19 And being not 
weak in faith, he con- 
sidered not his own 

* Ver. 16. *Iva kcctoo xH»> so as to ^ e a P ure ly gracious dispen- 
sation : or else thus, and so it (i. e. justification) is by grace, i. e. 
by the Gospel religion. 

f Ver. 17, Before him in whom he believed. The construction 
seems plainly to be this, 05 lr* w«Tr!f «7«vtw» xa.7tva.vTi ov linrivj-tv ©tot , 
The father of us all, (i, e. Jews and Gentiles) in God's esteem in whom 
he believed. 




body now dead, when 
he was about an hun- 
dred years old, nei- 
ther yet the deadness 
of Sarah's womb. 

20 He staggered 
not at the promise of 
God through unbelief, 
but was strong in 
faith, giving glory to 

21 And being fully 
persuaded, that what 
he had promised, he 
was able also to per- 

22 And therefore 
it was imputed to him 
for righteousness. 

23 Now it was not 
written for his sake a- 
lone, that it was im- 
puted to him. 

24 But for us also, 
to whom it shall be 
imputed, if we believe 
on him that raised up 
Jesus our Lord from 
the dead ; 

25 Who was deli- 
vered for our offences, 
and was raised again 
for our justification. 

from natural impossibilities, and pay A. D. 

the utmost honour to his Creator, by a 

rational and full confidence in his infi- 
nite power and absolute veracity. 


92 For this admirable instance of 
faith, as the ground of all future obedi- 
ence to the divine will, he was accepted 
of God as a truly righteous and faithful 

23, 24 Now this account of the faith 
and reward of this great man, was not 
left upon record merely to celebrate his 
name and character ; but the blessings 
of it extend to us and all the world, who 
are to be pardoned and justified by faith 
in Jesus Christ, as he was by his faith 
in God, who raised up Jesus from the 

25 Even Jesus the Messiah, who by 
his death and sufferings has obtained 
pardon for our sins, and by his resur- 
rection has given us a pledge of our 
future resurrection to immortal life, 
upon our faith and obedience to his 





Having proved, that faith in God was the thing that justified Abraham, 
and that faith in Jesus Christ, and embracing his religion, must now, 
by the same reason, justify every true Christian ; he proceeds to shew, 
that this gracious and merciful condition of salvation is offered to the 
Gentiles as well as Jews. C'irist's death redeemed all sinners, there- 
fore all have eternal life in him. The analogy between Adam and 
Christ. The merits of the one must be as extensive to save, as the 
sin of the other icas to condemn. Nay, they are intrinsically more 
available to it. Christ therefore is the Redeemer of the Gentiles, or 
else all analogy is lost between the first and second Adam. 

A. D. 57. 1 T^ROM what I have said in the 

■ -*- foregoing chapters, it evidently 

appears, that faith in Christ, and obe- 
dience to his religion, is sufficient to 
obtain pardon and reconciliation to 
God, both to Jew and Gentile, without 
the law of Moses. 

2 By this religion of Christ, I say, 
do all true believers attain the happy 
favour of being the people of God. 
This we stand * firmly to ; and as you 
Jewish zealots are wont to boast your- 
selves against the Gentiles, upon ac- 
count of your law ; all true Christians 
do with much better reason rejoice and 
triumph over you, in a full assurance of 
eternal life and happiness. 

3 And so lively and effectual is this 
persuasion in us -f, that it makes us bear 
up under all hardships and sufferings 
for the sake of our religion, with per- 
fect joy and satisfaction : being inured 
and wrought up by those sufferings 
into that most excellent virtue of pati- 


faith, we have peace 
with God through our 
Lord Jesus Christ: 

2 By whom also 
we have access by 
faith into this grace 
* wherein we stand, 
and rejoice in hope of 
the glory of God. 

3 And not only so, 
but we glory in tribu- 
lations also, knowing 
that tribulation work- 
eth patience j 

* Ver. 2. Wherein we stand, h r> Irma^iv, wherein we continue firm 
and stedfast. So we rightly translate the word, Gal. v. 1. 

f Ver. 3, 4. The apostle speaks in the plural number, as joining 
himself with the Gentile converts, whose cause he is still pleading in 
this chapter. See chap. vii. ix. 




4 And patience *, 
experience; and expe- 
rience, hopej 

5 And hope mak- 
eth not ashamed, be- 
cause the love of God 
is shed abroad in our 
hearts by the Holy 
Ghost, which is given 
unto us. 

6 For when we 
were yet without 
strength, in due time 
Christ died for the 

7 For scarcely for 
a righteous man will 
one die : yet perad- 
venture for a good 
man some would even 
dare to die. 

8 But God com- 
mendeth his love to- 
wards us, in that, 
while we were yet 
sinners, Christ died for 

9 Much more then, 
being now justified by 

4 This patience gives us a continual A. D. 57 

sense and experience both of our own 

sincerity towards God, and of his power 

and protection over us, for whose cause 
we suffer. And this fills us again with 
the most comfortable assurance of our 
future recompence and reward : 

5 An assurance that cannot fail us 
at last, and so will not suffer our cou- 
rage to fail now, being still more con- 
firmed and actuated by the gifts of the 
Holy Ghost bestowed upon Gentile as 
well as Jewish believers, as a token of 
divine love, and a pledge of our future 
happiness f . 

6 A divine instance of love indeed ! 
That, when we Gentiles, of all mankind, 
were sunk in ignorance and irreligion, 
the Son of God should come to save us 
also by his death for our sins, at the 
time foretold by the prophets. 

7 How rare and hard is it to find a 
man that will venture his own life to 
save a neighbour's, though never so 
honest J and good a person ? No, it 

must be a generous friend || and bene- II ^»a,!ou. 
factor || indeed, that makes one free to | 
suffer death for him. 

8 How surpassing then must this 
love of God in Christ be, who so freely- 
died for us, not as good men, much less 
as benefactors to him, but as rebels and 
enemies, to reconcile us a^ain to God. 

9 What a strong argument therefore 
is this for us to conclude, that the infi- 


* Ver. 4. And patience, experience, or n $s vvofA.ovn SoKipw, patient 
suffering gives full proof of us. 

f Ver. 5. .See Ephes. i. 13. and iv. 30. Gal. iii. 14. 

X Ver. 7, 8. My paraphrase on these two verses is but a very 
little addition to the text, but sufficient to give the spirit of the 
apostles argument, which is almost wholly lost in our translation, 
and not mended in any other version I have seen. They make no 
distinction between &xa/oo and ayaSov, in which the conclusion in 
the 8th verse wholly lies. 

vol. i. o 




A. D. 57. nite mercies of such a death must be 
sufficient to save and justify both Gen- 
tiles * as well as Jews, without the Mo- 


+ See ver 

saical performances 

10 And certainly if the death of 
Christ is then a sufficient atonement 
for the sins of all the world, his resur- 
rection and ascension into heaven is 
enough to give all his true disciples of 
all nations a full assurance of eternal 
life and happiness. 

11 Certainly the Gentile Christians 
may not only hope for it as well as you, 
but rejoice and triumph in a full assur- 
ance in that Lord and Saviour, who 
has thus redeemed them. 

12 You Jewish zealots yourselves 
allow, that by the sin of one man (Adam), 
the whole world after him bore the ef- 
fects of that sin, by becoming subject 
to death ; and, by consequence, the re- 
demption of Christ the second Adam 
must extend to the whole world, or else 
you destroy all the analogy f between 

13, 14- It is not the breach of the 
Jewish law that alone deserved death, 
or first brought it into the world ; for 
all mankind, from Adam down to Mo- 
ses, died by the first transgression, 
though they had no express law as he 
had, against the sin committed by him ; 
and so could not be said to be formally 

his blood, we shall 
be saved from wrath 
through him. 

10 For if when we 
were enemies, we were 
reconciled to God by 
the death of his Son : 
much more being re- 
conciled, we shall be 
saved by his life. 

11 And not only 
so, but we also joy in 
God, through ourLord 
Jesus Christ, by whom 
we have now received 
the atonement. 

12 Wherefore, as 
by one man sin enter- 
ed into the world, and 
death by sin ; and so 
death passed upon all 
men, for that all have 
sinned : 

13 (For until { the 
law, sin was in the 
world : but sin is not 
imputed when there 
is no law. 

14 Nevertheless, 
death reigned from 
Adam to Moses, even 
over them that had 

* Ver. 9. We shall be saved, i. e. Gentiles as well as Jews. For 
that is the scope and connection of the apostle's argument, from 
the 6th to the 12th verse. 

% Ver. 13. *^?» 7*? Mpov, For both before and after the law, sin was 
in the world. So this particle «.'^pi (answering to the Hebrew *ty) 
signifies here, and in many other places; as in like manner doth 
i»$, Acts iii. 21. Till the time of the restitution of all things. And 
in 1 Tim. iv. 13. Till / come. And, Acts xxiii. 1. J have lived in all 
good conscience until this day. And, 1 Cor. xv. 25. He must reign till 
he hath put all things under his feet. And elsewhere. See Noldius's 
Concord. Heb. Partic. page 664. 




not sinned after the 
similitude of Adam's 
transgression, who is 
the figure of him that 
was to come. 

15 But not as the 
offence, so also is the 
free gift. For if through 
the offence of one 
many * be dead, much 
more the grace of 
God, and the gift by 
grace, which is by one 
man, Jesus Christ, 
hath abounded unto 

16 And not as it 
was by one that sin- 
ned, so is the gift ; for 
the f judgment was 
by one to condemna- 
tion, but the free gift 
is of many offences un- 
to justification. 

17 For if by one 
man's offence death 
reigned by one, much 
more they which re- 
ceive abundance of 

and properly guilty of his sinful act. A. D. 5] 

Yet they were all subject to death, as 

the natural consequence of that first sin. 
Now, you allow the first Adam to be a 
type and resemblance of Christ the se- 
cond Adam. And so far it is true, that 
by the one came sin and death, and by 
the other came obedience and redemp- 
tion. But pray, where is the propor- 
tion and agreement between the sin of 
the one, and the redemption of the 
other, if you say all mankind, Jews and 
Gentiles were involved in the effect of 
the sin of Adam, and but only your- 
selves to have a right to the redemption 
of Christ? 

15 Whereas, on the contrary, it is 
plain, that the free and gracious redemp- 
tion of Christ is so far from being in- 
ferior and narrower in its effects upon 
mankind than the sin of Adam ; that 
it is in itself more available to reduce 
the whole world to life, than his sin 
was to condemn it to death. 

16' As you may see by this, that these 
merits of Christ do not only suffice to 
deliver all men from the final effect of 
his transgression, viz. death, but also to 
the pardon of all their own actual trans- 
gressions, upon true faith and repent- 

17 So that if one transgression in in- 
dulging a pleasure was enough for the 
death of all mankind, surely one such 
meritorious act of suffering, as that of 
Christ's death was, must be much more 

* Ver. 15. o* vyoWo) — ro-JV woxWc, The many, i. e. all men, the same 
with crdvTocg elvSgwirovg, ver. 12. 

f Ver. 16. The judgment unto condemnation, or x^a tU xardn^tfAci; 
The crime or offence which brought condemnation. Agreeably to ver. 
15, and IS, where the offence and the condemnation are relative to 
each other. See the learned Mr. Mede's Works, fob page 911. 




A. D. 57. available for the life and salvation of us 

all, without any performances of your 


IS, 19 Therefore unless you grant, 
that the Messiah by his obedience to 
God the Father, in living and dying for 
us, both can and will redeem all nations 
alike that believe in and obey him; you 
cannot with any consistency, even in 
your own notions, imagine the sin of 
Adam could be the cause of the death 
of them all. 

20 You think the Mosaical law ne- 
cessary to this redemption from sin and 
death. But as I said, (chap. iv. 15.) 
though you had indeed such a law 
given peculiarly to yourselves, yet the 
only use you have made of it, by your 
notorious transgressions of its precepts, 
has been to sink you * deeper in guilt 
and condemnation, than you would 
have been without it. And therefore 
the mercy of Christ's redemption is still 
greater and more valuable to you Jews, 
in that, beside the common effect of 
Adam's sin, you have so many personal 
transgressions of your own to be deli- 
vered from. 

21 Which ought to make you parti- 
cularly thankful, that as sin and death 
has, as it were, perfectly mastered you, 
the free grace of Christ's redemption 
has now triumphed over them and saved 

grace, and of the gift 
of righteousness, shall 
reign in life by one, 
Jesus Christ. 

18 Therefore as 
by the offence of one, 
judgment came upon 
all men to condemna- 
tion : even so by the 
righteousness of one, 
the free gift came up- 
on all men unto justi- 
fication of life. 

19 For as by one 
man's disobedience 
many were made sin- 
ners : so by the obe- 
dience of one shall 
many be made righ- 

20 Moreover, the 
law entered, that the 
offence might abound : 
but where sin abound- 
ed, grace did much 
more abound. 

21 That as sin had 
reigned unto death, 
even so might grace 
reign through righte- 
ousness unto eternal 
life, by Jesus Christ 
our Lord. 

* Ver. 20. "hx -nAEovaft n aj^r/a, The law entered in, so as that yet 
sin abounded, I e. the guilt of sin by their wilful violation of it. 





The notorious sins both of Jew and Gentile, serve to illustrate and mag- 
nify the free mercies of Christ's redemption. Yet this is no encou- 
ragement for men to go on in sin, as some ignorant or malicious Jews 
pretended to infer from the apostle's discourse. (See chap. iii. 3 — 9.) 
The very nature and design of the Christian religion is to mortify all 
vicious principles, and to reduce us to moral holiness and purity. Our 
baptism shews us this obligation. An exhortation to Christian virtue 
and purity from the effects and consequences of sin and virtue, illus- 
trated by a metaphor taken from Romish freedom and slavery. 

1 W HAT sha11 we 
say then? shall 
we continue in sin 
that grace may a- 
bound ? 

2 God forbid : how 
shall we that are dead 
to sin, live any longer 
therein ? 

3 Know ye not, 
that so many of us as 
were baptized into Je- 
sus Christ, were bap- 
tized into his death ? 

4 Therefore we are 
buried with him by 
baptism into death ; 
that like as Christ was 
raised up from the 
dead by the glory of 
the Father, even so 
we also should walk 
in newness of life. 

5 For if we have 

1 T SAID indeed (chap. v. 20.) that the A. D. 

-*• deplorable state of wilful sin, that 

all men, but especially the Jews, lie 
under, has served to illustrate the divine 
mercy in our redemption. And 1 took 
notice {chap. iii. 7> 8.) what an absurd 
and dangerous consequence some of you 
were apt to draw from such expressions, 
as if I gave men encouragement to sin 
on. But I shall now more fully clear 
myself of such an unjust imputation. 

2 I say then, that such a supposition 
would destroy the very main end and 
design of the Christian religion, which 
is to kill and destroy all vicious habits 
in us. 

3 And you cannot be ignorant, that 
our Christian baptism is intended to 
resemble the death, burial, and resur- 
rection of Jesus Christ, and is a signifi- 
cant ceremony to express our belief of 

4 For our being covered with water, 
signifies our being dead and buried as 
it were to all sinful courses, as Christ 
died and was buried in the earth. And 
our ascending again out of the water 
represents the great obligation we are 
under of rising from those evil courses, 
to a new and virtuous conversation, an- 
swerable to his resurrection, and ascen- 
sion to the glory of God the Father. 

5 For it would signify nothing for 






A. D. £7. us to resemble his death, by being 

.plunged in water, if we do not take 

* care to answer his resurrection by a 
new and religious course of obedience. 

6, 7 It being plainly the only thing 
meant by our baptism, that all our for- 
mer habits of sin should be in a manner 
killed and crucified, and we freed from 
all slavish obedience to them ; thus dy- 
ing to sin, signifies our freedom from it, 
as slaves are freed from their masters. 

8 Nor would this dying with him in 
baptism be any thing but a mere figure, 
and a lifeless comparison, if we be not 
thoroughly sensible * of our obligation 
to live an holy life in conformity to his 

9, 10, 11 And duly consider, that as 
Christ by once f dying has redeemed us 
- from all our past sins, and is risen again 
to an endless and immortal life with 
God the Father ; so we his disciples, by 
being once baptized into his religion, are 
for ever after engaged to renounce all 
practices of sin, and to live to the ser- 
vice and honour of God, through Je- 
sus Christ our Lord. 

been planted together 
in the likeness of his 
death, we shall be al- 
so in the likeness of his 
resurrection : 

6 Knowing this, 
that our old man is 
crucified with him, 
that the body of sin 
might be destroyed, 
that henceforth we 
should not serve sin. 

7 For he that is 
dead is freed from sin. 

8 Now if we be 
dead with Christ, we 
believe that we shall 
also live with him. 

9 Knowing that 
Christ being raised 
from the dead, dieth 
no more ; death hath 
no more dominion 
over him. 

10 For in that he 
died, he died unto sin 
f once : but in that 
he liveth, he liveth 
unto God. 

1 1 Likewise reckon 
ye also yourselves to 

* Ver. 5. We shall he planted together. Though the verb IcropeSi* here, 
and a-v^r.ToiMiv, we shall live with him, in ver. 8. be in the future tense, 
yet they seem to me to intend the obligation to a pious life here, 
not the certainty of the future life hereafter, though the one indeed 
is a consequent of the other. It should therefore be rendered, We 
ought to be planted together, and we ought to live with (or like) him. 
In the same sense 1 take ov Kvpuvo-u, in ver. 14. Sin shall not, i. e. 
ought not to have dominion over you. Whoever compares them 
with verses 11, 12, 13. and considers the scope of the apostle's ar- 
gument, viz. That Christianity does not encourage to sin ; but oblige 
to holiness, will perhaps think the same. 

f Ver. 10. He died unto sin, rn du.ccP7la,,for, or upon account of sin. 
Ibid. Unto sin once, E^atraf , once for all. 




be dead indeed unto 
sin, but alive unto 
God through Jesus 
Christ our Lord. 

12 Let not sin there- 
fore reign in your 
mortal body, that ye 
should obey it in the 
lusts thereof. 

13 Neither yield 
ye your members as 
instruments of unrigh- 
teousness unto sin : 
but yield yourselves 
unto God, as those 
that are alive from 
the dead, and your 
members as instru- 
ments of righteousness 
unto God. 

14 For sin shall 
not have dominion 
over you : for ye are 
not under the law, but 
under grace. 

1 5 What then ? 
shall we sin, because 
we are not under the 
iaw, but under grace ? 
God forbid. 

16 Know ye not, 
that to whom ye yield 
yourselves servants to 
obey, his servants ye 
are to whom ye obey, 
whether of sin unto 
death, or of obedience 
unto righteousness ? 

17 But God be 
thanked, that ye were 

A. D. 57. 

V2 Let it be therefore your utmost 
endeavour to answer the design of your 
Christianity, by suppressing all vicious 
habits, from ruling and reigning in your 
mortal bodies any longer. 

13 And suffer not the members of 
them to be any longer tbe instruments 
of ungoverned passions and immoderate 
inclinations, but of righteous and holy 
dispositions, as become those who are 
risen as it were from the dead, on pur- 
pose to live to the service and honour 
of God. 

14 This ought by all means to be 
your chief care, and, if it be not your 
own fault, you may and ought now to 
do it; for you are delivered from the 
curse of the law due to your former 
vices, and are taken into the grace and 
mercy of the Gospel-covenant. 

15 And I have sufficiently shewn 
you already, that the mercies of God in 
thus pardoning the greatest sinners, are 
so far from being an encouragement to 
future practices of sin, under pretence 
of exalting the divine mercy, that they 
are the strongest engagement against 
them, according to the whole tenor of 
the Christian religion. 

16 Remember also, there is no divid- 
ing and halving your services between 
God and satan ; whoever you let your- 
selves to, his slaves you must entirely 
be, like men sold to bondage, or taken 
in war. If sin be your master, your 
pay is nothing but death and misery; 
if Christ, your reward is then no less 
than pardon and eternal salvation. 

17, 18 And, blessed be God! that 
whereas you were all, both Jews and 

s 4 




D. 57 . Gentiles, once under the slavery of sin, 

and liable to the fatal consequences of 

it ; by now embracing the Christian 
doctrine, you are freed from it, and are 
both obliged and enabled to live so 
righteously and virtuously, as will qua- 
lify you for eternal life and happiness. 

19 1 have thus represented the case 
to you by a comparison of slaves and 
masters, things very well known # by 
you Romans, and I made choice of this 
metaphor, the more easily to make you 
sensible of it, who are yet but little 
skilled in the notions of Christianity. 
And the sum of what I intend by it is 
this, that as in your unregenerate state, 
both Jew and Gentile were the slaves 
of sin and death ; so now under the 
Gospel-religion you are bound to a new 
master, obliged to such a course of 
piety and virtue, as cannot fail to justify 
and save you. 

20 For as when you were the vassals 
of sin, you paid no f obedience to the 
laws of virtue and true religion, (nor in- 
deed could il be expected f you could 
serve two such contrary principles at 
the same time,) so by parity of reason, 
now righteousness is your master, you 
ought to pay no service at all to sin and 

21 And which of the two it is most 
} r our interest as well as duty to serve, 
you may soon judge by the effects and 
fruits of both. What were the effects 

the servants of sin : 
but ye have obeyed 
from the heart that 
form of doctrine, 
which was delivered 

18 Being then 
made free from sin, 
ye became the ser- 
vants of righteous- 

1 9 1 speak after the 
manner of men, be- 
cause of the infirmity 
of your flesh : for as 
ye have yielded your 
members servants to 
unclean ness, and to 
iniquity unto iniqui- 
ty, even so now yield 
your members ser- 
vants to righteousness 
unto holiness. 

20 For when ye 
were the servants of 
sin, ye were free from 

21 What fruit had 
ye then in those things 
whereof ye are now 
ashamed ? for the end 

* Ver. 19. K*r d'vSpuvov Xtyv, I speak after the manner of men. See 
chap. iii. 5. the note there. 

f Ver. 20. Free from righteousness, not so as to remain under no 
obligations to it, but so estranged from it by contrary habits, that 
it was not likely they should perform it. Whereas, being free from 
sin, in the 18th verse, signifies such a manumission from it as im- 
plies an obligation never to serve it more. 




of those 

things is 

22 But now being 
made free from sin, 
and become servants 
to God, ye have your 
fruit unto holiness, 
and the end everlast- 
ing life. 

23 For the wages 
of sin is death : but 
the gift of God is 
eternal life, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. 

of your former vicious courses butA.D. 57. 

shame and death ; had you not repented i 

and forsaken them. 

c 22 Whereas by being now sincere 
Christians, and the true servants of God, 
you attain to such a life of obedience 
and virtue, as will and must end in the 
enjoyment of everlasting happiness and 

23 Only there is this difference be- 
tween the consequence of one and the 
other, that death and misery is the na- 
tural, proper, and deserved recompence 
for a life of sin; but eternal life, and 
the happiness of heaven, is a free and 
unmerited gift of God, bestowed on all 
faithful Christians for the sake of Jesus 
Christ our Lord. 


The Jewish Christians also proved to be under no obligation to the cere- 
monial law, by an instance taken from the law of marriage. Then 
to convince them both of the absolute necessity, and the great happi- 
ness of relying wholly upon the Gospel-religion, for the pardon of sin 
and eternal salvation, and the better to ingratiate his argument to 
them, he supposes himself a Jew, under the same condition, of ha- 
bitual sin and guilt, he had shewn them all to be in, chapters ii. and 
iii. And by thus personating the habitual transgressor of the moral 
laws of God, shews the Mosaical law utterly unable either to cure 
the habits, or atone for the guilt of his shi. That revealed law & 
indeed a good rule of life ; the very habitual sinners acknowledge it 
as such, while they transgress it, not without struggles and reluctances 
of conscience. But in such a state of habitual sin, the moral law 
serves only as an occasion to shew them their deeper guilt, and to ag- 
gravate their condemnation, while the ceremonial law lias no virtue 
in its performances to free them from it. The merits of Christ there- 
fore, and his religion, is the thing that must pardon and save them. 

I j£NQW ye not, 
brethren, (for 
I speak to them that 
know the law,) how 
that the law hath do- 

1, 2 1-XAVING proved in the fore- 
going chapters, that the 
Gentile Christians are under no obli- 
gation to circumcision and the Jewish 
* law, I now apply myself to the Jewish 

* Ver. 1, 2. See the same argument of the apostle handled 
Xrom another similitude to the same purpose, in Gal. iv. 1, &c. 




A. D. 57. Christians, and shall shew them also to 

be no longer bound to the ceremonial 

parts of it. Which I shall do by a 
comparison taken from the very law 
you are so well acquainted with. The 
law of marriage, you know, obliges the 
wife for no longer than her husband's 

3 For though to leave her husband, 
and marry another man while he is 
alive, would be a plain act of adultery ; 
yet as soon as he is dead, she is free to 
marry whom she pleases. 

4 Now this is exactly your case in 
your Christian state ; the ceremonial 
iaw, to which God at first joined you, 
is now dead to you f , and you to it ; 
and therefore for you to be now per- 
fectly joined to Christ and his religion, 
and to observe only those moral and 
spiritual duties, whereby you imitate 
that pure and heavenly life of his, can 
be no more thought an apostacy from 
God, than it would be adultery in a 
woman to marry after her husband's 

5 You are now, I say, to live a spi- 
ritual life, which you could never attain 
to under the habitual transgressions of 
a law f, that has laid you under an in- 

mmion over a man as 
long as he liveth ) 

<2 For the woman 
which hath an hus- 
band is bound by the 
law to her husband so 
long as he liveth : 
but if the husband be 
dead, she is loosed 
from the law of her 

3 So then, if. while 
her husband liveth, 
she be married to an- 
other man, she shallbe 
called an adulteress : 
but if her husband be 
dead, she is free from 
that law j so that 
she is no adulteress, 
though she be mar- 
ried to another man. 

4 Wherefore, my 
brethren, ye also are 
become dead to the 
law by the body of 
Christ ; that ye should 
be married to another, 
even to him who is 
raised from the dead, 
that we should bring 
forth fruit unto God. 

5 For when we 
were in the flesh, the 
f motions of sins, 
which were by the 

* Ver. 4. 'ESavaT^rrre ™ vo^u, Ye are dead to the law. Interpreters 
need not dispute, whether the meaning should be here, The law is 
dead to you, the 7th verse plainly shewing the apostle uses the 
senses of it promiscuously. 

f Ver. 5. Ta ha, tou vofxov, The motions or (habitual) passions of sin 
that remained on us under the law, or during the state of the law, as 
Mr. Locke well renders it. See chap. iv. 11. where &' axpo€V'«s is 
taken in the same sense. 




law, did work in our 
members to bring 
forth fruit unto death. 

6 But now we are 
delivered from the 
law, that being dead 
wherein we were 
held ; that we should 
serve in newness of 
spirit, and not in the 
oldness of the letter. 

7 What shall we 
say then ? Is the law 
sin ? God forbid. Nay, 
I had not known sin, 
but by the daw; for I 
had not known lust, 
except the law had 
said, Thou shalt not 

8 But sin taking 
occasion by the com- 
mandment, wrought 
in me * all manner of 
concupiscence. For 
without the law sin 
was dead. 

evitable curse for those breaches. Those A. D. 57, 

habits of sin still prevailed over you, . 

and the certainty of the death due to 
them increased along with them. 

6 But now your Christian religion 
has freed you both from the duties and 
the curses annexed to your breach of 
them : and you are bound only to such 
spiritual and moral duties as do exceed 
those external and ceremonial perform- 
ances as much as the substance does 
the mere shadow. 

7 I said indeed, (ver. 5.) that the 
revealed law of Moses has only served 
to make you more guilty, and bring 
you under a greater necessity of Christ 
as a Redeemer. But do not mistake 
me, as if I meant the law were sinful, or 
tended in its own nature to carry men 
to sin. God forbid ! I only say, a 
transgression of a revealed law is a 
deeper transgression than one against 
a natural law. And so the law may. 
in some sense, be said to be an occasion 
of aggravating your guilt, but it is only 
from your transgression of it. As for 
instance; no man lies under so much 
guilt from the sin of covetousness, as 
he that has an express law of God that 
forbids him to covet. 

8 And so, I say, all the advantage 
an habitual sinner against a revealed 
law has, is to see and know himself 
more * guilty and obnoxious to the di- 
vine displeasure, than others who have 
the benefit of no such law. 

* Ver. 8. Wrought all manner of evil in me, KaTstpyaVaT© t^\ ethSu- 
fj.iocv, wrought up my inordinate desire into a great degree of guilt. As 
the word a/xapna, sin, is often used to signify a sacrifice for sin ; so 
if that and gViSupa here be understood of the guilt of the actions, 
not the actions themselves, it will make the apostle's argument 
much clearer. It being very easy to conceive a revealed law to 
increase the guilt of transgressors ; but how it should be an incite- 
ment to sin, is somewhat hard. 




A. D. 57. 9 Thus, if you * and I, instead of 
being Jews, had been born and con- 
tinued Gentiles, we had had so much 
less guilt by the breach of the divine 
law, over what we now have; that, in 
comparison, we might have been said to 
be in a state of life ; but by living under 
the plain expresses of a revealed law, 
our transgressions shew us to be in a 
perfect state of death and condemna- 

10, 11 And thus you must under- 
stand me, that our wilful disobedience 
to the Mosaical law, make it as it were 
the cause and occasion of drawing us 
into condemnation ; though the natural 
intent of the law was to bring us to 
obedience and happiness. We have 
made that which was a good rule of 
life, to fail of its end, and turn upon us 
as a means of death. 

12, 1 3 So that the nature and design 
of the law is exceedingly wise and ex- 
cellent; and especially the moral parts 
of it, just, and pure, and good. And 
it would be very unjust in you to make 
me say, this good law was designed for 
our mischief; when all I affirm is, that 
our violations of it oniy have made it 
hurtful to us f ; and that the purity of 
its precepts, shews the high aggrava- 
tions of their guilt that disobey it. 

14 We must not, we cannot but 

9 For I was alive 
without the law once : 
but when the com- 
mandment came, sin 
revived, and I died. 

10 And the com- 
mandment, which was 
ordained to life, I found 
to he unto death. 

11 For sin taking 
occasion by the com- 
mandment, deceived 
me, and by it slew 

12 Wherefore the 
law is holy ■ and the 
commandment holy, 
and just, and good. 

13 Was then that 
which is good, made 
death unto me ? God 
forbid. But f sin, that 
it might appear sin, 
working death in me 
by that which is good ; 
that sin by the com- 
mandment might be- 
come exceedingsinful. 

14 For we know 

* Ver. 9. 'E<yw v S\ ef«v, / was alive. Here again the apostle puts 
the argument upon himself alone as a Jewish Christian, as he did in 
chap. v. as a Gentile one ; the better to insinuate himself into the 
affections, and gain the attention of both the contending parties. 

j" Ver. 13. t'ya (pavri — "va, yivnrou x.%S' irsifGithw — n at pec pr tot., So that sin 
appears exceeding sinful. This is the construction of Iva, that takes ofF 
all imputation from the laws, and lays it upon their transgressions, 
as the whole scope of the apostle's reasoning shews ; and which 
will justify my paraphrase of this chapter. See chap. iv. 11. and 
ver. 20. 




that the law is spiri- 
tual : but I am carnal, 
sold under sin. 

15 For that which 
I do, I allow not : for 
what I would, that do 
I not; but what I 
hate, that I do. 

16 If then I do 
that which I would 
not, I consent unto 
the law, that it is 

17 Now then it is 
no more I that do it, 
but sin that dwelleth 
in me. 

18 For I know, 
that in me (that is, in 
my flesh) dwelleth no 
good thing : for to 
will is present with 
me, but how to per- 
form that which is 
good, I find not. 

19 For the good 
that I would, I do not ; 
but the evil which I 
would not, that I do. 

20 Now if I do 
that I would not, it 
is no more I that do 
it, but sin that dwell- 
eth in me. 

21 I find then a 
law, that when I would 
do good, evil is pre- 
sent with me. 

22 For I delight 
in the law of God, af- 
ter the inward man. 

23 But I see an- 
other law in my mem- 
bers, warring against 
the law of my mind, 
and bringing me into 
captivity to the law of 

allow the law of Moses (the moral laws A. D. 57. 

particularly,) to be a good rule of men's 

lives and practices : all the fault of its 
being a cause of death, lies in our ha- 
bitual disobedience to it. 

15, 16 Nay, it is plain we confess 
the goodness of the moral law even 
while we transgress it; since every 
open transgression is done against our 
conscience and knowledge of the rule, 
and very often with great reluctancy 
and regret. 

17 So that, it is not a man's settled 
judgment, or ill opinion of the law, but 
his own irregular and exorbitant pas- 
sions that cause him to violate it. 

18, 19 And while these ungoverned 
passions have the sway over us, it is 
not expected we should perform what 
is good, but run into open transgres- 
sions, though it be against even the 
convictions and reluctances of con- 
science, and in contradiction to all our 
more sober thoughts and reflections. 

20 So that as I said, (ver. 17.) this does 
not bespeak a man to disapprove of the 
divine law, but that he is carried against 
it, only by unmastered appetites and 

21, 22, 23 The habitual course 
whereof makes vice and sin become as 
it were a law, and a second nature to 
us, forcing us in a manner to act against 
the dictates of our own reason, and to 
indulge our lusts, even while we cannot 
but inwardly condemn such practices. 




A. D. 57. 

is in my 

24- Having thus therefore by wilful 
transgressions reduced ourselves to these 
habits, and * laid ourselves under the 
curses annexed to them ; what method 
is there left for our pardon and redemp- 
tion from them ? Certainty the external 
performances, the typical and carnal 
sacrifices of the Jewish law, can have 
no virtue to purge the conscience, and 
bring us to true riohteousness. 

25 But the merits of Christ's death 
and our embracing his religion will 
effectually f do it ; for which mercy 
God be for ever praised ! You see then, 
by the whole tenor of my discourse, I 
cast no disparagement upon your law ; 
allowing every man must needs approve 
of the moral rules of it. It is to your 
violations of them that I ascribe your 
sad condition of sin and death ; in order 
to shew you the absolute necessity of 
relying wholly upon the faith and obe- 
dience of the Gospel for your justifica- 
tion %. 

sin, which 

24 O wretched 
man that I am ! who 
shall deliver me from 
the body of this death ? 

25 I thank f God 
through Jesus Christ 
our Lord. So then, 
with the mind I my- 
self serve the law of 
God : but with the 
flesh the law of sin. 

* See chap. ii. and iii. 10, &c. 

f See the reading of some of the best MSS. and versions in Dr. 

% Note, It having been much disputed by commentators, who, 
and what sort of person it is that St. Paul here represents, from the 
7th verse to the end of this chapter ; and it having appeared to 
me very plain, that the apostle's whole argument required us to 
understand it of no other, but that of an unconverted Jew ,• it is now 
a matter of great satisfaction to me, to find my interpretation of 
this chapter confirmed with great strength and clearness, by the 
learned Dr. Clark, serm. on ver. 7. of this chap, in vol. viii. serm. 





The ceremonial law, being proved insufficient to ture the habits, or to 
utone for the guilt of sins against the moral law ; the Christian reli- 
gion is here shewn fully able to do both: the merits of Christ's death 
being a sufficient satisfaction for past offences; and the spiritual 
nature of his laws, with the assistance of the divine Spirit, enabling us 
to attain such habits of a righteous living, as will qualify us for, and 
assure us of a resurrection to eternal life and happiness. This spiritual 
life the great obligation and only mark and character of a true Chris- 
tian. It will entitle the Gentile as well as Jeivish converts to the future 
glory and happiness of God's true church and children. God did not 
leave the Gentile world destitute of all hopes of the future happiness 
which all mankind naturally desire and wish for. That the Gentile 
believers shall enjoy it, proved from Christ's dying and interceding 
for them, from their being called into the Christian faith , and suffer- 
ing for the sake of it ; which if they persevere in, nothing can ever 
deprive them of its happy fruits, and final blessings. [See the note 
on ver. 31.] 

1 rjpHERE is there- 
fore now no 
condemnation to them 
which are in Christ 
Jesus, who walk not 
after the flesh, but af- 
ter the Spirit. 

2 For the law of 
the Spirit of life, in 
Christ Jesus, hath 
made me free from 
the law of sin and 

3 For what the 
law could not do, in 
that it was weak 
through the flesh, God 
sending his own Son 
in the likeness of sin- 
ful flesh, and for sin 
condemned sin in the 
flesh : 

1 npHE ceremonial law then being a. D. 57. 

-*- dead to the Jews; and the Gen- 

tiles being not originally obliged to it 
at all ; it must follow, that all Christian 
converts are to be justified and saved 
by embracing the Gospel religion, that 
by the spiritual nature of its laws brings 
them to that heavenly course of life, 
which the external and carnal ordi- 
nances of the law could never do. 

2 The Jewish converts, I say, ought 
by all means to rely upon it ; because 
the merits of Christ's death have freed 
them of the guilt of this wilful trans- 
gression of the law, and his pure and 
spiritual precepts give them power over 
the habitual lusts of sin for the future. 

3 For while the external sacrifices 
and ceremonial performances of the 
law were utterly unable to purge the 
conscience, and clear us of all the effects 
of such transgressions, (especially of the 
moral laws of God,) the Son of God, 
by living and dying as man, has re- 
deemed us from all former guilt, and 
enabled us by his religion to conquer 




A. D. 57. the domineering lusts and habits of 

4 So that the rule of righteous liv- 
ing, prescribed in the moral law, that 
was never to be fulfilled by a Jew go- 
verned by these sinful habits, may now 
be acceptably (though not perfectly) 
performed by him as he is a Christian. 

5 For the nature of the Gospel reli- 
gion does as perfectly tend to Jead us 
to a truly moral and spiritual course of 
life, as our former carnal inclinations 
did to a vicious and a wicked one. 

6 And as the natural and certain 
consequence of a sinful course can be 
nothing but death and condemnation ; 
so eternal life and happiness will be the 
infallible fruit of a spiritual and holy 

7, 8 You cannot therefore expect to 
be redeemed from such transgressions 
as you are guilty of by virtue of a law, 
that leaves you still under the guilt and 
habits of them ; and while you are so, 
you cannot be in favour with God, nor 
do any acceptable service to him. 

9 But you Christian converts are 
delivered effectually from such a con- 
dition, if you take sincere care to live 
up to the pure and spiritual temper of 
Christ's religion, and answerable to the 
influences of his Spirit, that conducts 
all the true members of it. For none 
but such as do so, will be owned by 
him as his true disciples. 

10 And if you thus become the pro- 
per members of his church by a spiri- 
tual course of life; though indeed your 
bodies shall be liable to present death, 
like other men's, by the unavoidable 

4 That the righ- 
teousness of the law 
might be fulfilled in 
us, who walk not af- 
ter the flesh, but after 
the Spirit. 

5 For they that 
are after the flesh, do 
mind the tilings of the 
flesh ; but they that 
are after the Spirit, the 
things of the Spirit. 

6 For to be car- 
nally minded is death : 
but to be spiritually 
minded is life and 

7 Because the car- 
nal mind is enmity a- 
gainst God : for it is 
not subject to the law 
of God, neither in- 
deed can be. 

8 So then they that 
are in the flesh can- 
not please God. 

9 But ye are not 
in the flesh, but in the 
Spirit, if so be that 
the Spirit of God 
dwell in you. Now 
if any man have not 
the Spirit of Christ, 
he is none of his. 

10 And if Christ 
be in you, the body 
is dead because of sin : 
but the Spirit is life, 
because of righteous- 
ness *. 

* Ver. 10. The body is dead because of sin. Note, If the preposi- 
t'w7i &* be to be rendered by because of sin, and refers to the natu- 
ral death of the body ; and life in the following words signify re- 




11 But if the Spirit 
of him that raised up 
Jesus from the dead 
dwell in you, he that 
raised up Christ from 
the dead shall also 
quicken your mortal 
bodies by his Spirit 
that dwelleth in you. 

12 Therefore, bre- 
thren, we are debtors, 
not to the flesh, to live 
after the flesh. 

13 For if ye live 
after the flesh, ye shall 
die 3 but if ye through 
the Spirit do mortify 
the deeds of the body, 
ye shall live. 

14 For as many as 
are led by the Spirit 
■of God, they are the 
sons of God. 

15 For ye have 
not received the spirit 
of bondage again to 
fear ; but ye have re- 
ceived the Spirit of 
adoption, whereby we 
cry, Abba, Father. 

effect of Adam's transgression ; yet will A. D. 57. 

the power of the divine Spirit raise 

them up again to an immortal life, as 
the happy effect of our justification by 
his death and sufferings . 

1 1 For if we be guided by the mo- 
tions and influences of the Spirit of that 
God who raised up Jesus from the 
grave, and which now dwells in us, 
purifying our bodies from the lusts of 
sin and vice ; that Spirit will not fail 
to raise them from death also, unto an 
immortal life and happiness, at the last 

12, 13 It is our duty and interest 
therefore now to hold to the Gospel- 
religion, and not that of the law; and 
our high obligation to conquer the im- 
moderate lusts of the flesh, by the prac- 
tice of moral and spiritual religion ; as 
being fully assured the one must be 
death, the other life to us. 

14 For as I said, ver. 9. they only 
that thus live up to these moral and 
eternal rules of religion, revealed and 
instituted by the Spirit of God, through 
Jesus Christ, are his true children, and 
members of his church. 

15 A state of true freedom indeed 1 
far excelling the rigorous and trouble- 
some institutions of the Mosaical law. 
We Christians are under no slavish 
fear of a curse pronounced to the breach 
of any one of those numerous rites and 
ceremonies; but can apply ourselves to 
God as to a merciful and tender Father 
and Lawgiver; sure of being accepted 

surrection to life (agreeably to ver. 11.) ; then the paraphrase is 
perfectly right. But if this death of the body is meant of our dying 
to sin ; and life signifies living righteously ; then h» must not be 
rendered by because, but by concerning, or as to — the body (if a true 
Christian,) is dead as to sin and vice, but his spirit is life (or lives) 
as to righteousness. 

VOL. I. R 





57. and for ever rewarded, upon our sin- 

cere (though not absolutely perfect) 


16 And whenever we are truly con- 
scious to ourselves, that we do our best 
endeavours to obey this spiritual law of 
Christianity; we may then justly apply 
all the promises of God made to true 
believers ; and have the inward com- 
forts and assurances of the Holy Spirit 
that we are his true children and ser- 

1 7 And if God has thus adopted us 
for his children in Christ, we shall cer- 
tainly all of us, both Jewish and Gen- 
tile Christians, be heirs with him in his 
future glory and happiness; (for adop- 
tion supposes an estate of inheritance;) 
only it is upon this condition, that, if 
we would be happy with him, we must 
patiently suffer for his religion, as he 
suffered for us. 

IS A condition far short of the re- 
ward annexed to it. For upon com- 
paring them together, you will find 
no manner of proportion between the 
sufferings of a short and momentary 
life, and those eternal glories that he 
will bestow upon us, in the face of the 
whole world, at the great and final day 
of judgment. 

19 This future happiness, by which 
God will shew us all both Gentiles as 

16 The Spirit itself 
heareth witness with 
our spirit, that we are 
the children of God. 

17 And if children, 
then heirs ; heirs of 
God, and joint-heirs 
with Christ ; if so be 
that we suffer with 
him, that we may also 
be glorified together. 

18 For I reckon 
that the sufferings of 
this present time are 
not worthy to be com- 
pared with the glory 
which shall be reveal- 
ed in us. 

19 For * the earn- 
est expectation f of the 

* Ver. 19. The earnest expectation of the creature. This phrase 
does not imply, That all the heathen world had an explicit belief 
or true notion of this future glory ; but only that the glory and hap- 
piness itself is such as would fill the utmost wishes and desires of 
all mankind, whenever they should be acquainted with, or be put 
into any hopes of it, as the Gentile converts now were. 

f Ibid. Of the creature. The same with every creature to whom 
the Gospel was ordered to be now preached, Mark xvi. 15. Col. i. 
2, 3. The alt nations that were to be taught and baptized, Matt, 
xxviii. 19, 20. i. e. the Gentiles, the bulk of mankind, in contra- 
distinction to the first Christians, the first fruits, who received it in 
the apostles' time. 




creature waiteth for 
the manifestation of 
the sons of God. 

20 For the crea- 
ture was made subject 
to vanity, not willing- 
ly, but by reason of 
him who hath subject- 
ed the same in hope. 

21 Because the crea- 
ture itself also shall 
be delivered from the 
bondage of corrup- 
tion, into the glo- 
rious liberty of the 
children of God. 

22 For we know 
that the whole * crea- 
tion groaneth and tra- 
vaileth in pain toge- 
ther until now. 

23 And not only 
they, but ourselves 
also, which have the 
first-fruits of the Spi- 
rit, even we ourselves 
groan within our- 
selves, waiting for the 
adoption, to wit, the 
redemption of our 

24 For we are saved 
by hope : but hope 
that is seen is not 
hope : for what a man 
seeth, why doth he 
yet hope for ? 

well as Jewish believers to be his true A. D. 57* 

sons, is adequate to the highest notions, 

wishes, and expectations of all man- 

20 For man was at first created ca- 
pable of immortality ; and his posterity 
was not run into this mortal and mise- 
rable condition of human life by their 
own choice, but purely by the sin of 
Adam, occasioned by the instigation of 
the devil, that brought them all under 

21 Yet even the Gentile world (espe- 
cially the considering part of it) was 
not destitute of all hopes of a future 
and permanent state of happiness, such 
as is suitable to rational creatures that 
are the offspring of God ; and of which 
we Christian converts have now a full 
assurance as his adopted children in 
Jesus Christ. 

22 We know, I say, that the whole 
Gentile world has all along been deeply 
sensible of the miseries and frail state 
of human life; full of longings, and 
eager wishes after a better and more 
durable condition. 

23 Nay, even we Christians also, 
even we that are apostles of Christ, 
who have the fullest assurance of it 
from the word, and have received the 
pledges and earnest of it by the Spirit, 
of God, do yet wish and groan (though 
not impatiently) after the actual enjoy- 
ment of this happy change of our bo- 
dies, from weak, and suffering, and 
mortal ones, to become immortal and 
glorious ones. 

24, 25 Our Christian life, I say, is 
as yet but a life of hope. We live upon 
expectation, not enjoyment. And this 
hope as a duty, and condition of this 
future glory, obliges us to go through 

Ver. 22. The whole creation. 


See on ver. 19. 




A. D. 57. the sufferings of life with all patience 
and constancy. 

26 And indeed our afflictions and 
hardships are sometimes such, that we 
have ardent desires after a release from 
them ; not knowing very often what is 
most fit for us, to beg of God as most 
agreeable to his wise designs in them. 
But the Holy Spirit is our constant 
Comforter in such difficult cases, guid- 
ing * and inspiring us with such good 
motions and desires as we cannot often- 
times in words express. 

27 But whether we express them or 
no, God the Searcher of hearts knows 
and accepts them all as agreeable to 
the dictates of his own Holy Spirit, 
whose office it is so to assist f the minds 
of all distressed Christians, that they 
shall be enabled to ask nothing, but 
what is consistent with his holy will 
and religion. 

28 This therefore is sufficient to 
comfort and encourage you all, both 
Gentile as well as Jewish converts, that 
whatever afflictions may befal you upon 
account of your profession, God will 
turn them all at last to your eternal 
benefit and advantage ; since it was 
his purpose to call 3^011 J all equally 
into the privileges of the Christian co- 

25 But if we hope 
for that we see not, 
then do we with pa- 
tience wiiil for it. 

L 26 Likewise the 
Spirit also helpeth our 
infirmities : for we 
know not what we 
should pray for as we 
ought : hut the Spirit 
itself maketh inter- 
cession for us with 
a;roanings which can- 
not be uttered. 

27 And he that 
searcheth the hearts* 
knoweth what is the 
mind of the Spirit, 
because he maketh 
intercession for the 
saints, according to 
the will of God K 

28 And we know 
that all things work 
together for good to 
them that love God, 
to them who are the 
called according to 
his purpose. 

* Ver. 26, 27. SrVpsm/y^avEt, intercedes for us. Not in the sense 
that Christ is an intercessor with God the Father; but helps and 
does for us, in the simple sense of the word. 

f Ver. 27. Because he maketh intercession for the saints. Or ra- 
ther, or*, that he maketh intercession. Or else thus, He that search- 
eth the hearts (God) knoweth (i. e. accepteth and approveth) the 
mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession — agreeably to the will 
of God. See Dr. Claget's Discourse of the Holy Spirit, chap. v. 
§. 6. part i. and ii. page 46, &c. 

X Ver. 28. According to his purpose, i. e. his purpose declared by 
his prophets. See Gen. xvhi. 18. Ephes. iii. 1 — 11. 




29 For whom he 
did foreknow, he also 
did predestinate to be 
conformed to the 
image of his Son, that 
he might be the first- 
born among many 

30 Moreover, whom 
he did predestinate, 
them he also called : 
and whom he called, 
them he also justified: 
and whom he justified, 
them he also glori- 

31 What shall we 
then say to these 
things? * If God be 
for us, who can be 

against us ? 

32 He that spared 
not his own Son, but 
delivered him up for 
us all, how shall he 
not with him also free- 
ly give us all things ? 

* 33 Who shall" lay 
any thing to the 
charge of God's e- 
lect ? It is God that 
justifieth : 

34 Who is he that 
condemneth ? It is 
Christ that died, yea 
rather that is risen 
again, who is even at 
the right hand of God, 

29 And if God thus intended you all A. D. 57. 

the like means, it cannot be doubted 

but he designs you the end, viz. to be 

like his Son Jesus Christ in the glories 
of the future state, as you resemble him 
in his sufferings in this. And thus he 
will be truly the head and chief of all 
true Christians, whom he is pleased to 
condescend to call his brethren. 

30 For otherwise it would be an un- 
accountable proceeding in God, thus 
originally to declare the Gentiles as 
well as Jews capable of being members 
of his church in Christ ; to send his 
apostles to invite them into it, to accept 
of their sincere faith, as he did that of 
Abraham to their justification, and par- 
don of their past sins ; and yet at last 
to deny them that eternal life and hap- 
piness, without which all the rest is of 
no advantage to them. 

31 Well then, if it appears that God 
has actually taken them * into his gra- 
cious covenant and religion, what has 
any zealous Jew to do to speak against 

32 If God has been so infinitely gra- 
cious as to give his Son to die for the 
whole world ; how can he be conceived 
to bestow the benefits of his death to 
some believers, and deny it to others ? 

33, 34 Since God has chosen the 
Gentiles also into the Christian church; 
and has pardoned them upon their re- 
pentance and faith in Christ ; what Jew 
shall condemn them as unworthy of 
such a mercy? Since Christ has died 
for their sins, is risen as their powerful 
Saviour, and sits at the right hand of 
God as their Advocate and Intercessor, 
who can plead any thing against them ? 

* Ver. SI. If God be for us. Here again the apostle makes him* 
se//as one of the Gentile converts for their greater encouragement 
to embrace his argument. 

a 3 




A. D. 57. 

35, 36 Who shall deprive them of 
the fruit of the love of Christ toward 
them, while they continue to live wor- 
thy of it ? Nothing, surely, no not the 
sharpest afflictions and persecutions of 
the most malicious and powerful adver- 
saries. (Even though they were in as 
ill a condition as those the Psalmist 
speaks of, Psal. xliv. 22.) 

37 They will triumph over greater 
difficulties than these, by a steady faith 
and obedience to so powerful and loving 
a Redeemer. 

38, 39 And I hope and persuade 
myself, that their religious principles 
would be so firm and steady, as that 
neither the fear of present death, nor 
the hopes of any advantages of this 
life, nor the power and temptations of 
wicked spirits, nor present sufferings, 
nor future inconveniences, nor the 
height of prosperity, nor the depth of 
adversity, nor any thing whatever, shall 
move them from their duty, or deprive 
them of their reward in Christ Jesus 
our Lord. 

who also maketh in- 
tercession for us. 

35 Who shall se- 
parate us from the 
love of Christ I shall 
tribulation, ordistress, 
or persecution, or fa- 
mine, or nakedness, 
or peril, or sword ? 

36 (As it is writ- 
ten, For thy sake we 
are killed all the day 
long; we are account- 
ed as sheep for the 

37 Nay, in all these 
things we are more 
than conquerors, 
through him that lov- 
ed us. 

38 For I am per- 
suaded, that neither 
death, nor life, nor 
angels, nor principa- 
lities, nor powers, nor 
things present, nor 
things to come, 

39 Nor height, nor 
depth, nor any other 
creature, shall be able 
to separate us from 
the love of God which 
is in Christ Jesus our 





The apostle discourses of the rejection of the Jewish nation, from being 
any longer God's church and people, upon their infidelity; and 
taking the believing Gentiles in their room. Handles this melancholy 
argument xvith great tenderness and concern for his nation. Na- 
tional mercies and privileges at God's free disposal and arbitrary li- 
mitation. It was so in Abraham s covenant, and the promise made to 
him; in the instances of Isaac and Ishmael, Jacob and Esau. The 
sins and ingratitude of any church or people may be pardoned, or 
punished, more or less, sooner or later, as divine wisdom and justice 
shall see ft, as in the instances of Moses and the Israelites, and of 
Pharaoh and the Egyptians. The infidel Jews make a stubborn ob- 
jection against the divine punishments ; the apostle reproves them 
for it. Then he shews their rejection for their refusing the Gospel 
religion, and the reception of the Gentiles into the Christian cove- 
nant, in their stead, to be agreeable to divine truth, justice, and wis- 
dom, and to the Scriptures of the Old Testament. 

1 T SAY the truth in 
Christ, I lie not, 
my conscience also 
bearing: nie witness 
in the Holy Ghost. 

2 That I have 
great heaviness and 

sorrow in 

my heart. 

3 For I could wish 
that mvself were ac- 

1 "I3EING now to speak of God's re- A. B. 5: 

-*-* jecting the unbelieving nation 

of the Jews, from being any longer his 
church and people, and his receiving 
the Gentiles into the Christian covenant 
in their room : upon this melancholy 
argument I call my own conscience, 
and the Holy Spirit the Searcher of 
hearts to witness, that I shall say no- 
thing out of prejudice, nothing but such 
plain Christian * truth as my apostolical 
office obliges me to, for vindicating the 
divine justice and goodness in the pre- 
sent punishment of that obdurate na- 

2 They can testify that I never speak 
or think on this doleful subject of their 
infidelity and rejection, without the 
deepest sorrow and concern. 

3 Nay, that, if it were a proper wish, 
or could do them any service, I could 

* Ver. 1. The truth in Christ. 
as ol h 'a$cc(a is all men^ and oi 
and Rom. viii. 1. 

R 4 

'AavSho. h Xgirfis Christian truth, 
h X§;rw, Christians, 1 Cor. XV. $y. 




A. D. 57. wish to be excommunicated and ex- 

eluded the Christian covenant myself, 

to save and bring them, my dear bre- 
thren, into it *. 

4 Them, I say, who are the children 
of Israel, that pious servant, who as a 
prince prevailed with God, (Gen. xxxii. 
8.) who were owned for the people of 
God, and called his first-born, (Exod. 
iv. C 2 L 2, 23. Hos. xi. 1.) among whom 
God manifested himself between the 
cherubims, (Psalm 1. 2.) who were un- 
der the covenant made with Abraham 
and Moses ; had the privilege of the 
divine revelation, the written law, the 
worship of God in the tabernacle and 
temple, the promise of the land of 
Canaan, and of the blessings of the 
kingdom of Christ the Messiah. 

5 In fine, that are the seed of Abra- 
ham and the patriarchs, of whose fa- 
mily was born Jesus Christ the Son of 
God, whom the Father hath appointed 
to be the blessed Head of his church, 
and Lord and Governor of all the dis- 
pensations of it. 

6 But while I thus commiserate the 
condition of my rejected nation, I would 
not be understood in the least to in- 
sinuate, as if God had not fully and 
faithfully performed all his promises 
to the church of Israel. For by a true 
Israelite or member of that church, we 
are not to understand every man that 
is- barely descended and born of the 

cursed from Christ for 
my brethren, my kins- 
men according to the 

4 Who are Israel- 
ites ; to whom per- 
taineth the adoption, 
and the glory, and the 
covenants, and the 
giving of the law, and 
the service of God, and 
the promises 5, 

5 Whose are the 
fathers, and of whom 
as concerning the 
flesh, Christ came *,. 
who is over all, God 
blessed for ever. A- 

6 Not as though 
the word of God hath 
taken none effect. For 
they are not all Israel, 
which are of Israel : 

* Ver. 3. Accursed from Christ. The word avaSs^z and avaSf/xa 
E?vat, in the LXX. when .spoken of persons, always signify to be sen- 
tenced or devoted to death, or to be cut off from the living. And it is 
most probable St. Paul meant no more here than wishing he could 
save his brethren by dying for them ; that lie could willingly take 
his part in that temporal curse that was shortly coming upon the 
Jews ; provided he could thereby convert them to Christianity, 
and gain them a share in his future and eternal rewards. 

f Ver. 5. Over all, God blessed for ever. Compare 2 Cor. xi. 31. 
Ephes. i. 3. 1 Pet. i. 3. 

CH\t. IX. 



7 Neither because 
they are of the seed 
of Abraham, are they 
all children : but in 
Isaac shall thy seed be 

8 That is, they 
which are the chil- 
dren of the flesh, these 
are not the children 
of God : but the chil- 
dren of the promise 
are counted for the 

9 For this is the 
word of promise, At 
this time will I come, 
and Sarah shall have 
a son. 

10 And not only 
this; but when Re- 
becca also had con- 
ceived by one, even 
by our father Isaac ; 

11 (For the chil- 
dren being not yet 
born, neither having 
done any good or evil, 
that the purpose of 
God according to e- 
lection might stand, 
not of works, but of 
him that calleth ;) 

12 It was said unto 
her f, The elder shall 
serve the younger. 

7 Or that the promise made to Abra- A. D. 57. 
ham, Gen. xvii. 7- That his posterity 
should be the church and peculiar people 
of God that should enjoy the land of 
Canaan, extended to all Abraham's 
children ; for it was expressly limited 
to the particular descendants of Isaac ; 
and Ishmael had no share in it. 

ft From which instance alone it ap- 
pears, that mere birth from Abraham, 
or being circumcised as he was, is not 
the thing that entitled a man to his 
promise; because that blessing was 
confined to one particular line. 

9 Look upon the promise as it runs, 
Gen. xviii. 20. At the time appointed 
(says God) I icill come, and Sarak shall 
have a son. There you see it was to 
Sarah's children. And yet Hagar was 
Abraham's wife as well as she. 

10, 11, 12 Observe it again in the 
case of Jacob and Esan, both born to 
Isaac by Rebecca*, the only wife he 
had ; there you find, that before ever 
the twins were born, or either of them 
in a capacity of doing any thing that 
might unqualify him for the divine fa- 
vour more than the other, God de- 
clared the privilege should be Jacob's 
and his heirs, though Esau was the 
eldest son f . Which is to shew you it 
was not any fault in either Ishmael 
or Esau that deprived them of being 
the fathers of the Jewish church, but 
a pure act of the sovereign will and 
pleasure of God in his disposal of such 
kind of national privileges. 

* Gen. xxv. 23. 

+ Ver. 12. The elder shall serve the younger. If this be the true 
rendering of /uj^v and Ixovrtron, then it relates to the persons of 
Jacob and Esau. But if it were meant of the nations, their poste- 
rity, the translation ought to be, The greater shall serve the lesser, 
as Le Clerc has well observed. Compare Gen. xxvii. 39, 40. with 
2 Sam. viii. 14. and 2 Kings viii. 20, &c. 




A. D. 57. 13 And though God seemed to speak 

this of the two persons of Jacob and 

Esau, he meant it chiefly of their pos- 
terity, Mai. i. 2, 3. / have loved you, 
saith the Lord to Israel. Yet ye say, 
Wherein hast thou loved as ? Was not 
Jacob Esau's (younger) brother, saith 
the Lord ? (i. e. was it no favour to 
choose you for my church before the 
Edomites ?) Yet I loved Jacob and hated 
* Esaiii and laid his mountains and his 
heritage waste ; i. e. I chose you to in- 
herit the promised land of Canaan, and 
left the Edomites to inhabit a compa- 
ratively dry and barren country. 

14 If therefore this were God's me- 
thod at first to choose whom he pleased 
for his church, without any evil com- 
mitted by any that he refused that pri- 
vilege to; you cannot tax him with the 
least injustice or hardship in rejecting 
you now for your infidelity, and receiv- 
ing the Gentiles in your stead. 

15 Is not his doing so very consistent 
with his own words to Moses, Exod. 
xxxiii. 19. / will have mercy on whom 
I will have mercy, &c. i. e. My pardon- 
ing, and receiving this people again for 
my church, after this gross act of ido- 

] 3 As it is written, 
Jacob have I loved, 
but Esau have I hat- 

14 What shall we 
say then ? Is there 
unrighteousness with 
God ? God forbid. 

15 For he saith to 
Moses, I will have 
mercy on whom I 
will have mercy, and 
I will have compassion 
on whom I will have 

* Ver. 13. Esau have I hated. The Hebrew language has hardly 
any way to express the middle proportion of things, or the second 
degree of comparison. So that loving and hating in that tongue 
often signify no more than choosing one thing or person, and leaving 
another, or preferring one before another. Our .Saviour useth this 
Hebraism in the same manner. John xii. 25. Matt. x. 39. See 
also Gen. xxix. 31. This is most clearly explained in those re- 
markable words of the book of Esdras, 2 Esdras iii. And unto him 
thou gavest Isaac, and unto Isaac thou gavest Jacob and Esau. As 
for Jacob, thou didst choose him unto thee, and put by Esau ; and so 
Jacob became a great nation. Moreover the word hating may be here 
taken in the sense of severely punishing, as it respects the posterity 
of Esau, who oppressed and abused the Israelites. For this sense 
let the reader see the excellent Bishop Fowler. Free Discourse, 
part ii. page 269, 270, &c. And compare Malac. i. with ObaJiah, 
ver. 9, 10, 11, &c. 




16 So then it is 
not of him that will- 
eth, nor of him that 
runneth, but of God 
that sheweth mercy. 

17 For the Scrip- 
ture saith unto Pha- 
raoh, Even for this 
same purpose have I 
raised thee up, that I 
might shew my pow- 
er in thee, and that 
my name might be 
declared throughout 
all the earth. 

18 Therefore hath 
he mercy on whom 
he will have mercy, 
and whom he will 
he hardeneth. 

latry, is what I am infinitely far from A, D. 57. 

being obliged to : but I forgive them »- 

by an act of my own sovereign autho- 
rity over all people. 

16* You see then, this national pri- 
vilege of the Jews or any other people's 
being a peculiar church, is disposed of 
in God's own way, and as he pleases. 
It was not given to all Abraham's pos- 
terity. Esau could not have it by Isaac's 
earnest desire he might be the man ; 
Esau's running for the venison would 
not do ; it was determined for Jacob. 
And consequently, if the Gentiles be 
now chosen of God to become his 
church, since you have refused the 
Gospel, it is but agreeable to the tenor 
of your own Scriptures. 

17 And as God thus disposes of his 
favours to nations and persons; so he 
orders his punishments upon offenders 
according to his own good pleasure. 
He may punish or pardon, destroy 
them sooner or later. As it is plain in 
the instance of Pharaoh and his people, 
to w T hom he thus spake after his long 
and incorrigible obstinacy. For this 
cause have 1 raised thee up *, &c. i. e. 
whereas indeed you deserve to have been 
long ago destroyed, yet it was my plea- 
sure to defer it, and keep* you for a more 
exemplary and remarkable destruction. 

1 8 Now from these Scripture exam- 
ples, it is clear beyond exception, that 
God does and may most justly raise and 
exalt some nations in their privileges 
and relations to him above others ; may 

* Ver. 17. For this cause have I raised thee up, Exod. ix. 16. The 
Hebrew word is, "JTHWl, I have made thee stand or continue. 
Which the Septuag. very rightly rendered evexev tovtov ^onr)^^, for 
this hast thou been kept. Which is a demonstration that Pharaoh 
was not born or created, on purpose for so much as temporal punish- 
ment ; but only that the punishment of his sins was deferred for a 
while. St. James uses this word l^ny^x, for raising up from sick- 
ness, James v. 15. 




A. D. 57. either pardon their ingratitude, or suf- 

■ fer them to ripen for a less or greater 

destruction after their long and obsti- 
nate disobedience. And thus his re- 
jecting you now, and accepting the 
Gentiles, is justifiable by all the exam- 
ples of divine judgments, mercies, and 

19 Some of you may perhaps be so 
hardy as to say, Well ! if God will be 
thus arbitrary, if we must be rejected 
and cast off, there is no help for it. It 
is his own doing ; and do not let him 
follow us on * with checks and re- 
proaches, since he has entirely had his 
mind on us. 

20, 21 Obdurate and ungrateful peo- 
ple ! Is this all the return you make 
for former favours and privileges? 
This your behaviour under the punish- 
ment for your abuse of them ? When, 
by incurable infidelity, you have thrown 
yourselves into the just hand of divine 
vengeance, is it arbitrariness in your 
supreme Judge, both to punish and re- 
proach such unparalleled ingratitude? 
For you to call it so, is just as if the 
clay should insult the potter, and pre- 
scribe him what he should do with the 
pieces when they are marred and 
broken f. 

22 What if God has stayed his hand 
from such an obstinate nation as you 
have long been, in order to your re- 
pentance, and then to suffer you to fall 
the more terribly, for refusing the last 
and greatest mercy of Christ your 
Messiah ? Is it any more than to say, 
The potter may do what he pleases with 
a broken vessel ? 

23, 24 And what if, when he thus 

wilt say 
me, Why 

19 Thou 
then unto 

doth he yet find fault 
For who hath resisted 
his will ? 

20 Nay but, O man, 
who art thou that re- 
pliest against God ? 
Shall the thing formed 
say to him that formed 
it, Why hastthoumade 
me thus ? 

21 Hath not the 
potter power over the 
clay, of the same lump 
to make one vessel un- 
to honour, and an- 
other unto dishonour? 

22 What if God, 
willing to shew his 
wrath, and to make 
his power known, 
endured with much 
long-suffering the ves- 
sels of wrath fitted to 
destruction : 

23 And that he 

* Ver. 19. T/ hi ^pQstcu', why should he still find fault? i. e. ac- 
cuse and reproach us. 

f See Jer. xviii. 4, 6. Eccles. xxxiii. 13. 




might make known 
the riches of his glo- 
ry on the vessels of 
mercy, which he had 
there prepared unto 
glory ? 

24 Even us whom 
he hath called, not of 
the Jews only, but 
also of the Gentiles. 

25 As he hath also 
in Osee, I will call 
them my people, 
which were not my 
people ; and her be- 
loved, which was not 

26 And it shall 
come to pass, that in 
the place where it was 
said unto them, Ye are 
not my people ; there 
shall they be called 
the children of the 
living God. 

%7 Esaias also cri- 
eth concerning Israel, 
Though the number 
of the children of Is- 
rael be as the sand of 
the sea, a remnant 
shall be saved. 

<2S For he will fi- 
nish the work, and cut 
it short in righteous- 
ness : because a short 
work w*ill the Lord 
make upon the earth. 

punishes and rejects you, he pleases to A. D. 57, 

take the opportunity of being abun ■ 

dantly merciful to the believing and 
repenting Gentiles, and put even them 
also into his church in your place? 


r, QG It is nothing but what your 
own prophecies have foretold, (Hos. i. 
10. and ii. 23.) / will call them (i. e. the 
Gentiles) my people, that were (formerly) 
not my people; and her beloved that was 
not beloved; i. e. give that nation the 
privilege of being my church that was 
not so hitherto, &c. 

27s 28 And when I say, but a few of 
your nation can be saved, while the in- 
fidelity is so general, I have your pro- 
phet's own words to justify me, Isa. x. 
22, 23. Though the number of the Israel- 
ites be as the sand of the sea, yet but a 
remnant of them will so behave themselves 
as to be saved. For (says he) when the 
Lord comes to cast np the numbers of 
good and bad, he will find but a short 
balance of true Israelites, and the destruc- 
tion of the unbelievers will be very large 
and great *. 

* Ver. 27, 28. Note, I have given that sense of the 23d verse, 
Which many learned men have thought to be most agreeable to the 
apostle's argument. The critical reader may see another (and I 
think a more exact) sense of Isaiah's words, both according to the 
LXX. and the Hebrew, in the learned Bishop Chandler's Vindica- 
tion of his Defence of Christianity, vol. i. pag. 285, 286", 290, 291, 
&e. See also that most excellent comment, of l r itringa upon this 
passage of Isaiah, who approves of the sense here given, and adds 
another very agreeable to it, and to the true meaning of both the 
Hebrew and Greek words. 




A. D. 

57. 29 Which is agreeable to another ac- 
— count he gives of them, at a time when 
their sins were at a high pitch, Isa. i. 9. 
Surely except the Lord of Sabaoth had 
been merciful to a seed, i. e. a few righ- 
teous persons among us, we had been as 
Sodom, and like unto Gomorrha, i. e. 
utterly and finally destroyed. 

30 Well then, what is the sum and 
substance of all this argument ? Why 
this: that the Gentiles who had formerly 
no notions of Christ, nor expected par- 
don and salvation by him, have now 
obtained it, and are made members of 
God's church, by embracing the Gospel 

31 But the Jews, who have been all 
along the people of God, have lost this 
means of pardon and justification by 
their refusal of the Gospel. And that 
all this is very agreeable to the divine 
justice and goodness, and to the Scrip- 
tures too. 

32 And how came the Jews to fail 
of it? Why, by so obstinately adhering 
to the Mosaical law, and depending 
upon the merits of external and cere^ 
monial performances ; and rejecting 
the merits and religion of Christ, where- 
by instead of a Saviour, he is now be- 
come their destroyer. 

33 According to those words of Isa. 
viii. 14. and xxviii. 16. foretelling that 
Christ would be a stone of stumbling, i. e. 
of ruin and consternation, to all obsti- 
nate and unbelieving Jews, but a Sa- 
viour and Deliverer to all that would 
embrace and obey his Gospel. 

29 And as Esaias 
said before, Except 
the Lord of Sabaoth 
had left us a seed, we 
had been as Sodoma, 
and been made like 
unto Gomorrha. 

30 What shall we 
say then ? That the 
Gentiles which fol- 
lowed not after righ- 
teousness, have at- 
tained to righteous- 
ness, even the righ- 
teousness, which is of 
faith : 

31 But Israel, which 
followed after the law 
of righteousness, hath 
not attained to the 
law of righteousness. 

32 Wherefore ? Be- 
cause they sought it, 
not by faith, but as it 
were by the works of 
the law : for they 
stumbled at that stum- 

33 As it is written, 
Behold, I lay in Sion 
a stumbling-stone and 
rock of offence : and 
whosoever believeth 
on him shall not be 
ashamed *. 

Ver. 33. Shall not be ashamed. See the note on Heb. xi. <2 





Though the Jewish nation is rejected for infidelity, the apostle expresses 
his earnest desire they would yet believe the Gospel and be saved. 
Allows their zeal for God and religion, but shews how mistaken a 
zeal it is, by their laying the stress of it upon external privileges and 
ceremonial performances. A comparison between the severe terms of 
justification under the law, and the gracious, plain, and easy condi- 
tion of the Gospel covenant. This covenant offered both to Gentile 
and Jew, according to the ancient prophecies. Wherefore the apo- 
stles must needs preach to the Gentile people, in order to convert 
them to Christianity. Their preaching and success in it upon both 
people, agreeable to the Scripture predictions. 

1 TgRETHREN, my 

heart's desire 
and prayer to God for 
Israel is, that they 
might be saved. 

2 For I bear them 
record, that they have 
a zeal of God, but not 
according to know- 

3 For they being 
ignorant of God's righ- 
teousness, and going 
about to establish their 
own righteousness, 
have not submitted 
themselves unto the 
righteousness of God. 

4 For Christ is the 
end of the law for 
righteousness to every 
one that believeth. 

5 For Moses de- 
scribe th the righteous- 

1 \ LL that I have said (chap, ix.) A. D 75. 

-^- concerning the rejection of the .. 

Jewish nation for their infidelity, is still 
with the most ardent wishes and earnest 
prayers to God, that they would yet 
believe and continue the people and 
church of God, and be saved. 

2 For I must do them the justice to 
say, their religious zeal is very great, 
but then it is an ignorant and mistaken 
zeal; aiming indeed at a good end, but 
placed upon quite wrong means for at- 
taining it. 

3 For they put all the stress of this 
great concern of pardon and salvation 
upon the mere privilege of being Abra- 
ham's seed, and the observation of the 
Mosaical ceremonies; which, alas! is 
not the method and condition that God 
intends for bringing mankind to it. 

4 For the very end and design of 
that ceremonial law was to train men 
up to the belief of Christ, in order to 
justification and happiness; and his re- 
ligion has fully answered what those 
ceremonies and sacrifices did so very 
faintly represent, and supplied all the 
defects of that dispensation ; and hath 
now put a final end to it. 

5 A much easier and more gracious 
condition than that of the law, which 




A. D. 57- was a rigid and a severe obligation to 
an exact observance of all its numerous 
precepts; as Moses himself describes it, 
Levit. xvii. 5. (which compare with 
Deut. xxvii. 26.) 

6, 7 Whereas the Gospel doctrine 
and religion has its main and chief 
foundation in a steady and unwavering 
belief; that Jesus is our true Messiah 
and Saviour; that he died and is risen 
again as an earnest and pledge of our 
future resurrection, though we do not 
actually see his body rising from his 
grave ; and that he is ascended into 
heaven, as an assurance of our ascend- 
ing one day with him also, though we 
do not now see him actually descending 
down from thence to fetch us up thither. 
This is the religious faith described by 
Moses, (Deut. xxx. 1 1„ 12, 13.) 

8, 9 And agreeable to his words in 
the next verses, is nigh unto thee, even 
in thy mouth, and in thy heart, i. e. so 
essentially good, clear and plain to be 
understood, as if it were written in our 
hearts ; and so easy to be professed and 
practised, as if we had been already 
familiarly acquainted with it. Such is 
the sum of our doctrine, viz. an open 
profession that Jesus is our true Mes- 
siah and Saviour, and that, as such, he 
is risen from the dead, and exalted into 

10 These two things, I say, are the 
plain and reasonable conditions of our 
Christian salvation, viz. a firm and se- 
rious belief in Christ as the ground of 
all sincere obedience to his spiritual 
laws ; and a resolute profession of that 
faith, under all difficulties and persecu- 
tions that may befal us for the sake 
of it. 

11, 12, 13 Which gracious condi- 
tions are now offered in the Gospel to 
to all mankind, without any distinction 

ness which is of the 
law, that the man 
which doth these 
things shall live by 

6 But the righte- 
ousness which is of 
faith, speaketh on this 
wise, Say not in thine 
heart, Who shall as- 
cend into heaven ? 
(that is, to bring Christ 
down from above :) 

7 Or who shall de- 
scend into the deep ? 
(that is, to bring up 
Christ again from the 

8 But what saith 
it ? The word is nigh 
thee, even in thy 
mouth, and in thy 
heart : that is, the 
word of faith which 
we preach. 

9 That if thou 
shalt confess with thy 
mouth the Lord Je- 
sus, and shalt believe 
in thine heart, that 
God hath raised him 
from the dead, thou 
shalt be saved. 

10 For with the 
heart man believeth 
unto righteousness, 
and with the mouth 
confession is made un- 
to salvation. 

11 For the Scrip- 
ture saith, Whosoever 
believeth on him, shall 
not be ashamed. 




12 For there is no 
difference between the 
Jew and the Greek : 
for the same * Lord 
over all is rich unto 
all that call upon him. 

13 For whosoever 
shall call upon the 
name of the Lord, 
shall be saved. 

14 How then shall 
they call on him in 
whom they have not 
believed ? and how 
shall they believe in 
him of whom they 
have not heard ? and 
how shall they hear 
without a preacher ? 

15 And how shall 
they preach, except 
they be sent ? as it is 
written, How beau- 
tiful are the feet of 
them that preach the 
Gospel of peace, and 
bring glad tidings of 
good things? 

16 But they have 
not all obeyed the Gos- 
pel. For Esaias saith, 
Lord, who hath be- 
lieved our report ? 

17 So then faith 
cometh by hearing, and 
hearing by the word 
of God. 

between Jew and Gentile; God the A. D. 57. 

merciful * Creator and Governor of all 

being now pleased, in much mercy, to 
accept and receive every man, ol what 
nation soever, upon his true faith in 
Christ; whom he hath appointed the 
universal Lord and Saviour of man- 
kind, according to the ancient promises 
of Jsa. xxviii. 16. Joel ii. 32. concern- 
ing the state and kingdom of the 
Messiah f . 

14, 15 And if it be so, how can you 
Jews be thus disgusted and enraged at 
our preaching the Gospel to the Gentile 
world, and ordaining and sending others 
to do it ? For how should men embrace 
this religion, unless they be convinced 
of the truth of it? And how should they 
be convinced of that, without some per- 
sons to teach them the doctrines and 
evidences of it? And who should do 
that, but men ordained and sent for that 
purpose ? Your indignation therefore 
at us upon this account is very con- 
trary to those words of your prophet, 
(Isa. lii. 7 5 8.) for he speaks of the 
welcome and acceptableness of the Gos- 
pel ministers to the Gentiles. 

16 And though indeed the success 
of our ministry has not been answer- 
able to the evidences that have attended 
it, nor the pains we have taken in it ; 
it is no more than what the same pro- 
phet foretold, Isa. liii. 1. 

17 Yet it is still our duty to preach 
to all nations; for though men's re- 
pentance and conversion do not always 
proportion ably follow this our preach- 

* Ver. 12. The same Lord over all. Note, This may either refer 
to God, who is to he called upon, or to Christ, the Lord, in and 
through whom we are to call, agreeably to Acts x. 36. I have 
expressed both senses. 

t See Rom. ix. 33. Acts ii. 16. 
vol. J. s 

2. r >8 



A. D. 57. ing ; yet without it there could be no 

converting of men at all. 

18 In "the mean time, neither Jew 
nor Gentile people can excuse their in- 
fidelity, by pretending a want of suffi- 
cient instruction. Not the Gentiles, 
for our prenching to them may be com- 
pared to what the Psalmist says of the 
beaut) *, harmony, and regularity of the 
heavens and the stars, Psal. xix. 4. It 
is gone out into all lands, and even as a 
voice unto the ends of the world. 

If) And can the Jewish nation plead 
this reception of the Gentile world into 
the kingdom and religion of Christ, to 
be a perfectly new and unheard-of doc- 
trine, and such as may well prejudice 
them against coming into it ? Nay, but 
even Moses, at the very first delivery 
of their law, foretold it should be so, 
(Deut. xxxii. 21.) telling them, that 
upon their obstinate infidelity, God would 
vex and. provoke them by taking the very 
Gentiles for his church in their stead. 

20 And Esaias yet more expressly, 
Isa. Ixv. I. I was found of them that knew 
me not, &c. i. e. my religion and the 
true way of salvation shall be graciously 
offered to, and accepted and embraced 
by, the Gentiles, who have been hither- 
to strangers to it. 

21 And as to the Jewish nation, 
their rejection, and their obstinate infi- 
delity, as the just reason of it, are 
plainly expressed in the 2d verse of the 
same chapter ; All the day long have I 
stretched out my hand to a disobedient 
and gainsaying people. 

18 But I say, Have 
they not heard ? Yes 
verily, their * sound 
went into all the 
earth, and their words 
unto the ends of the 

19 But I say, Did 
not Israel know? First, 
Moses saith, I will 
provoke you to jea- 
lousy by them that 
are no people, and by 
a foolish nation I will 
anger you. 

20 But Esaias is 
very bold, and saith, 
I was found of them 
that sought me not ; 
I was made manifest 
unto them that asked 
not after me. 

21 But to Israel he 
saith, All day long I 
have stretched forth 
my hands unto a diso- 
bedient and gainsay- 
ing people. 

* Ver. IS. Their sound is gone out. In the Hebrew it is, Dip, 
their line or direction, i. e. the order of their motions : instead of 
which, it is thought the Septuagint read CD^p, their voice, whose 
translation the writers of the New Testament generally follow. 
But our learned Dr. Pocock in his Miscellany, cap. iv. p. 43. has 
shewn the word to signify a loud voice, as well" as a line. 





The rejection of the Jewish nation is not universal, absolute, and irre- 
versible. Some remain yet the people of God, by embracing the faith 
of Christ, and relying wholly upon his religion, without any de- 
pendence on the Jewish law for pardon and happiness. The obstinate 
and hardened part of that people not so given over by God, as to 
have no place left for repentance and conversion. The Gentiles 
taken in to fill up their vacancy, and the fulness of Gentile believers 
ivill be an argument to incite and provoke the Jewish nation t> ac- 
knowledge and believe in Christ, after their example. Wherefore 
the Gentile Christians ought by no means to insult over the rejected 
Jews, who were the ancient church of God, upon whose stock they 
are, in a manner, grafted, and who are yet capable of becoming their 
brethren in Christ, and by whose after conversion the Gentile church 
will receive a vast and happy addition and increase. For God has, 
in their turns, suffered them both, by wilful transgressions, to become 
objects of his displeasure, and in their turns offered them both the 
means of pardon and redemption, and made them, as it were, instru- 
mental to the conversion of each other. A wise and wonderful dis- 
pensation of Providence. 

1 T SAY then, Hath 
God cast away 
his people ? God for- 
bid. For I also am an 
Israelite, of the seed 
of Abraham, of the 
tribe of Benjamin. 

2 God hath not 
cast away his people 
which he foreknew. 
Wot ye not what the 
Scripture saith of E- 
lias } how he maketh 
intercession to God a- 
gainst Israel, saying, 

3 Lord, they have 
killed thy prophets, 
and digged down 
thine altars ; and I am 
left alone, and they 
seek my life. 


T>UT what I have been discours-A. D. 57. 

*-* in ^ about the rejection of the 

Jewish people, must not be understood, 
as if God had absolutely and universally 
excluded them from his true church. 
No, by no means, for then I should 
exclude myself, who am a Jew born, of 
the tribe of Benjamin ; yet by being a 
Christian, I remain a member of his 

% 3 God has not thus totally cast 
off the nation whom he once made 
choice of to be his peculiar church and 
people. It is only now much as it was 
in Elijah's time, when he complained 
to God against them, (1 Kings xix. 14.) 
That they were so generally relapsed into 
idolatry, that hardly any of his true wor- 
sluppers voeie left but himself. 

s 2 




A. D. 57. 4, 5 But as God answered liim then, 

that there were still left seven thousand 

that had not committed idolatry ; so I say 
now, there are some of this nation, who 
remain yet the church and people of 
God, by embracing and accepting the 
gracious religion of the Gospel. 

6 Only let them remember, they are 
to depend wholly upon the mercies of 
God in the Gospel covenant for their 
pardon and happiness, and not at all 
upon the privileges and performances 
of the Mosaical law ; for if the ceremo- 
nial law would have saved them, there 
had been no occasion for the Gospel re- 

7 The case therefore is shortly this ; 
The generality of the Jewish nation 
pretend to, and would fain have, that 
pardon and mercy which belongs to the 
church of God, but have lost it by their 
present infidelity ; but such of them as 
are true believers in Christ still hold 
that privilege, while the rest remain ob- 
durate in refusing the conditions of it. 

8, 9, 10 Such an obduracy as Isaiah 
describes God giving the same people up 
to, as a just punishment upon their gross 
infidelity, Isai. xxix. 10. and chap. vi. 
9, 10. And the woful effects whereof 
are like what the Psalmist speaks of, 
upon the enemies of God's church, 
Psal lxix. c 22, ( 23. 

4 But what saith 
the answer of God 
unto him ? I have re- 
served to myself seven 
thousand men, who 
have not bowed the 
knee to the image of 

5 Even so then at 
this present time also 
there is a remnant ac- 
cording to the election 
of grace. 

6 And if by grace, 
then is it no more 
of works ; otherwise 
grace is no more 
grace. But if it be 
of works, then is it 
no more grace; other- 
wise work is no more 

7 What then ? Is- 
rael hath not obtained 
that which he seeketh 
for, but the election 
hath obtained it, and 
the rest were blinded 

8 (According as it 
is written, God hath 
given them the spirit 
of slumber, eyes that 
they should not see, 
and ears that they 
should not hear 3) unto 
this day. 

9 And David saith, 
Let their table be 
made a snare, and a 
trap, and a stumbling- 
block, and a recom- 
pence unto them. 

10 Let their eyes 
he darkened, that they 
may not see, and bow 
down their back alway. 




111 say then, have 
they stumbled, that 
they should fall ? God 
forbid ; but rather 
through their fall sal- 
vation is come unto the 
Gentiles, for to pro- 
voke them to jealousy. 

14 Now if the fall 
of them be the riches 
of the world, and the 
diminishing of them 
the riches of the Gen- 
tiles, how much more 
their fulness ? 

13 For I speak to 
you Gentiles, inas- 
much as I am the a- 
postle of the Gen- 
tiles, I magnify mine 
office : 

14 If by any means 
I may provoke to e- 
mulation them which 
are my flesh, and 
might save some of 

15 For if the cast- 
ing away of them be 
the reconciling of the 
world : what shall the 
receiving of them be, 
but life from the dead ? 

11 Yet, as I said, the unbelieving A. D. 57. 

part of them are not so utterly cast oil, 

as to be out of all hopes of recovery, 

upon their repentance and conversion 
to the Gospel. In the mean time, dur- 
ing this their infidelity, God is pleased 
to declare the Gentiles to be his church 
and people in their stead, as a most pro- 
per argument, and likely means, the 
sooner to irritate and rouse them, by 
way of emulation, to come in and em- 
brace their Messiah, as well as the 

12 A most happy and wise proceed- 
ing for the benefit of all mankind ! 
For if such a considerable part of the 
Gentile world are, and will be brought 
to the Christian religion, by our leav- 
ing that nation, and preaching to them ; 
how much more will the world flow 
into it, whenever they see the Jews 
themselves repent, and embrace their 
own Messiah ? 

13, 14 I make the great blessing of 
the Gentiles being called into the church 
of Christ, to be, as it were, first occa- 
sioned and founded upon the rejection 
of the Jews. But my only aim in so 
expressing myself, is to raise the spirit 
and emulation of my countrymen, and 
bring them the sooner (at least some of 
them) to accept of the Gospel salvation ; 
not to give you Gentile converts the 
least occasion to insult over that obsti- 
nate and unhappy people. For though 
I be your apostle, and glory that I am 
so, yet would I give you no encourage- 
ment to such behaviour against my own 

15 You will have infinitely more 
reason to triumph and rejoice at their 
general conversion, than you have now 
at their rejection. For though the lat- 
ter has been an occasion of bringing 
some of you (the sooner) into the Chris- 
tian faith, yet the former, whenever it 

s 3 




A. D. 57. shall happen, will so enlarge and fill 

the Christian church from all quarters, 

that the whole world will seem, as it 
were, to rise from the dead to a new 
slate of life and happiness. 

16 You must not look upon them as 
finally and entirely rejected. God has 
still an eye upon them as a people in 
covenant with him from Abraham, and 
as branches sprung from the root of the 
pious and holy patriarchs. And though 
their present infidelity has now justly 
deprived them of the privileges belong- 
in £ to that noble relation : vet when- 
ever they repent of it, they are sure to 
be favourably accepted of him, as the 
whole product of the harvest was con- 
secrated by the first-fruit offering, and 
as they are the genuine branches of so 
good a root. 

17, 18 And if many of them are now* 
broken off, like the fruitless branches 
of a good tree, and you Gentiles put 
into their place, yet remember, it is but 
like cions of another tree grafted upon 
their stock ; you grow by their sap, and 
are nourished from their root ; for you 
are saved by virtue of the promise made 
to Abraham, but Abraham's natural 
seed have 

eceived no advantages from 

19 You may perhaps allege, that 
since they are cut off to make way for 
us, we may as well insult over them 
now, as they did over us before. 

20 Well, but pray remember it was 
infidelity and disobedience that lost them; 
and it is only sincere faith and obedience 
that puts you in possession of their 
happy privileges. Take warning by 
them, therefore, and do not insult, but 
rather endeavour to avoid their fate, by 
an humble, modest, and constant per- 
severance in the duties of your profes- 

16 For if the first- 
fruit be holy, the lump 
is also holy : and if the 
root be holy, so are 
the branches. 

1? And if some of 
the branches be brok- 
en off, and thou, be- 
ing a wild olive-tree, 
wert graffed in a- 
mongst them, and with 
them partakest of the 
root and fatness of the 
olive-tree : 

18 Boast not against 
the branches : but if 
thou boast, thou bear- 
est not the root, but 
the root thee. 

19 Thou wilt say 
then, The branches 
were broken off, that 
I might be graffed in. 

90 Well : because 
of unbelief they were 
broken off, and thou 
standest by faith. Be 
not highminded, but 




21 For if God 
spared not the natural 
branches, take heed 
lest he also spare not 

22 Behold there- 
fore the goodness and 
severity of God : on 
them which fell, se- 
verity ; but towards 
thee, goodness, if thou 
continue in his good- 
ness : otherwise thou 
also shalt be cut orF. 

23 And they also, 
if they abide not still 
in unbelief, shall be 
graffed in : for God 
is able to graff them 
in again. 

24 For if thou wert 
cut out of the olive- 
tree, which is wild by 
nature, and wert graff- 
ed, contrary to nature, 
into a good olive-tree : 
how much more shall 
these, which be the 
natural branches, be 
graffed into their own 
olive-tree ? 

25 For I would 
not, brethren, that ye 
should be ignorant of 
this mystery, (lest ye 
should be wise in your 
own conceits,) that 
blindness in part is 
happened to Israel, 
until the fulness of the 
Gentiles be come in. 

26 And so all Is- 
rael shall be saved : as 
it is written, There 

21 For if God spared not his own A. D. 57. 

chosen people, the seed of Abraham, 

upon their infidelity, much less will he 

spare you, who never had any such re- 
lation to him, should you relapse, and 
be guilty of the same miscarriage. 

22 Consider then the perfect mix- 
ture of severity and mercy in the di- 
vine dispensations ! How severe he 
has been even to his own people, that 
fell from their obedience to him ; and 
how merciful toward you Gentiles, in 
now giving you the Gospel salvation : 
but it is no further, and for no longer, 
than you continue to live worthy of 
that mercy. 

23 Nay, if the Jewish nation shall 
yet return and embrace the Gospel, 
God will again engraft them into his 
church : for though they seem to you 
to be cut oflj and quite withered; yet 
is he both able and willing, upon their 
true repentance, to reduce them again 
to a flourishing church and people. 

24 For if you Gentiles, that were 
never before in covenant with him. are 
now so freely and readily taken into it, 
upon your belief of the Gospel, how 
much easier is it to conceive, God will 
upon the same conditions receive them 
again, to whom the promise of the Mes- 
siah originally belonged, and was at 
first made ? 

25 For, to prevent any proud con- 
ceit of yourselves, in contempt of them, 
I must now tell you, what you seem to be 
yet ignorant of, that God never designed 
to abandon this great part of the Jew- 
ish nation to this blindness and infide- 
lity, any longer than till the Christian 
church of the Gentiles is more fully 

26, 27 And then the whole nation 
shall be again received, upon their re- 
pentance, according to those words of 
Isaiah lix. 20, 21. 

s 4 




A. D. 57. 

28 Their obstinate refusal of the re- 
ligion of Christ has indeed caused God 
in just judgment to reject and cast them 
off, and you have the advantage of com- 
ing into their place : but God has still 
such a tender regard to the eminent 
virtues of, and the covenant made with 
Abraham and the holy patriarchs, whose 
posterity they are, that he has yet a 
merciful eye toward them as his ori- 
ginal church and people. 

99 For that great promise to Abra- 
ham, That his seed should be the cove- 
nanted people of God, and enjoy the 
blessings of the Messiah, though sus- 
pended now upon their present disobe- 
dience, God will certainly have a respect 
to, and see effectually fulfilled at last, if 
ever they will come into the conditions 
of it. 

30, 31 And as you Gentiles were 
once in a state of idolatry, vice, and 
superstition, but now enjoy the oppor- 
tunity of coming into the pale of God's 
true church, by their casting themselves 
out of it; so shall your improvement 
of this great advantage provoke and ex- 
cite their emulation, and in due time 
become an occasion * of bringing them 
again to repentance and divine favour. 

32 And thus has the Divine wisdom 
and justice suffered you both in your 
turns to revolt from him, by the wilful 
abuse of the light and advantages be- 

shall come out of Sion 
theDeli verer, and shall 
turn away ungodliness 
from Jacob. 

27 For this is my 
covenant unto them, 
when I shall take 
away their sins. 

28 As concerning 
the Gospel, they are 
enemies for your sake : 
but as touching the 
election, they are be- 
loved for the fathers' 

29 For the gifts 
and calling of God are 
without repentance. 

30 For as- ye in 
times past have not 
believed God, yet 
have now obtained 
mercy through their 

31 Even so have 
these also now not be- 
lieved, that through 
your mercy they also 
may obtain mercy. 

32 For God 'hath 
concluded them all 
in unbelief, that he 
might have mercy 
upon all. 

* Ver. 31. That they also may obtain mercy, "hoc <a\ uvto] iXsvtdu 
so as that they also may yet obtain mercy. 




33 O the depth of 
the riches both of the 
wisdom and know- 
ledge of God ! how 
unsearchable are his 
judgments, and his 
ways past finding out? 

34 For who hath 
known the mind of 
the Lord, or who hath 
been his counsellor ? 

35 Or who hath 

first given to him, and 
it shall be recompens- 
ed unto him again ? 

36 For of him, and 
through him, and to 
him are all things : to 
whom be glory for e- 
ver. Amen. 

stowed on you ; and, by a most wise and A. D. 57. 

wonderful turn of providential events, . 

has given you both the free and fair 
offers of pardon and salvation, in order 
to reduce both Jew and Gentile into 
one church under Jesus Christ, our 
common Saviour and Redeemer. 

33 O the deep abyss of Divine good- 
ness and wisdom, that can thus order 
and dispose even its judgments and 
punishments, to the good of mankind, 
by ways absolutely surprising and un- 
searchable to human understanding ! 

34 Certainly nothing but infinite Wis- 
dom, that stands in need of no coun- 
sellors but itself, could have thus dis- 
posed of events so much to the advan- 
tage of a sinful world. 

35 Certainly, as the Gentiles can 
pretend to have had no hand themselves 
in these gracious methods of their hap- 
piness, so cannot the Jews presume to 
say, that God is in their debt, or any 
way deals hardly by them, even in this 
severe punishment inflicted upon their 

36 Thus perfect are the ways and 
dispensations of Gpd, by whose power 
all things were at first created, by whose 
providence they ai*e governed and di- 
rected, and to whose glory and praise 
they all tend. To whom therefore be 
ascribed all glory and honour for ever. 





Jewish and Gentile believers being now united into one church under 
Christ, the apostle exhorts them all to such duties as become their 
several stations in the church. Warns them against undervaluing 
and despising one another upon account of spiritual and extraordinary 
endowments. Excites everij one to employ his own gifts modestly and 
well, and to attend diligently upon their respective offices. Exhorts 
them to the love of one another, and to seek no revenge, but do good 
even to their enemies and persecutors. 

A. D. 57 

1 XTAVING thus proved, th 

-*-*- Jews and Gentiles are 

at both 
~ now ca- 
pable of pardon and happiness, upon 
the terms of faith in Christ, and obedi- 
ence to the Gospel ; let me now entreat 
you all, as you value the mercies of 
God in this covenant, or expect any 
benefit by it, to endeavour after the 
practice of all its moral and reasonable 
duties, viz. the subduing your sinful 
lusts and irregular appetites ; a sacri- 
fice much better, and more acceptable 
to God, than that of slain beasts, and 
legal oblations. 

2 Forsaking and renouncing all the 
wicked customs and fashions of the 
world, by a change of your sentiments 
and principles from what they formerly 
were, by being fully satisfied * your- 
selves, and by your practices demon- 
strating to all others, how truly good 
and excellent your Christian duties & and 
services are. 

3 And whereas several, both of Jew- 
ish and Gentile converts, are now, as 
Christian professors, blessed with ex- 
traordinary gifts and endowments of 
the Holy Ghost, I, as an inspired apo- 
stle, do now forewarn and exhort such 
of you, neither to extol and magnify 

1 J BESEECH you 

therefore, bre- 
thren, by the mercies 
of God, that ye pre- 
sent your bodies a liv- 
ing sacrifice, holy, ac- 
ceptable unto God, 
which is your reason- 
able service. 

c l And be not con- 
formed to this world ; 
but be ye transformed 
by the renewing of 
your mind, that ye 
may prove what is 
that good, and ac- 
ceptable, and perfect 
will of God. 

3 For I say, through 
the grace given unto 
me, to every man that 
is among you, not to 
think of himself more 
highly than he ought 
to think, but to think 

Ver. 2. EI? il ^a^iv, That ye may approve, i. e. either judge 
Others m Withhl yourselves > or P rove aml recommend to 




soberly, according as 
God hath dealt to 
every man the mea- 
sure of faith. 

4 For as we have 
many members in one 
body, and all mem- 
bers have not the same 
office : 

5 So we being ma- 
ny are one body in 
Christ, and every one 
members one of an- 

6 Having then gifts, 
differing according to 
the grace that is given 
to us, whether pro- 
phecy, let us prophesy 
f according to the 
proportion of faith -, 

any such gifts beyond what they really A. D. 57. 

are, nor to exalt themselves into a con 

tempt of other Christians upon account 
of them- But let every one look upon 
a spiritual gift as a trust, and a charge 
committed to his care and fidelity. 

4 For as in the human body, though 
some members may be of more appa- 
rent and visible use than others, some 
stronger*, others more feeble, some * Seel Cor. 
more honourable, others less; yet all xl1 * &c * 
have their proper and necessary func- 
tions for the good of the whole frame : 

5 Even so in the Christian church,, 
while some spiritual gifts may be more 
eminent and remarkable than others; 
yet all degrees of them, even the mean- 
est, have their excellent uses and pur- 
poses ; all gifted persons are some way 
needful members of this body of Christ, 
and none ought to be despised. 

6 As therefore God has distributed 
these extraordinary endowments ac- 
cording to his own good pleasure, and 
your offices and posts in the church are 
of different kinds, let every one exer- 
cise his own prudently, and modestly, 
and to the best advantage. He that 
has the gift of prophecy, for instance, 
i. e. either of interpreting Scripture by 
inspiration, or of foretelling future 
things, let him interpret or foretel no 
farther f than the Spirit clearly and 
plainly directs him, and let him do it 
with the diligence and faithfulness that 
such a trust requires. 

f Ver. 6. Kara, t'/jv ava^oyiocv Trig vtlr'tass, According to the proportion 
of faith, i. e. so far as he has the gift of inspiration, which was be- 
stowed upon men in proportion to the progress they had made in 
the Christian faith. Or else thus : Let him interpret and foretel 
nothing but what is agreeable to the rule of Christian faith and 
doctrine. There is yet another sense of the word faith, in this and 
in many other passages ; it is that of the judicious Dr. Clark, 
According to the proportion of faith, i. e. " According to the nature 
" and use of the gift, or power, or trust, committed to a man's 
" charge or fidelity" So in ver. 3. Serm. vol. ii. pag. 267. 




A. D. 57. 7 He that hath any office under any 

chief minister in the church, let him 

attend that: he that is to teach others 
the Christian faith, to qualify them for 
baptism, let that be his business. 

8 Whoever is endowed with a pe- 
culiar talent of exhorting, comforting, 
and supporting others in their profes- 
sion, let him mind that good work. 
Whoever is either disposed to an ex- 
traordinary act of charity, or is a dis- 
tributer and steward of charitable col- 
lections, let him do it without any pri- 
vate ends, or sinister designs. Such as 
preside over others in any capacity, let 
them govern with diligence. He whose 
office it is to minister to the sick, the 
widow, or the stranger, let him do it 
heartily and cheerfully *. 

9 Let all your expressions of mutual 
love and kindness be sincere and un- 
feigned, without flattery and compli- 
ment, scorning to do a base and f inju- 
rious turn to any man, but always ready 
and desirous to do what is kind and 

10 Love one another, not only out 
of a principle of common humanity, but 
as Christian brethren and relations, be- 
ing ready to give every one the pre- 
eminence, rather than depress or under- 
value any. 

11 Be no way slothful in your duty 
to God or man, but zealous and ear- 
nest in every performance your station 
requires, as considering it is the honour- 
able service of your God and Saviour. 

12 Let the hopes of heaven and 
eternal happiness fill your minds with 
a constant joy and satisfaction. Be 
patient and resolute under all sufferings, 

7 Or ministry, let 
us wait on our mi- 
nistering; or he that 
teacheth, on teach- 
ing J 

8 Or lie that ex- 
horteth, on exhorta- 
tion : he that giveth, 
let him do it with sim- 
plicity ; he that rul- 
eth, with diligence ; 
he that sheweth 
mercy, with cheerful- 

9 Let love be with- 
out dissimulation. Ab- 
hor that which is 
evil, cleave to that 
which is good. 

10 Be kindly af- 
fectioned one to an- 
other with brotherly 
love ; in honour pre- 
ferring one another j 

11 Not slothful in 
business ; fervent in 
spirit; serving the 
Lord ; 

12 Rejoicing in 
hope ; patient in tri- 
bulation ; continuing 
instant in prayer : 

* 1 Cor. xiii. <2. James v. 15. 1 Pet. it. 11. Ephes. iv. 7. 

f To -crovvipov, a malicious turn; ™ aya$£, a kind action. The con- 
text being about love and charity, seems to require this sense. 




13 Distributing to 
the necessity of saints ; 
given to hospitality. 

14 Bless them 
which persecute you : 
bless, and curse not : 

15 Rejoice with 
them that do rejoice, 
and weep with them 
that weep. 

16 Be of the same 
mind one towards an- 
other. Mind not high 
things, but conde- 
scend to men of low 
estate. Be not wise 
in your own conceits. 

17 Recompense to 
no man evil for evil. 
Provide things honest 
in the sight of all 

18 If it be possi- 
ble, as much as lieth 
in you, lire peaceably 
with all men. 

19 Dearly beloved, 
avenge not yourselves, 
but rather give place 
unto wrath : for it is 
written, Vengeance is 
mine ; I will repay, 
saith the Lord. 

20 Therefore if 
thine enemy hunger, 
feed him; if he thirst, 
give him drink : for 
in so doing thou shalt 

for the sake of Christ and his religion, A. D. 57. 
praying with earnestness, constancy, 
and submission to the divine will, for a 
timely deliverance from them. 

13 Give all the assistance you can 
to such fellow Christians as are under 
persecution and distress, and entertain 
such as come to you, either as preachers 
of the Gospel, or as exiles for the faith 
of it. 

14 Wish well to them that injure 
you, and pray for their conversion : 
let no abuses whatever provoke you to 
ill wishes, or angry imprecations. 

15 Have such a concern and fellow- 
feeling in the condition of all Christian 
people, as to rejoice with them in their 
prosperity, and condole with them in 

16 Endeavour after an even, conde- 
scending, and unanimous disposition to 
one another. Let not prosperity set 
you above a concern for your inferiors, 
nor any spiritual endowments make you 
proud of your own wisdom and abilities. 

17? 18 Remember no sort of injuries, 
so far as to revenge them. Do every 
thing so prudently, as to give no occa- 
sion or pretence of objection or scan- 
dal ; endeavouring to gain the good opi- 
nion of all sorts of men, by all methods 
that are consistent with duty, honour, 
and conscience. 

19 I beseech you, my dear brethren, 
especially to seek no revenge upon your 
persecutors, but leave your cause to 
God, who has claimed the prerogative 
of inflicting vengeance to himself, and 
has promised to do it, Deut. xxxii. 35. 

20 Wherefore, if you should see even 
any of your most cruel persecutors in 
distress, relieve and help him; for by 
so doing, you will either melt him into 
repentance and a better temper by such 

270 A PARAPHRASE ON THE chap. xiii. 














A. D. 57. generous behaviour toward him, or else heap coals of fire on 

heap the coals of divine vengeance upon his head * 

his head, for such brutish malice, and 
incurable ingratitude. 

21 Let no ill usage get such a mas- 
tery over you, as to break your temper, 
and draw you into passionate desires of 
revenge ; but by returning good for evil, 
obtain the noble victory over both your- 
selves and your enemies. 


The Jews, under pretence of being the special people of God, had an 
aversion to all governors but what were of God's special appointment, 
and were of their own nation. They thought subjection to the Roman 
power, a derogation to God and his church, and paying taxes to 
heathen emperors, a reproach not to be complied with. In all proba- 
bility, this wicked principle amongst the Jews was derived first from the 
insurrection and followers of Judas of Galilee, mentioned Acts v. 17. 
[See the note on ver. 1.] This insurrection had made the very name 
of the Jews odious at Rome, whither St. Paul intended to go shortly 
himself Wherefore, to prevent his coming under this general scan- 
dal, and for fear the Jewish Christians should inherit this prejudice, 
and be leavened with this notion, the apostle warns them against it in 
this chapter, by declaring God to be equally the author and ordainer 
of heathen governors, as of the Jewish. That Christianity meddled 
not with any civil powers ; and that Christians of all sorts ought to be 
obedient to the constitutions of the several countries they lived in, out 
of a principle of duty and conscience. Then he returns to his exhor- 
tations to Christian charity, and mutual love; to purity, peaceable- 
ness, and society, as the essential duties of the Gospel religion. 

1 T MUST give the Jewish converts 1 T ET every soul 

■*■ a necessary and particular caution be subject unto 

against a prejudice thev (many of them, ^ ie higher powers. 

at least, may) labour under with respect £ or there is no P ower 

to the civil government in which they b " we ° f h J" th * 

live. They are still apt to be possessed ^ u , u . b , c \ , 
.., ., J r . , r . rwv x ry i ordained of God. 

with the Jewish notion, That God 

alone is their Lord and Governor, as his 

* Ver. 20. Heap coals of fire upon his head. Note, I have given 
the two most usual senses ascribed to this phrase. But it must be 
confessed, the latter of them is most agreeable to the expression, 
as used in other passages of Scripture ; as in Psalm xi. 6*. xviii. 8, 
13. cxx. 4. cxl. 11. 




2 Whosoever there- 
fore resisteth the pow- 
er, resisteth the Qrdi- 
nanee of God : and 
they that resist, shall 
receive to themselves 

3 For rulers are 
not a terror to good 
works, but to the evil. 
Wilt thou then not 
be afraid of the pow- 

peculiar people *; are loath to acknow- A. D. 57. 

ledge any heathen power, or own any 

prince that is not of their own nation, 
and of God's special appointment. But 
let them know, that God confines him- 
self to no such measures, even with his 
own church and people. Government, 
or the supreme legislative power, is the 
ordinance of God, in every country, as 
well as in the Jewish land; and as it 
was the hand of Providence that sub- 
jected you to the Roman power, nei- 
ther your Jewish nor Christian f pri- 
vilege exempts any of you in the least 
from a due obedience to it. 

2 Heathen governments, I say, are 
as much the ordinance of God, for the 
peace and order of their several king- 
doms or states, as ever the Jewish one 
was. The Christian religion meddles 
with none of their powers ; and what- 
ever Christian opposes the supreme au- 
thority of the country he lives in, op- 
poses the authority of God, the fountain 
and original of all order and govern- 
ment, and must expect the punishment 
due to so capital a crime. 

3 And it is very fit he should, be- 
cause all civil governments whatever 
are intended of God for one and the 
same good end, viz. defending the com- 
munity in their rights and properties, 

* Any reader that does but look on Matt. xxii. 17- or could read 
the Jewish Talmud, or even the innumerable passages in Jose- 
phus's history, and compares them with the main scope of the 
apostle in this Epistle, can, I think, have no doubt remaining, that 
this paraphrase includes all that St. Paul intended with relation to 
obedience to civil government. See Josephus, Antiq. lib. xviii. cap. 
1, 2. and De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. cap. 12. Antiq.Vib. xx. cap. 6, 7- De Bell. 
Jud. lib. ii. cap. 23. iv. 10, 11, 16, 20, 23, 24, 30, 35. and vii. 30, 
34, 35, 37. Whence it is plain, the rise of this wicked principle 
was from Judas of Galilee, who by his insurrection had so highly 
provoked the Roman government. 

f Ver. 1. Uaa-cc ^vx$, every soul, emphatically, Jewish as well 
as Gentile convert. 




A. D. 57. and preserving the public peace, by 

— ! proper laws of restraint and penalty 

upon offenders against it. Do you 
therefore but live according to the laws 
of justice, and the constitution * of the 
country you inhabit, and you shall have 
so little reason to have an aversion to 
any kind of government, that you will 
see the very nature of it to tend to your 
encouragement and protection. 

4 For all persons in whom the su- 
preme authority is lodged, whether they 
be one or many, whether Jews, Gen- 
tiles, or Christians, are the ministers 
and vicegerents of God, for the good 
and peace of the communities they go- 
vern. If indeed you break the laws, 
and affront the authority that made 
them, you may well fear, and have an 
aversion to their power ; for their very 
office, and the interest of their govern- 
ment, require they should take off such 

.5 Wherefore as God is equally the 
fountain of all sorts of governments, and 
your Christian religion leaves them all 
in every part of the world as it found 
them, you ought all to live peaceably 
under those constitutions you are at 
any time subject to, not barely out of 
fear of present punishment, (which is 
mere civil obedience,) but from a prin- 
ciple of conscience, and of Christian 
duty, (which is truly religious obedience.) 
6* You may, perhaps, think it de- 
grading f to God's people, to pay taxes 
to Caesar ; but I tell you, he has the 
same right to it that* any Jewish go- 
vernor can have, as he is the public pre- 
server of our common rights, and by 

er ? Do that which is 
* good, and thou shalt 
have praise of the 

4 For he is the mi- 
nister of God to thee 
for good. But if thou 
do that which is evil, 
be afraid ; for he bear- 
eth not the sword in 
vain ; for he is the 
minister of God, a 
revenger to execute 
wrath upon him that 
doeth evil. 

5 Wherefore ye must 
needs be subject, not 
only for wrath, but 
also for conscience 

6 For, for this cause 
pay you tribute also : 
for they are God's mi- 
nisters, attendingcon- 
tinually upon this ve- 
ry thing. 

* Ver. 3. To uyuSw «rofo, do that which is good, i. e. obey the laws; 
in the same sense with ayaSoTrotoJyra?, well doing, in 1 Pet. ii. 15. 

+ See Joseph. Antiq. lib. xviii. cap. I. and of the Jewish Wars, 
lib. vii. cap. 28. 




7 Render therefore 
to all their dues : tri- 
bute to whom tribute 
is due, custom to whom 
custom, fear to whom 
fear, honour to whom 

S Owe no man any 
thing, but to love one 
another : for he that 
loveth another hath 
fulfilled the law. 

9 For this, Thou 
shalt not commit adul- 
tery, Thou shalt not 
kill, Thou shalt not 
steal, Thou shalt not 
bear false witness. 
Thou shalt not covet ; 
and if there he any 
other commandment, 
it is briefly compre- 
hended in this saying-, 
namely, Thou shalt 
love thy neighbour as 

10 Love worketh 
no ill to his neigh- 
bour : therefore love 
is the fulfilling of 
the law. 

11 And that, know- 

Divine Providence made the guardian A. D. 57 

of the empire; to the maintenance 

whereof, every subject ought to contri- 
bute his share, as a member of it *. 

7 Do not therefore look upon tribute 
as a reproach upon your nation, but 
pay it cheerfully as a just and legal 
due; honour and respect ihe govern- 
ment you live under, and pay to every 
magistrate and officer employed in it 
his proper reverence and regard. 

8 To return now to the duties of 
mutual love and charity, I was before 
exhorting you to (chap, xii.) be just in 
discharging all debts and dues to each 
other as far as possibly you can. Only 
remember, love is a debt that will last 
you your whole lives, a bond that will 
remain in force to your dying-day, as 
being a duty that includes all the com- 
mands of the second table of the law. 

9 For those prohibitions against an- 
cleanness, killing, stealing, defamation, 
and false evidence, and all precepts 
whatever, relating to the rights of our 
neighbour, are all included in that of 
loving, or doing to others as we would 
be done by. 

10 For as this duty restrains a man 
from every injury, and obliges him to 
all good offices to others, that fairly lie 
in his power; it is the sum total of all 
the laws that respect our neighbour. 

11 Which are such essential duties 

* Note, These Jewish zealots also might have convinced them- 
selves of the error of their opinion in this matter, even out of their 
own writings, as Prov. viii. 15. Dan. ii. 2 L 2. Eecles. xvii. 17. Deut. 
xxxii. 8. Wisd. vi. 1, 2, 3., 4. lsai. xliw 28. 

VOL. I. T 




A. D. 57- of your Christian profession, as ought 

to be your first and immediate care, 

especially when you consider that from 
the time of your first conversion, every 
day will lessen and diminish the obsta- 
cles you meet withal, and bring you 
nearer to jour expected happiness and 

12 You Gentile converts ought par- 
ticularly to reflect on yourselves, as de- 
livered from the dark estate of igno- 
rance and idolatry; brought into the 
happy light of true religion, and so im- 
mediately and indispensably obliged to 
renounce all your former shameful and 
heathenish practices, and live up to the 
pure and excellent rules of your holy 

13 To behave yourselves in such a 
sober, decent, and prudent manner, as 
that your actions may be seen by any 
body without offence or reproach; no 
longer indulging any intemperate, lewd, 
or wanton conversation among your 
former heathen acquaintances, nor any 
strife or envy against any of your Chris- 
tian brethren. 

14- But as men are commonly known 
by the garments they wear, so do you 
endeavour to distinguish yourselves as 
the true disciples of Jesus Christ, no 

ing the time, that now 
it is high time to 
awake out of sleep : 
for now is our salva- 
tion nearer than when 
we believed. 

12 The night is 
far spent, the day is at 
hand : let us therefore 
cast off the works of 
darkness, and let us 
put on the armour of 

13 Let us walk ho- 
nestly as in the day -, 
not in rioting and 
drunkenness, not in 
chambering and wan- 
tonness, not in strife 
and envying. 

longer striving after the unnecessary 
riches and goods of the present life, 
which serve only as so much fuel to 
our bodily lusts and sinful passions. 

14 But put ye on 
the Lord Jesus Christ, 
and make not provi- 
sion for the flesh, to 
fulfil the lusts thereof 





The reverence which the Jewish (diverts still retained for the Mosaical 
law, made them nice and scrupulous in several matters, in themselves 
indifferent, such as the use of several meats, and the observation of 
certain days, 8$c. while the Gentile Christians, who had been obliged 
to no such distinctions, and knew the Christian religion did not at 
all insist upon them, took their freedoms, and openly enjoyed perfect 
liberty from such restrictions, not without some contempt of the Jewish 
niceties, to the great disgust and disturbance of that weaker part of 
the church. To prevent the mischiefs arising from hence, the apostle 
here gives instructions to both parties, advising the Jewish not to 
condemn and censure the Gentile liberties, nor the Gentile to vex and 
prejudice the Jewish convert, by a too open and imprudent use of his 
lawful freedoms. 

1 1J"IM that is weak 
in the faith re- 
ceive ye, but not to 
doubtful disputations. 

2 For one betiev- 

eth that he may eat 
all things : another, 
•who is weak, eateth 

3 Let not him that 
eateth, despise him 
that eateth not ; and 
let not him which 
eateth not, judge him 
that eateth : for God 
hath received him. 

1 rglO preserve you from those strifes A. D. 57 

-■- and contentions that may be apt 

to arise among people that have different 
notions about the indifferent perform- 
ances of ceremonial matters, I advise 
every one that perfectly understands 
his Christian liberty and freedom from 
the Mosaical ordinances, to communi- 
cate and converse freely with those 
Jewish converts that are not so satisfied, 
and not to condemn and raise disputes 
with them upon such needless points. 

y The Gentile Christian, for instance, 
that was never bound to the laws about 
meats and drinks, fully believes {and 
that rightly too) that Christianity al- 
lows him to use any diet without dis- 
tinction ; the Jewish Christian, on t!-" 
contrary, that has been used to a reve- 
rence for those laws, and does not per- 
fectly see Christian liberty, thinks him- 
self yet obliged, at certain times, to eat 
nothing but herbs. 

3 Do not let the Gentile Christian 
despise or deride the Jewish one for his 
unnecessary nicety ; nor the Jewish 
censure the Gentile, as if his freedom 
in such matters made him unworthy to 
be a member of God's church : for I 
tell you it does not. 
T 2 




A. D. 57. 4 What has any of you to do to judge 

them you have no authority over ? You 

condemn each other, as ready to re- 
nounce their Christianity by their free- 
doms or niceties in these indifferent 
cases. Leave every one to God, our 
common Lord and Master. If they 
offend in no greater points than these, 
he will hold them up from falling from 
their profession. 

5 Again, the Jewish Christian thinks 
some days of the week have more holi- 
ness in them than others. The Gentile 
Christian thinks them all alike. For 
peace sake, let every man enjoy his own 
* sentiment. 

6 He that pays this respect to par- 
ticular days, does it out of conscience 
towards God ; and he that pays none, 
does it out of a full persuasion that 
God has freed him from all obligation 
to it. You that eat all foods indif- 
ferently, do it out of the same princi- 
ple, and are thankful to God for such 
a liberty ; and you that are so nice in 
your distinctions of them, do it because 
you think that obligation is not yet 
taken off, and you are thankful for those 
you think are allowed you. And then 
where is the harm of all this? 

7 For none of you, I hope, does or 
omits any of these matters, but with 
some respect to God and Christ, whose 
servants you are; not purely from your 
own humour, and of your own head ; 
for as you hope to be happy in Christ 
when you die, you are now to live with 
a just respect to his will and com- 

4 Who art thou 
that judgest another 
man's servant ? to his 
own master he stand- 
eth or falleth. Yea, 
he shall be holden up : 
for God is able to 
make him stand. 

5 One man esteem - 
eth one day above 
another : another e- 
steemeth every day 
alike. Let every man 
be fully persuaded in 
his own mind. 

6 He that regard- 
eth the day, regard - 
eth it unto the Lord : 
and he that regardeth 
not the day, to the 
Lord he doth not re- 
gard it. He that eat- 
eth, eateth to the 
Lord, for he giveth 
God thanks : and he 
that eateth not, to 
the Lord he eateth 
not, and giveth God 

7 For none of us 
liveth to himself, and 
no man dieth to him- 

* \'er. 5. "EKetrog h nv fflaa vo» •vnXr l ^o^i<7 < ^w. That I have given 
the true sense of this phrase, let the reader see Grotius upon the 
place ; The London Cases against Dissenters, p. 190, 193. fol. edit, 
and Dr. Sanderson's excellent sermon on ver. 23. In all which 
passages, he will also find the paraphrase of that last verse of this 
chapter fully and clearly asserted. 




8 For whether we 
live, we live unto the 
Lord : or whether we 
die, we die unto the 
Lord : whether we 
live therefore or die, 
we are the Lord's. 

9 For to this end 
Christ both died, and 
rose, and revived, that 
he might be Lord 
both of the dead and 

10 But why dost 
thou judge thy bro- 
ther ? or why dost 
thou set at nought 
thy brother ? for we 
shall all stand before 
the judgment-seat of 

11 For it is writ- 
ten, As I live, saitli 
the Lord, every knee 
shall bow to me, and 
every tongue shall 
confess to God. 

12 So then every 
one of us shall give 
account of himself to 

13 Let us not there- 
fore judge one an- 
other any more : but 
judge this rather, that 

no man put a stum- 
bling-block or an oc- 
casion to fall in his 
brother's way. 

8 For it is your indispensable duty A. D. 57, 

and condition to live to his honour, as 

it is your privilege then to die in his 
favour ; so that living and dying, we 
Christians are his children, of his church 

and family. 

9 It being the design of Christ's liv- 
ing here upon earth, to teach us to live 
in obedience to God ; and of his death 
and resurrection, to be the eternal Sa- 
viour and Rewarder of all good Chris- 
tians, as his peculiar people and ser- 

10, 1 1 And if he is our Lord, and 
proper Master, what has any of you to 
do to condemn or undervalue his fel- 
low-servant ? When to him it is that 
we are all one day to give an account, 
according to those words of Isaiah, 
(chap. liv. 23.*) 

12 And if we are all to be judged by 
him * alone, it very ill becomes any of 
us to take his judgment out of his 

13 Instead therefore of censuring 
one another, and being nice and quar- 
relsome about these indifferent matters, 
make it your endeavour to understand 
and practise this plain duty, viz. that 
no man ought to do any indifferent 
thing (be it never so lawful in itself) 
that he knows beforehand will be an 
occasion to prejudice, discourage, or 
mislead another man against his Chris- 
tian profession. 

* Ver. 11, 12. See Dr. Clark's Scripture Doct. Trin. p. 119. 
note in No. 623. and his Answ. to Nelson, No. 29. 






r. 14-1 may be, and indeed am fully 
-satisfied the Christian religion allows 
me the use of all meats alike, and I use 
them accordingly. But a Jewish con- 
vert, that is absolutely persuaded of the 
contrary, must not do so ; and it is un- 
reasonable I should urge a man to act 
full against his own conscience. 

15 And though you Gentile Chris- 
tians may lawfully enough eat what 
another thinks he ought to abhor ; yet 
if you plainly see your eating before 
him will shock and disturb, and bring 
him into an ill opinion of you, and your 
religion, you ought to forbear it in 
pure charity. You must not endanger 
the soul of a Christian, which you may 
prevent by forbearing an indifferent 
thing, when you consider Christ had 
such a tenderness for that very soul, as 
to lay down his own life for it. 

16 Your liberty in these matters is 
indeed right and good, but you must 
not use it so imprudently, as to do mis- 
chief to your religion by it. 

17 Especially if you reflect how need- 
less it is for you to do so : for the es- 
sence of the Christian religion is no 
way concerned in your abstaining or 
not abstaining from these things; but 
it is very highly concerned in the prac- 
tice of piety towards God, in a peace- 
able and charitable temper towards your 
fellow Christian, and in a modest joy, 
and humble satisfaction in the gifts and 
graces of the Holy Spirit. 

18 Such things as these it is that 
will truly recommend you to God, and 
to all wise and truly good men. 

19 Make it your utmost endeavour 
then to order your conversation in this, 
and all other matters, so as to promote 
the peace of the church, and 'confirm 
one another in your common profession. 

14 I know, and 
am persuaded by the 
Lord Jesus, that there 
is nothing unclean of 
itself : but to him that 
esteemeth any thing 
to be unclean, to him 
it is unclean. 

15 But if thy bro- 
ther be grieved with 
thy meat, now walk- 
est thou not charita- 
bly. Destroy not him 
with thy meat, for 
whom Christ died. 

16 Let not then 
your good be evil 
spoken of. 

17 For the king- 
dom of God is not 
meat and drink, but 
righteousness, and 
peace, and joy in the 
Holy Ghost. 

IS For he that in 
these things serveth 
Christ, is acceptable 
to God, and approved 
of men. 

19 Let us there- 
fore follow after the 
things which make 
for peace, and things 
wherewith one may 
edify another. 




20 For meat de- 
stroy not the work of 
God. All things in- 
deed are pure ; but it 
is evil for that man 
who eateth with of- 

21 It is good nei- 
ther to eat flesh, nor 
to drink wine, nor 
amj thing whereby thy 
brother stnmbleth, or 
is offended, or is made 

22 Hast thou faith? 
have it to thyself be- 
fore God. Happy is 
he that condemneth 
not himself in that 
thing which he al- 

23 And he that 
doubteth is damned if 
he eat, because he eat- 
eth not of faith : for 
whatsoever is not of 
faith, is sin. 

20 Do not destroy a Christian bro- A. D. 57. 

ther who is the workmanship of God 

in Christ Jesus, by urging him to act 
against his conscience. For though to 
eat or abstain from these meats be in 
itself indifferent, yet to strain and in- 
jure people's consciences and principles 
about them is not so, but a very unjust 

21 Much better is it for you to ab- 
stain from any indifferent and lawful 
gratification, than to endanger another 
man's Christian principles by it. 

22 If you know your Christian 
liberty, and are clearly satisfied about 
it, keep your persuasion to yourself, 
and do not disturb other people with 
it. It is a happiness, I own, for a man 
to be clear and satisfied in what he 

23 But if your case were another 
man's, and you were as fully per- 
suaded you ought not to use this liberty, 
you could not then do it, because you 
would then act open violence to your 
own conscience, and sin against the 
immediate principle of all duty and 
virtue *. * gee note 

on ver. 5. 






He still exhorts the Gentile Christians to a prudent condescension to the 
weak scruples of the Jewish converts, from the example of Christ. 
Prays for their unanimity and mutual peace. Owns himself the apo- 
stle of the Gentiles ; glories in his success in iheir conversion in seve- 
ral countries; and professes lie wrote this Epistle chiefly to satisfy 
them they were true members of the Christian church. Mentions 
his intended journey tu Jerusalem, and his hopes of seeing them 
shortly, for their fuller satisfaction in the point he writes about. 
Desires the concurrence of their prayers for his safe arrival and 
success at both places. 

A. D. 57. 1 [ HAVE said enough in the fore- 

. . ■*• going chapter, to prove, that 

all those Christians who know and un- 
derstand their religion so perfectly, as 
to see their liberty from these indif- 
ferent ceremonies, ought yet to hear 
with, and be tender to such as have 
not such right notions of it ; and not 
to indulge their own humours and in- 
clinations, to the disgust and prejudice 
of other fellow Christians. 

2 Let every one therefore, as far as 
he can, consult and condescend to his 
neighbour's infirmities, in order to 
maintain the unity, and promote the 
peace of the church. 

3 By thus doing, you will imitate 
Christ our great and perfect example, 
whose life here upon earth was spent 
not in indulging himself, but in humble 
condescension to the weaknesses and 
even in suffering the reproaches of man- 
kind, according to those words of the 
Psalmist, (Psal. lxix. 9.) which were 
most eminently fulfilled in him, our 
Messiah and Saviour. 

4 Now all the remarkable examples, 
and great expressions of patience, hu- 
mility, and condescension that are re- 
corded in any Scriptures of the Old 
Testament, are left there for our imita- 
tion ; that by following the same vir- 


E then that 
are strong 
ought to bear the in- 
firmities of the weak, 
and not to please our- 

2 Let every one 
of us please his neigh- 
bour, for his good to 

3 For even Christ 
pleased not himself; 
but, as it is written, 
The reproaches of 
them that reproached 
thee fell on me. 

4 For whatsoever 
things were written 
aforetime were writ- 
ten for our learning, 
that we through pa- 
tience and comfort of 
the Scriptures might 
have hope. 




5 Now the God 
of patience and con- 
solation grant you to 
be likeminded one 
toward another, ac- 
cording to Christ Je- 
sus : 

6 That ye may 
with one mind and 
one mouth glorify 
God, even the Father 
of our Lord Jesus 

7 Wherefore re- 
ceive ye one another, 
as Christ also receiv- 
ed us, to the glory of 

8 Now I say, that 
Jesus Christ was a mi- 
nister of the circum- 
cision for the truth of 
God, to confirm the 
promises made unto 
the fathers. 

9 And that the 
Gentiles might glori- 
fy God for his mer- 
cy ; as it is written, 
For this f cause will I 
confess to thee among 
the Gentiles, and sing 
unto thy name. 

10 And again he 

tues, we might have the sure hope of A. D. 57. 
the reward annexed to them. 

5 And may God, the Giver of pa- 
tience and consolation, and of every 
good gift, enable you to attain this 
unity and peaceableness of temper, 
agreeable to this example of Christ 
Jesus, and to the spirit and precepts of 
his religion. 

6 That being thus free of all animo- * 
sities, and joined in mutual love and 
affections, you may in your public as- 
semblies of divine worship, with united 
hearts and voices, truly glorify God, 
even the Father of our Lord Jesus 

7 Be persuaded therefore, notwith- 
standing some differences of opinion in 
these ceremonial matters, to converse 
with each other freely, without any 
shyness and distance, remembering that 
Christ has received us all into one com- 
munion and fellowship, for the service 
and honour of God. 

8 You Gentile Christians ought to 
be thus tender to your Jewish brethren, 
if you consider, that Jesus Christ was 
the Messiah of the Jewish nation in 
a primary and peculiar sense, was born 
of them, lived and preached only among 

them * in person; according to the * Ma^. x\ 
special promises made to Abraham and ~ 4, 
the patriarchs, from whom that people 
are so honourably descended. 

9, 10, 11, 12 And you Jewish Chris- 
tians ought by no means to despise and 
undervalue the Gentile ones, as if the 
kingdom and religion of Christ were 
appropriated wholly to your nation. 
For, after you, they are taken in too as 
true members of his church ; and are 
to bear their part in rendering that 

f Ver. 9. For this cause will I confess to thee, 5rc. 
Mr. Peirce's Dissert, on this passage. 

See the learned 




A. D. 57. glory and praise to God, which is due 
__ to him for such a great and universal 
salvation ; according to those words of 
Moses, Deut. xxxii. 43. and of the 
Psalmist, Psal.lxvii.4. xviii.49. cxvii. 1. 
and to those of Isaiah concerning Christ, 
There shall be a root of Jesse, (i. e. the 
Messiah,) and he shall rise to reign over 
the Gentiles; in him shall the Gentiles 
trust, i. e. embrace his religion, and 
enjoy the blessings and privileges of it. 

13 And may God, the Fountain of 
all our religious hope, fill you all with 
a spirit of joy and unanimity in your 
Christian faith, that your hope and 
prospect of future happiness and glory 
may increase and strengthen by the 
gifts of the Holy Ghost conferred upon 
you, as the earnest and pledge of it*. 

14 And indeed I give myself great 
hopes, that you already have, and will 
still more endeavour after, such a true 
sense of your Christian profession, as 
will make you encourage one another 
in this meek and peaceable disposition. 

15 But yet the better to prevent 
such disputes as these, I thought it 
proper to express myself thus freely in 
the points I have handled in this Epis- 
tle, with a particular regard to you 
t Gentile Christians, to satisfy and con- 
firm you in the right you have to the 
Christian religion, and the Gospel sal- 
vation, as well as the Jews ; as became 
my apostolical office that God has be- 
stowed upon me ; 

16 Whereby I am constituted and 
appointed of Christ, the special mi- 
nister of the Gentiles, waiting and at- 
tending the service of converting them 

saith, Rejoice, ye Gen- 
tiles, with his people. 
11 And again, Praise 
the Lord, all ye Gen- 
tiles, and laud him, all 
ye people. 

12 And again, E- 
saias saith, There shall 
be a root of Jesse, and 
he that shall rise to 
reign over the Gen- 
tiles, in him shall the 
Gentiles trust. 

13 Now the God 
of hope fill you with 
all joy and peace in 
believing, that ye 
may abound in hope, 
through the power of 
the Holy Ghost. 

14 And I myself 
also am persuaded of 
you, my brethren, 
that ye also are full of 
goodness, filled with 
all knowledge, able 
also to admonish one 

15 Nevertheless, 
brethren, I have writ- 
ten the more boldly 
unto you, in some f 
sort, as putting you 
in mind, because of 
the grace that is given 
to me of God, 

16 That I should 
be the minister of Je- 
sus Christ to the Gen- 
tiles, ministering the 

Chap. v. 5. viii. 16, 17. and Eph. iv. 30. 

t *r 

(aiv airo uEoovi 




Gospel of God, that 
the offering up of the 
Gentiles might be ac- 
ceptable, being sanc- 
tified by the Holy 

17 1 have therefore 
whereof I may glory 
through Jesus Christ, 
in those things which 
pertain to God. 

18 For 1 will not 
dare to speak of any 
of those things, which 
Christ hath not 
wrought by me, to 
make the Gentiles 
obedient by word and 

19 Through mighty 
signs and wonders, by 
the power of the Spi- 
rit of God j so that 
from Jerusalem and 
round about unto II- 
lyricum, I have fully 
preached the Gospel 
of Christ. 

20 Yea, so have I 
strived to preach the 
Gospel, not where 
Christ was named, 
lest I should build 
upon another man's 
foundation : 

21 But as it is 
written, To whom lie 
was not spoken of, 
they shall see : and 
they that have not 
heard, shall under- 

22 For which cause 
also I have been much 
hindered from coming 
to you. 

23 But now hav- 

to the Gospel, as the priests did upon A. D. 57. 

the sacrifices of the altar. And by thus — 

presenting them to God as members of 
his true religion, I shall offer a much 
more acceptable sacrifice than was ever 
offered in the temple; they being sanc- 
tified and seasoned, not with salt, nor 
purified by fire, but with the gifts and 
graces of the Holy Ghost. 

17 As a Christian minister therefore, 
I have performed a sacred office, where- 
of I have much more reason to boast, 
than any Jewish priest of his external 
and ceremonial priesthood. 

IS, 19 Not to mention my own pains, 
and laborious endeavours towards con- 
verting the Gentile world to the Gospel 
religion, I only mention what I have 
done by virtue of the extraordinary and 
miraculous endowments of the Holy 
Spirit conferred on me by Christ; which 
enabled me to spread and propagate 
the faith from Jerusalern to Illyricum, 
i. e. through the whole tracts of Greece 
and the lesser Asia. 

20, 21 Yet in this long circuit of my 
ministry, I went to no places that had 
been preached to, and converted by any 
other apostle, or Christian evangelist; 
for that might be called building upon 
another man's foundation. My method 
was agreeable to the prophet's expres- 
sion, Isa. lii. 15. 

22 And these travels of mine from 
one country to another, have hitherto 
kept me from seeing you at Rome. 

23, 24 But having now finished my 




A. D. 57. work in these parts, and intending 

shortly for Spain, I hope to gratify my 

long desire of seeing you in my way 
thither ; and do assure myself, that the 
satisfaction of enjoying your conversa- 
tion, will make my journey seem the 
shorter and more pleasant. 

25, 26 At present I am going for 
Jerusalem, to carry a charitable * col- 
lection to the poor Christians there, 
raised by the Christian brethren of Ma- 
cedonia and Achaia for their support. 

27 Thus bountiful are they to them, 
and indeed well they may, for from 
Jerusalem it was that these Gentiles 
first received the Gospel ; and for such 
a spiritual and eternal blessing, they 
may well, in return, supply them with 
the necessary things of this present 

28 As soon as ever, therefore, I have 
discharged this charitable office, and 
safely f delivered the contributions to 
them, I will take you in my way to 

29 And I am sure when I am come, 
I shall impart that to you, that will fully 
X convince you all, how gracious and 

ing no more place in 
these parts, and hav- 
ing a great desire these 
many years to come 
unto you : 

24 Whensoever I 
take my journey into 
Spain, I will come to 
you : for I trust to see 
you in my journey, 
and to be brought on 
my way thither-ward 
by you, if first 1 be 
somewhat filled with 
your company. 

25 But now I go 
unto Jerusalem, to mi- 
nister unto the saints. 

26 For it hath 
pleased them of Ma- 
cedonia and Achaia 
to make a certain con- 
tribution for the poor 
saints which are at 

27 It hath pleased 
them verily, and their 
debtors they are. For 
if the Gentiles have 
been made partakers 
of their spiritual 
things, their duty is 
also to minister unto 
them in carnal things. 

28 When therefore 
I have performed this, 
and have sealed to 
them this fruit, I will 
come by you into 

29 And 1 am sure 
that when I come un- 
to you, I shall come % 

* See Acts xx. and xxi. 2 Cor. viii. 1, 2, 6, 19. 

X Ver. 29. In the fulness of the Gospel of Christ. His meaning is, 
cither with a full impartment of spiritual gifts to them, (for which 
see chap. i. 11.) r else, that he should be able fully to satisfy them 




in the fulness of the 
blessing of the Gospel 
of Christ. 

30 Now I beseech 
you, brethren, for the 
Lord Jesus Christ's 
sake, and for the love 
of the * Spirit, that 
ye strive together with 
me, in your prayers 
to God for me. 

31 That I may be 
delivered from them 
that do not believe in 
Judea, and that my 
service which I have 
for Jerusalem, may be 
accepted of the saints : 

32 That I may 
come unto you with 
joy by the will of 
God, and may with 
you be refreshed. 

33 Now the God 
of peace be with you 
all. Amen. 

happy a dispensation the Gospel reli-A. D. 57, 

30, 31 In the mean while, I beg of 
you for Christ's sake, and by that love 
which is the genuine fruit * of his Spirit, 
to join your prayers with me for my 
safe deliverance from the malice of the 
obstinate and unbelieving Jews f of Ju- 
dea. And that our Jewish brethren at 
Jerusalem may duly and thankfully ac- 
cept the contributions I carry to them, 
though they come from Gentile churches; 
against whom they are too apt to be 
unreasonably prejudiced. 

32 This will greatly add to the enjoy- 
ment of your company. 

33 Now the God of peace be with 
you all. Amen. 

all, that the Gospel was designed to justify and save both Jew and 
Gentile, (which was the main design of this Epistle,) as Mr. Locke 
ingeniously enough supposes. 

* Ver. 30. The love of the Spirit. Compare Rom. v. 5. 2 Cor, 
vi. 6. Galat. v. 22. 1 Tim. iv. 12. 2 Tim. i. 7. 

f See Acts xxi. 





He recommends Phebe the hearer of the Epistle. Salutations to and 
from the Christians of his acquaintance. In the midst of them re- 
news his pathetical desires of their mutual care to avoid divisions, 
and the persons that foment and spread them. Repeats his assurance 
to the Gentile Christians, that they are the true church of Christ, 
without the observance of the Jewish law ; and concludes with praises 
to God for his universal mercies to mankind. 

A. D. 57.1/2 T COMMEND to your care 

-*■ Phebe our sister in Christ, one 

that has been very serviceable in enter- 
taining the Christians at Cenchrea, a 
haven at Corinth. She has been kind 
to many, and to me in particular. 
Wherefore receive her with true Chris- 
tian kindness, and supply her with 
whatever she wants. 

3, 4 Remember me kindly to Pris- 
cilla and Aquila, who ventured their 
own lives to save mine; a thing that I 
and all the Gentile churches are be- 
holden to them for, for preserving their 

5, 6 Salute their whole Christian fa- 
mily : as also Epenetus, who was one 
of the first Christian converts in Achaia; 
and Mary, who entertained me and my 
company with much care. 

7 Salute Andronicus and Junia, my 
fellow Jewish Christians and prisoners, 
that were converted before me, and had 

1 J COMMEND un- 
to you Phebe 
our sister, which is a 
servant of the church 
which is at Cenchrea : 

2 That ye receive 
her in the Lord, as 
becometh saints, and 
that ye assist her in 
whatsoever business 
she hath need of you : 
for she hath been a 
succourer of many, 
and of myself also. 

3 Greet Priscilla 
and Aquila, my help- 
ers in Christ Jesus : 

4 Who have for 
my life laid down their 
own necks ; unto 
whom not only I 
give thanks, but also 
all the churches of the 

5 Likewise greet 
the church that is in 
their house. Salute 
my well-beloved Epe- 
netus, who is the 
first-fruits of Achaia 
unto Christ. 

6 Greet Mary, who 
bestowed much labour 
on us. 

7 Salute Andronicus 
and Junia, my kins- 
men, and my fellow- 




prisoners, who are of 
note among the apo- 
stles, who also were in 
Christ before me. 

8 Greet Amplius my 
beloved in the Lord. 

9 Salute Urbane our 
helper in Christ, and 
Stachys my beloved. 

10 Salute Apelles 
approved in Christ. 
Salute them which are 
of Aristobulus' house- 

11 Salute Herodian 
my kinsman. Greet 
them that be of the 
household of Nar- 
cissus, which are in 
the Lord. 

12 Salute Tryphena 
and Tryphosa, who 
labour in the Lord. 
Salute the beloved 
Persis, which laboured 
much in the Lord. 

13 Salute Rufus 
chosen in the Lord, 
and his mother and 

14 Salute Asyneri- 
tus, Phlegon, Her- 
mas, Patrobas, Her- 
mes, and the brethren 
which are with them. 

15 Salute Philologus 
and Julia, Nereus, and 
his sister, and Olym- 
pas, and all the saints 
which are with them. 

16 Salute one an- 
other with an holy 
kiss. The churches of 
Christ salute you. 

17 Now I beseech 
you, brethren, mark 
them which cause di- 
visions and offences, 
contrary to the doc- 

a great reputation among the other A. D. 57. 

apostles. — . * 

8, 9 Greet my dear Christians, Am- 
plius and Stachys ; and Urbane for his 
kind assistance to me. 

10, 11, 12 Salute that good Chris- 
tian Apelles, with the family of Aristo- 
bulus, Herodian my Jewish kinsman 
and convert, with the Christian family 
of Narcissus ; as also Tryphena, Try- 
phosa, and Persis, that have done good 
service in the church. 

13, 14, 15 Salute the pious Christian 
Rufus, and his and my mother ; with 
Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patro- 
bas, Hermes, Philologus, Julia, Nereus, 
Olympas, and all their families. 

16 Salute each other, Jewish and 
Gentile Christians, without distinction, 
with the kiss of charity used in your 
assemblies. All the Christian churches 
hereabout salute you. 

17 I once more earnestly beseech 
you, brethren, to watch and mark those 
persons that broach any notions among 
you that are not agreeable to, or are 
over and above what you have been 



chap. xvi. 

A. D. 57. taught by inspired men, on purpose to 
trouble and divide you. 

18 Those people have nothing but 
private and sinister ends, and alL their 
fair and plausible pretences are only 
intended as so many delusions upon 
honest, ignorant, and well-meaning peo- 

19 You embraced the Gospel-religion 
at first, and have kept it hitherto with 
great credit, which 1 heartily rejoice at, 
and should be glad to hear you have 
none of these contentious zealots of the 
Jewish party crept in among you. And 
I write this to prepare your minds with 
a resolution to hold to what is true and 
good, and to keep you perfectly free of 
these malicious cheats and designs. 

20 Observe my directions, and God 
will soon defeat these instruments of 
Satan that would vex and divide you. 
And may the love and favour of our 
Lord Jesus Christ be with you, and 
enable you to it. Amen. 

21 Timothy my fellow-traveller, and 
Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my 
kinsmen in Christ, salute you. 

22 (So do I Tertius, St. Paul's scribe, 
in this Epistle.) 

23 Gaius that provides lodgings for 
me and most of the Christians here ; 
Erastus the city-chamberlain, and Quar- 
tus a Christian brother, do the same. 

24 The grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ be with you all. Amen. 

25 I conclude with my hearty prayers 
to that God who is both able and will- 
ing to settle and establish you all in this 

trine which ye have 
learned, and avoid 

18 For they that 
are such, serve not our 
Lord Jesus Christ, but 
their own belly, and 
by good words and 
fair speeches deceive 
the hearts of the sim- 

19 For your obe- 
dience is come abroad 
unto all men. I am 
glad therefore on your 
behalf : but yet 1 
would have you wise 
unto that which is 
good, and simple con- 
cerning evil. 

20 And the God 
of peace shall bruise 
Satan under your feet 
shortly. The grace 
of our Lord Jesus 
Christ be with you. 

21 Timotheus my 
work-fellow, and Lu- 
cius, and Jason, and 
Sosipater, my kins- 
men, salute you. 

22 I Tertius, who 
wrote this Epistle, sa- 
lute you in the Lord. 

23 Gaius mine host, 
and of the whole 
church, saluteth you. 
Erastus the chamber- 
lain of the city saluteth 
you, and Quartus a 

24 The grace of 
our Lord Jesus Christ 
be with you all. Amen. 

25 Now to him 
that is of power to 
stablish you according 




to my Gospel, and the 
preaching of Jesus 
Christ, according to 
the revelation of the 
* mystery, which was 
kept secret since the 
world began, 

26 But now is made 
manifest, and by the 
Scriptures of the pro- 
phets, according to 
the commandment of 
the everlasting God, 
made known to all 
nations for the obe- 
dience of faith : 

27 To God only 
wise, be glory through 
Jesus Christ for ever. 

% Written to the Ro- 
mans from Co- 
rinthufi, and sent by 
Phebe, servant of 
the church at Cen- 

my Gospel-doctrine *, viz. This of call- A. D. 57 

ing the Gentiles as well as Jews into the 

church and kingdom of Christ. A doc- 
trine indeed that for a long time has 
been unknown to the Gentile world, 
and misunderstood and opposed by the 
Jewish nation, as if it had never been 
revealed at all in their Scriptures ; 

26 But is now, by us the apostles of 
Christ, fully declared and demonstrated 
to have been the gracious design of 
God, according to the innumerable ex- 
pressions of the ancient prophets in the 
Old Testament, all unanimously fore- 
telling that the Gentiles were to cvme 
into the church of Christ; as we now 
preach to them in every country, by the 
express authority of God. 

27 To that God alone infinitely wise, 
be glory through Jesus Christ for ever. 

Written to the Romans from Corinth, 
and sent by Phebe, servant of the 
church of Cenchrea, Anno Dom. 57. 
according to Bishop Pearson. 

* The mystery. So the calling of the Gentiles is stvled, Eph. 
9. iii. 3, 5, 9. Col. i. 26. Phil. i. 27. ii. 2. iv. 3. 

VOL. I. 







u s 


THE following observations about the city and 
people of Corinth, before and after their conversion, 
will give the reader a tolerable taste of the spirit and 
design of both these Epistles. 

Corinth was an ancient, rich, and populous mer- 
chant-town, the chief city of Achaia or Greece. Its 
situation and trade made it a receptacle of great 
variety of people ; and the quick and inquisitive 
genius of its inhabitants, soon turned it into a kind 
of university, and stocked it with orators and philoso- 
phers. That there were great numbers of Jews there, 
is clear from Acts xviii. 4. but that their obstinacy 
against the Gospel-doctrine caused the greater part 
of the church planted there to consist of Gentile 
believers, is as evident from Acts xviii. and 1 Cor. 
xii. 2. 

The peculiar vice and miscarriage of these orators 
and philosophers was pride and conceit in their hu- 
man learning and accomplishments. That of the 
Jewish doctors, was a violent zeal for circumcision 
and their ceremonial law ; and the epidemical vice 
of the Corinthian people was that of lust and un- 
cleanness. The Christian converts, gained over from 
each of these people, retained still too much of the 

u 3 

•294 PREFACE. 

prejudices and practices they had formerly been 
inured to. 

Bv two years indefatigable pains, St. Paul had 
planted a considerable church in this place. But, by 
his absence from them for the space of about two or 
three years, they were overrun with great disorders, 
to the disparagement of the Christian religion in 
general, and of his apostolical authority and person 
in particular. Several converts of the Gentile part 
set themselves up for teachers, and by mixing their 
philosophical speculations with the Christian doc- 
trine, and setting that medley off with flourishes of 
their oratory, gained upon the people, drew them into 
parties, and into a contempt of St. Paul their first 
spiritual teacher, who had instructed them only in 
the plain and fundamental doctrines of Christ as a 
crucified Saviour. On the other hand, several con- 
verts of the Jewish part despised and undervalued 
him, for making the Gentile believers equally a part 
of the Christian church with themselves. Thus, 
while the philosophical teachers styled themselves the 
followers of Apollos, out of respect to his oratory ; 
these ranked themselves under Cephas, i. e. St. 
Peter, as the apostle of the circumcision ; both of 
them striving to derogate from St. Paul. And 
amongst these there plainly appears to have been 
one person most remarkable for setting himself up 
as a false apostle, the head of the opposition against 
St. Paul. 

To vindicate himself from the aspersions of both 
these factions, and to support his own apostolical 


authority, is the purpose of the four first chapters of 
the first Epistle. His severe censure of the scandal- 
ous act of uncleanness in one of the heads of the 
Gentile faction, and of their bringing that, and other 
cases of injustice, into heathen courts of judicature, 
makes up the fifth and sixth chapters. 

The rest of this first Epistle is taken up in answer- 
ing several questions proposed to him, in a letter he 
had lately received, in all probability, from the more 
steady and sound part of this church, concerning the 
several undue liberties, and licentious doctrines of 
each kind of these new teachers, both in their public 
assemblies of worship, and in their private conversa- 
tion. All which the apostle answers with proper re- 
flectionsj interspersed, upon his chief opposers. The 
main articles whereof I shall, for the benefit of the 
common reader, regularly digest at the head of each 
chapter, observing those turns the apostle takes from 
one argument to another, according to the usage 
arid temper of the ancient eastern writings. 

v 4 






The introduction. He congratulates their conversion to the Christian 
religion, and the gifts conferred upon their church, to ver. 10. Then 
shews the main design of his Epistle to be, to cure them of the divi- 
sions among them, fomented by new and false teachers both of the 
Gentile and Jewish part, who set themselves up for heads and leaders 
of parties. Shews them the absurdity and unreasonableness of it. 
Clears himself of any such proceeding. Lays down the plain doctrine 
of a crucified Saviour as the chief article of Christianity ; and proves 
the wisdom, power, and excellency of the dispensation, as far exceed- 
ing the philosophy of the Gentiles, or the worldly and temporal ex- 
pectations of the Jews. 

1 OAUL, called to 
be an apostle of 
Jesus Christ, through 
the will of God, and 
Sosthenes our brother. 
2 Unto the church 
of God which is at 
Corinth, to them that 
are sanctified in Christ 
Jesus, called to be 
saints, with all that in 
every place call upon 

1 , c 2 "OAUL, called in a special * man- 
-*- ner to be an apostle of Jesus 
Christ, together with Sosthenes our Chris- 
tian brother, writeth this Epistle to the 
church of Corinth, and to all the Chris- 
tian people of those parts, who worship 
God through Jesus Christ, the Lord 
and Saviour of us all who embrace and 
profess his true religion. 

A. D. 57. 

* See Acts ix. Gal. i. 11, 12. 



A.D. 57. 


•f Xxeif 


3 Praying for all divine favours and 
blessings upon you, from God our Fa- 
ther, and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

4 And expressing my hearty thanks 
to God for the great blessing and hap- 
piness of your conversion to the Chris- 
tian * religion. 

5, 6 A conversion so entire, that you 
are now endowed with those very powers 
fand graces, both for understanding 

and preaching it, by which you were at ance ' an(1 in a11 know 
first brought to the faith of it. 

the name of Jesus 
Christ our Lord, both 
theirs and ours. 

3 Grace be unto 
you, and peace from 
God our Father, and 
from the Lord Jesus 

4 I thank my God 
always on your behalf, 
for the grace * of God 
which is given you by 
Jesus Christ ; 

5 That in every 
thing ye are enriched 
by him, in all utter- 

ledge : 

6 Even as the tes- 
timony of Christ was 
confirmed in you. 

7 So that ye come 
behind in no gift ; 

8 Who shall also 
confirm you unto the 
end, that ye may be 

7 And are inferior to no other Chris- 
tian churches in any extraordinary en- 
dowments of the Holy Spirit, which are waiting for the corn- 
so many pledges to* assure you, how in S of our Lorc " Je sus 
acceptable you shall be to God at the Christ : 

great day of Christ's appearance. 

8 Who, if you be not wanting to 
yourselves, will enable you so to perse- 
vere in his religion, as to be fully ac- 
quitted at that solemn trial, and "reap blameless in the day 

the blessings promised in his Gospel. °J U - our Lord Jesus 

r .~ L Christ. 

9 *or if you do your part, you may 9 God is faithful, 
be confident that God, who -has thus by whom ye were 
redeemed and received you as his true called unto the feU 
church in Jesus Christ, will never fiil lowship of his son Je- 
of performing his promises. 

10 Now the chief occasion of my 
writing this Epistle to you, dear bre- 
thren, is to exhort and beseech you, as 
you value your J Christian profession, 

sus Christ our Lord. 

10 Now I beseech 
you, brethren, by the J 
name of our Lord Je- 
sus Christ, that ve all 

+ \ er. 10. At* tov o'vo/xaro? Kvpiov. By the name of our Lord Jesus 
yinst, emphatically set in opposition to those under whose names 
wiey ranked themselves into parties and divisions, in ver. 11, 12, 
ac. compared with ver. 15. 



speak the same thing, 
and that there be no 
divisions among you j 
but that ye be perfect- 
ly joined together in 
the same mind, and 
in the same judgment. 

11 For it hath 
been declared unto me 
of you, my brethren, 
by them which are of 
the house of Chloe, 
that there are conten- 
tions among you. 

12 Now this I say, 
that every one of you 
saith, I am of Paul, 
and I of Apollos, and 
I of Cephas, and I of 

13 Is Christ di- 
vided ? was Paul cru- 
cified for you ? or 
were ye baptized in 
the name of Paul ? 

14 I thank God 
that I baptized none 
of you, but Crispus 
and Gaius. 

15 Lest any should 

to endeavour after peaceableness and una- A. D. 57. 

nimity in your religious principles, and 

to avoid all needless disputes, divisions, 
and animosities, in your conversation 
with one another. 

11 For I am certainly informed by 
some of Chloe's family, that since my 
preaching among you, you are fallen 
into factions, and divisions, ranking 
yourselves under different heads and 

12 Some of your Gentile converts 
call themselves the disciples of * Paul, 
(because I converted them, and stand 
up for their freedom from the Jewish 
law ;) others of them cry up Apollos, 
(as great admirers of his eloquence ;) 
some of your Jewish Christians will own 
no teacher but Peter, (because he was 
made the apostle of the circumcision;) 
while others slight us all, and pretend 
Christ * to be their only Master. 

13 Now how irrational and absurd 
is all this ? Did Christ institute more 
than one religion, or preach different 
and contrary doctrines, as your dif- 
ferent sects of philosophy are wont to 
do ? Did either I, or Apollos, or Peter, 
die for your sins, and become your Sa- 
viour ? or were any of you baptized 
into a religion of our making? Have 
you not all one Saviour, and one and 
the same articles of religion ? 

14, 15, 16 To prevent any man from 
making me the head of a sect, or so 
much as pretending he was baptized into 
my particular faith, I am very glad I 
personally baptized none of you but 

* Ver. 12. And I of Christ ; i. e. either pretended their doctrines 
to have been immediately learnt from Christ himself; or else were 
zealous for circumcision, alleging the example of Christ, who was 
himself circumcised; as Epiphanius and others think. 




A. D. 57. Crispus and Gaius, unless it were Ste- 
phanas and his family. 

17 And indeed my peculiar office 
Mas to preach the Gospel, and persuade 
men into the faith of the Christian re- 
ligion : having those under me to per- 
form the office of baptizing, when they 
found people fit to receive it. And my 
method of bringing men to embrace 
this faith, was not to amuse them with 
philosophical niceties, and fine turns of 
rhetoric, (the thing perhaps that makes 
you Gentile converts admire Apollos 
so much;) for this would be to lose 
the main stress of the Christian doc- 
trine, which lies in this one plain arti- 
cle, That mankind is to be saved by 
faith in Jesus Christ, as a Saviour cruci- 
fied for our sins, 

18 This plain and clear article of a 
crucified Saviour looks * indeed to ob- 
stinate unbelievers, men conceited of 
their philosophical speculations, and 
proud of their own learning, like a ridi- 
culous and mean method of salvation 
and happiness. But to all Christians 
who have duly considered and em- 
braced it, it appears the most effectual 
that can be for the honour of God, and 
the benefit of sinful mankind. 

1!) And this dispensation of God, and 
the proud behaviour of the philosophers 
and Jewish rabbins under it. is very 
agreeable to those words of Isa. xxix. 14. 
and xxxiii. 18. wherein God saith, He 
would dispose and order things quite other- 

say that I had baptiz- 
ed in my own name. 

16 And I baptized 
also the household of 
Stephanas : besides I 
know not whether I 
baptized any other. 

17 For Christ sent 
me not to baptize, but 
to preach the Gospel : 
not with wisdom of 
words, lest the cross 
of Christ should be 
made of none effect. 

IS For the preach- 
ing of the cross is to 
them that perish fool- 
ishness ; but unto us 
which are saved it is 
the power of God. 

19 For it is writ- 
ten, I will destroy the 
wisdom of the wise, 
and will bring to no- 
thing the understand- 
ing of the prudent. 

■ \ er. 18. ToIV p» ccrroK^vfxzvo^, To them indeed that perish. So 
in ver. 23. 'lov^aiuc [x\v o-kcH^xXov, To the Jews indeed a stumbling- 
For want of which particle p\v, our translation drops the 

stress of the antithesis. 


20 Where is the 
wise ? where is the 
scribe ? where is the 
disputer of this world ? 
hath not God made 
foolish the wisdom of 
this world ? 

21 For after that 
in the wisdom of God 
the world by wisdom 
knew not God, it 
pleased God by the 
foolishness of preach- 
ing to save them that 


wise than the worldly-wise men of that A. D. 57. 
age expected. 

20 For just so it is now, God having, 
by this wonderful and unexpected me- 
thod of man's salvation, demonstrated 
the vanity of philosophical schemes 
and human speculations, and baffled 
the learning and traditions of the Jew- 
ish doctors. 

21 So that the wisdom of Providence 
having permitted men, for a long time, 
to exercise this vain philosophy, which 
never brought them to any right and 
practical knowledge of God, and their 
duty ; that human learning, I say, 
wherein your new teachers do so much 
pride and exalt themselves, must needs 
appear a weak thing ; since by this one 
plain and intelligible doctrine of a cru- 
cified Saviour, mankind has learned 
infinitely more of God, and the way to 
true happiness, than all the philoso- 
phers in the world could ever arrive at. 

22, 23 For the chief notion and ex- 
pectation the Jewish doctors had con- 
cerning Christ the Messiah was, that 
by signs and wonders he would declare 
himself a mighty * temporal prince, 
and conqueror, for advancing the par- 
ticular grandeur of their nation ; and 
the Gentile philosophers look upon 
nothing in religion so much as a deep 
speculation, and refined eloquence. 
Whereas, the true and saving religion 
of the Gospel consists mainly in this 

22 For * the Jews 
require a sign, and the 
Greeks seek after wis- 
dom : 

23 But we preach 
Christ crucified, unto 
the Jews a stumbling- 
block, and unto the 
Greeks foolishness. 

* Ver. 22. The Jews require a sign. Note, It is plain, from the 
Gospel history, that our Lord wrought many signs, John xx. 30. 
Acts xi. 22. Yet the Jews perpetually demanded of him a sign, 
and a sign from heaven, Matt. xii. 38." xvi. 1. What sign would 
they particularly have had ? Josephus clearly explains it, De Bell. 
Jud, lib. ii. cap." 13, 34. and Antiq. lib. xx. cap. 7- §. 6". " The de- 
" ceivers (false Christs) says he, persuaded the people to follow them, 
<e promising them miracles, and ?npii<x. Ixtv^i^iaq, signs of liberty,' 
i. e. of deliverance from, and victory over, the Romans, to whom 
they were in subjection. 




A.D. 57. plain fact, of Jesus Christ being a Sa- 

viour crucified for our sins : an article 

which accordingly gives great offence 
to the Jews, who had quite other no- 
tions of their Messiah 3 and which the 
Gentiles discredit as a weak and ridicu- 
lous thing. 

24 But all those Gentile converts, 
who have thoroughly considered and 
embraced it, find it more exceed- 
ing full of the most divine wisdom and 
goodness toward a lost and sinful world, 
than any former system of philosophy 
could ever teach them ; and the Jewish 
believers must needs acknowledge the 
miraculous evidences by which it is 
confirmed, to exceed all that ever went 
before, and to be directed to a much 
nobler purpose than that of a temporal 

25 And thus it proves, that those 
divine dispensations which sensual and 
prejudiced men are apt to slight and 
undervalue, become the most remark- 
able and clear instances of God's power, 
wisdom, and mercy toward mankind. 

26 Accordingly you see a plain rea- 
son, why the philosophical part of the 
Gentile world, and the doctors among 
the Jews, are least inclined, of all other 
men, to believe and embrace the Gos- 
pel religion * ; and why God has made 
choice of so few of them, to be the mi- 
nisters and preachers of its doctrines, 
viz. it is their inveterate pride and pre- 
judices unqualify them for it. 

27? 28 But now, to convince these 
men of the falsity of their pretended 
wisdom, God has shewn them, that this 
one plain point of doctrine, viz. of a 

24 But unto them 
which are called, both 
Jews and Greeks, 
Christ the power of 
God, and the wisdom 
of God. 

25 Because the fool- 
ishness of God is wiser 
than men : and the 
weakness of God is 
stronger than men. 

26 For ye see your 
calling brethren, how 
that not many wise 
men after the flesh, 
not many mighty, not 
many noble are called. 

27 But God hath 
chosen the foolish 
things of the world 
to confound the wise. 

* Ver. 26. Tib xXria-w vpZv, your calling. Which may either sig- 
nify their call to the Gospel religion in general ; or the particular 
call of their ministers to their office. The former seems the much 
more natural sense ; but I have expressed them botL 


and God hath chosen 
the weak things of the 
world to confound 
the things which are 
mighty : 

2S And base things 
of the world, and 
things which are de- 
spised, hath God chos- 
en, yea, and things 
which are not, to 
bring to nought things 
that are. 

29 f That no flesh 
should glory in his 

30 But of him are 
vein Christ Jesus, who 
of God is made unto 
us wisdom, and righ- 
teousness, and sanc- 
tification, and redemp- 

31 That, according 
as it is written, He 
that glorieth, let him 
glory in the Lord. 

crucified Redeemer, has more in it for A. D. 57. 

the divine glory, and good of mankind, 

than all their speculations and traditions 
could ever reach to. And by a few 
illiterate fishermen, men of no liberal 
education, learning, or human elo- 
quence, has declared those truths, and 
confirmed them by such miracles as 
are above all human understanding 
to invent, or power to effect. Thus de- 
monstrating that doctrine to be the best 
and most important, which the philo- 
sophers accounted most ridiculous and 
unaccountable ; and bringing the Gen- 
tile * people into the true church, whom 
the insulting Jews despised as absolutely 
unfit for any divine favours. 

2.9 Which is enough to silence all t"i»a,*» 
their further boastings in their own to « 
learning and accomplishments. 

30 Such then is the excellent and 
comfortable dispensation you are now 
under, as the disciples of Jesus Christ : 
whose life and doctrine is the most per- 
fect scheme of spiritual knowledge and 
wisdom ; and whose death and suffer- 
ings have put you into the truest ca- 
pacity of pardon and reconciliation to 
God, and made you his peculiar church 
and people. 

31 So that by relying no longer upon 
human learning and eloquence, nor 
Jewish traditions, but upon this princi- 
ple of a crucified Saviour, you will act 
most agreeably to those words of the 
prophets, (Isa. lxv. 16. Jer. ix. 23, 24.) 
He that glorieth, let him glory in the 

Ver. 2S. Ta Ujov&onpjim a rcc ^ one*. 





Whereas their new teachers of the Gentile part undervalued the apostle 
for his want of deep speculation and eloquence ; he tells them, the 
plainness and great importance of the Christian doctrine of a crucified 
Saviour stood in no need of such arts to recommend and set it off; 
hut would he disparaged by the use of them, to ver. 6. Human phi- 
losophy being utterly unserviceable for discovering things that are 
matters of pure revelation : which, as they are dictated only by the 
inspiration, and effected by the wisdom and power of God, can never 
be attained by the utmost progress of mere human reason. If there- 
fore men would be duly instructed in Christianity, they must apply 
themselves not to philosophy, but Scripture; not to an eloquent 
orator, but an inspired apostle. 

A. D. 57. 1 npHE religion of Christ then being 

. . ■*■ founded in this great article of a 

crucified Saviour, I did accordingly 
make that the main argument of my 
first preaching to you. Not endeavour- 
ing to recommend it to you by any 
rhetorical flourishes, or fine specula- 
tions; but as a matter of divine evi- 
dence and revelation. 

2 That sort of learning was no part 
of my business with you. All I had to 
do was to instruct you in this funda- 
mental point of Chrises dying for our 
redemption and salvation. 

3 And because my external qualifi- 
cations of body and speech # were such 
as would not set oft my expressions 
to much advantage ; and your preju- 
dices and oppositions f were so many ; 
I preached this plain doctrine among 

1 A ND I, brethren, 
when I came to 
you, came not with 
excellency of speech, 
or of wisdom, declar- 
ing unto you the tes- 
timony of God. 

2 For I determined 
not to know any thing 
among you, save Je- 
sus Christ., and him 

3 And I was with 

you * in weakness, 
and in fear, and in 
much trembling. 

* Ver. 3. In weakness, and in much fear. These words have either 
a reference to those of c 2 Cor. x. 10. where he says, His bodily pre- 
sence was (thought) weak, and his speech contemptible ; or else they 
are meant to express St. Paul's modesty and humility in his conduct 
toward Christians ; qualities directly opposite to the pride and va- 
nity of the false teachers at Corinth ; or else, lastly, they may be 
taken to express the hardships and persecution St. Paul lay under 
while at Corinth; of which we read Acts xviii. 6 — 11. which last 
Dr. Mills thinks to be the true sense. 

f Acts xviii. 6, 9. 


)0 ; 

4 And my speech 
and my preaching 
was not with enticing- 
word's of man's wis- 
dom, but in demon- 
stration of the Spirit, 
and of power : 

5 That your faith 
should not stand in 
the wisdom of men, 
but in the power of 

6 Howbeit we 
speak wisdom among 
them that are perfect ; 
yet not the wisdom of 
this world, nor of the 
princes of this world, 
that come to nought. 

7 But we speak the 
wisdom of God in a 
mystery, even the hid- 
den wisdom which God 
ordained before the 
world unto our glory. 

8 Which none of 
the princes of this 
world knew : for had 
they known it, they 
would not have cruci- 
fied the Lord of glory. 

you not without great concern, and fear A. D. 57. 

of its having no good success upon 


4- But indeed, would men duly con- 
sider it, there is no manner of occasion 
for a doctrine to be dressed out in 
flowers of learning and fine speeches, 
that is confirmed and demonstrated by 
the miraculous evidences of the Holy 

5 For your faith in the Christian 
religion is not to be grounded upon 
the slender and uncertain foundation of 
human learning, but upon the solid and 
infallible proofs of divine miracles. 

6 And though you philosophers and 
Jewish doctors may be apt to despise 
this plain and undisguised truth ; yet 
let me tell you, all Christians that have 
any clear * understanding of the nature 
and design of their religion, see it to be 
a dispensation full of the highest wis- 
dom; such as far exceeds their weak 
schemes of philosophy, and baffles and 
confounds all the learning and autho- 
rity of Jewish doctors and councils. 

7 Such is the article of a crucified 
Saviour for the redemption of mankind ; 
a dispensation foretold indeed by the 
prophets, but not rightly understood by 
the Jewish nation, and for many ages 
not discovered at all to the Gentile 
world ; but now clearly revealed to all 
the world, and proved to be the only 
means of glory and happiness to all true 

8 Even the Jewish doctors and coun- 
cil, I say, who had these prophecies be- 
fore them, but had yet quite wrong 
conceptions of Christ and his religion. 
For had they any way considered and 
understood it, they could never have 

VOL. I, 

* Ver. 6\ Perfect, rfteioic 



chap. ri. 

A. D. 57. condemned and crucified their own 
Saviour, and glorious Messiah. 

9 And thus the Gospel dispensation, 
and their stupid ignorance of the true 
nature of it, prove very agreeable to 
those words of the prophet, (Isa. lxiv.4.) 
wherein he describes the blessings and 
privileges of the kingdom of the Messiah, 
as quite different from what the world 
apprehended and expected them to be. 

10 These being matter's above the 
sphere of human reason, God has 
been pleased to reveal them to the 
world by inspired men; first by the 
predictions of his prophets, and now 
more clearly and expressly by us his 
apostles, by the communication of that 
Holy Spirit, who knows and is perfectly 
acquainted with the whole purpose and 
will of God. 

1 1 For as nobody can tell the inward 
thoughts and designs of any man, but 
the man himself; so is it infinitely much 
more beyond the reach of human art 
or wisdom to find out or discover be- 
forehand the secret counsels of God 
toward mankind. It is his own Holy 
Spirit alone that can be acquainted 
with them, and declare and make them 
known to mankind, by his inspirations 
given to his apostles and ministers for 
that purpose. 

12 Wherefore the knowledge that I, 
as a Christian apostle, pretend' myself to 
have, and to instruct you in, is quite 
different from, and superior to, that of se- 
cular learning. It is this inspired know- 
ledge which God has endowed me with 
for the right understanding and teach- 
ing his true and saving religion. 

13 Which religion I preach and per- 
suade mankind into, without any nicety 
of speculation, or arts of oratory : but 
by the pure inspirations of this Holy 
Spirit; shewing and demonstrating to 
them, how those prophecies of the^Old 

But as it is writ- 
ten, Eye hath not seen, 
nor ear heard, neither 
have entered into the 
heart of man, the 
things which God 
hath prepared for 
them that love him. 

10 But God hath 
revealed them unto us 
by his Spirit : for the 
Spirit searcheth all 
things, yea, the deep 
things of God. 

11 For what man 
knoweth the things of 
a man, save the spirit 
of man which is in 
him ? even so the 
things of God know- 
eth no man, but the 
Spirit of God. 

1*2 Now we have 
received, not the spi- 
rit of the world, but 
the Spirit which is of 
God j that we might 
know the things that 
are freely given to us 
of God. 

13 Which things 
also we speak, not in 
the words which man's 
wisdom teach eth, hut 
which the Holy Ghost 
teacheth 3 comparing 



spiritual things with 

14 But the natural 
man receiveth not the 
things of the Spirit of 
God : for they are 
foolishness unto him, 
neither can he know 
them, because they are 
spiritually discerned. 

15 But he that is 
spiritual judgeth all 
things, yet he himself 
is judged of no man. 

Testament are now, by the same Spirit A. D. 57- 

under the Gospel, explained, and per 

fectly accomplished in Christ and his 
religion ; and by confirming those ex- 
planations by the power of miracles *. 

14 Now it would have been impos- 
sible for you or I to have ever under- 
stood those Scripture prophecies, or 
to have seen the truth of the Gospel- 
doctrines by the mere help off natural f vv%t*it 
reason and philosophy, or Jewish tradi-" v s *' r 
tions; because they are matters of pure 
revelation, and quite wide of all methods 

of human sciences ; much less still can 
a sensual f man, a man possessed with 
the cares, pleasures, and lusts of the pre- 
sent life, be supposed to have any true 
taste or knowledge of the doctrines and 
virtues of Christianity, which can be re- 
lished by none but virtuous and sincere 

15 Nor ought any of you, upon 
those bare human principles, to judge, 
or positively determine who are the 
best and ablest ministers of the Gospel 
religion. It must be a person endowed 
with true notions of that religion as a 
revelation, that can pass a due judg- 
ment upon either its doctrines or its 
preachers. And for a man that thinks 
and acts nothing but upon maxims of 
human learning, to determine about 
the orthodoxy of a Christian teacher, 
and an inspired apostle, is to act quite 

* Ver. 13. Comparing spiritual things with spiritual, TlnvfxocTiK^, crvyKglvovrzg. The ^vwy.ccTLx.oTq, spiritual, may signify 
either spiritual things, as in the paraphrase, or spiritual persons; 
the sense then being this, viz. declaring or adapting these spiritual 
doctrines of the Gospel to spiritual persons, i. e. Christians endowed 
with the Holy Spirit, to enable them to understand them, as Le 
Clerc thinks. But this latter seems to be a very forced interpreta- 
tion, and not agreeable even to the word wvfUju.aTtJcoi's, which is 
plainly of the same gender with wveu/uxfiixa, and so ought to be ren- 
dered things, viz. the things mentioned in ver. 9, 10, 11, and 12. 

x 2 



chap. in. 

A. D. 57- out of his sphere, and to meddle with 

what he cannot understand. 

16 For how is it possible such a per- 
son can understand the revealed will of 
God, so as to be able to inform and 
correct us * who act and preach only 
bv the dictates and power of his Holy 
Spirit ? You have no reason then to 
prefer other teachers before me, upon 
account of their eloquence, or philoso- 
phy; for it is not that, but inspiration, 
that denominates a true Christian apo- 

16 For who hath 
known the mind of 
the Lord, that he may 
instruct him ? But we 
have the mind of 


The new teachers preferred themselves before St. Paul, for preaching 
higher and deeper points of Christianity than he did. The apostle 
tells them, their excessive pride in human learning and their factious 
temper was a just reason why he taught them only the first and fun- 
damental points of the Christian religioji, and made their progress so 
slow, to ver. 5. iVo teachers ought to exalt themselves, for all are 
but ministers of Christ, and not their own masters, to ver. 10. They 
did but build upon the apostle's foundation , and it behoved them to 
take heed what doctrines they built, for they must pass a severe exa- 
mination. The danger of false doctri?ies, to ver. IS. The folly of 
preferring any teachers for their mere human accomplishments. 

] \ NOTHER reason why you pre- 
-*"*- fer your new teachers before 
me is, that they teach you further and 
deeper in the Christian religion than I 
did. Now the true cause why I, at first, 

1 A ND I, brethren, 
could not speak 
unto you as unto spi- 
ritual, but as unto 
carnal, even as unto 
babes in Christ. 

* Ver. 16. 'Og crxj^Q^aau avrov, that he may instruct him. Avtov, 
him, is thought by some to relate to Kvelov, the Lord ; and then the 
sense must be, that to pretend to know more cf Christ than he has 
revealed, is to pretend to teach Christ himself But the natural con- 
struction, and the scope of the apostle, seem plainly to determine 
it to relate to the iuvivfxa.rtx.0^ the inspired person, as in the para- 

Ibid. Who hath known the mind of the Lord ? These words seem 
plainly to be quoted from Jer. xxiii. IS. where the prophet uses 
them in the same manner against the/afer prophets, as St. Paul does 
here against the Grecian philosophers. 


2 I have fed you 
with milk, and not 
with meat : for hi- 
therto ye were not 
able to bear it, neither 
yet now are ye able. 

3 For ye are yet 
carnal : for whereas 
there is among you 
envying, and strife, 
and divisions, are ye 
not carnal, and walk 
as men ? 

4 For while one 
saith, I am of Paul ; 
and another, I am of 
A polios ; are ye not 
carnal ? 

5 Who then is 
Paul, and who is A- 
pollos, but ministers 
in whom ye believed, 
even as the Lord gave 
to every man ? 

6 I have planted, 
Apollos watered ; but 
God gave the increase. 

7 So then neither 
is he that planteth 
any thing, neither he 
that watereth ; but 
God that giveth the 

instructed you in none of the higher A. D. 57 

and more particular points of this faith, 

was, that I found you unfit for them. 
Your bigotry to philosophical learning, 
and the factious disputing temper that 
reigned in you, made you perfect chil- 
dren in the knowledge of the true Gos- 
pel principles. 

2 And as such children I was forced 
to treat you, by spending the greatest 
part of my time with you in the first 
and plain doctrine of the Christian faith, 
viz. that of a crucified Saviour, and 
could hardly bring you to a right ap- 
prehension of that. Nay, I perceive 
you are not yet brought to it. 

3, '1 For had you made any consi- 
derable progress in the Christian reli- 
gion, and were not still wedded to your 
old human notions; how could there 
be such differences and contentions, 
such ranking into leaders and parties, 
as I find among you .? 

5 But, pray, what is Paul, or Apol- 
los, or Peter ? What are the most 
powerful teachers you so much boast 
of, and list yourselves under ? The very 
best of us are no authors of the religion 
they preach ; they are but Christ's com- 
missioners, endowed with several sorts 
of gifts from him ; all preaching to you 
the same doctrines and principles by 
which you were at first converted. 

6, 7 For instance, I planted the 
Gospel first among you ; Apollos came 
afterward and instructed you farther in 
it; and others perhaps after him carried 
you on still higher. But was not mine 
and his and their doctrine all from one 
and the same God, and to the same end 
and purpose ? Are we or any of you 
more than ministers of Christ, that you 




A. D. 57. should thus value and set up one above 

another, as if they were your perfect 

masters and saviours? 

8 Our apostolical office is all one * 
and the same, as derived from the au- 
thority of heaven. And therefore those 

1 would be magnified above me, 
ought to consider, it is God, not men, 
that is to reward us according to the 
degrees of diligence and fidelity where- 
with every one discharges his ministry. 

9 We are all equally the ministers 
and servants of God, and the best of 
us are no more ; and you Christian 
people whom we convert are the field 
t or fabric we work upon ; you still 
are equally God's workmanship, let who 
will of us have the hand in cultivating 
and building you up in his faith. 

10 It was I that first instructed you 
in this religion ; and according to the 
tenor of my office, and the spiritual 
knowledge and powers bestowed on me, 
I did sincerely, and like a true architect, 
lay the foundation of your Christian 
faith, in this plain and solid truth of a 
crucified Redeemer. Others came after 
me, and built upon my foundation. But 
let them have a care what doctrines 
they build on it; and take you heed 
how you magnify and extol them above 
me your first and principal teacher. 

11 Fur as this article is the first and 
only sure foundation of all Christian 
doctrines, so no doctrines can be true 
that are not agreeable to, and consist- 
ent with it. 

12, 13 And whatever the doctrines 
be that your new teachers raise, whe- 
ther sound and orthodox, or false and 
deceitful ; let them know there is a 

8 Now he that 
planteth and he that 
watereth are one : and 
every man shall re- 
ceive his own reward, 
according to his own 

9 For we are la- 
bourers together with 
God : ye are God's 
husbandry f, ye are 
God's building. 

10 According to the 
grace of God which 
is given unto me, as 
a wise master-builder 
I have laid the foun- 
dation, and another 
buildeth thereon. But 
let every man take 
heed how he buildeth 

1 1 For other foun- 
dation can no man lay 
than that is laid, which 
is Jesus Christ. 

12 Now if any 
man build upon this 
foundation, gold, sil- 
ver, precious stones, 

1 "Ev rfcri ; are all one. See 1 John v. 7. 
t teugyiov, God's field. 

CKAF. Ill 


hay, stub- day * a coming that will as perfectly try A. D. 57- 

and distinguish them as the fire does 

the dross from the silver. 


13 Every man's 
work shall be made 
manifest. For the day* 
shall declare it, be- 
cause it shall be re- 
vealed by fire ; and 
the fire shall try e very- 
man's work, of what 
sort it is. 

14 If any man's 
work abide which he 
hath built thereupon, 
he shall receive a re- 

15 If any man's 
work shall be burnt, 
he shall suffer loss : 
but he himself shall 
be saved ; yet so f as 
by fire. 

16 Know ye not 
that ye are the temple 
of God, and that the 
Spirit of God dwell- 
eth in you ? 

14 Whoever teaches what is good 
and wholesome, and will stand the test, 
he shall receive a reward proportionable 
to his diligence and sincerity. 

15 But whoever broaches and propa- 
gates any false and dangerous doctrines, 
they will prove then like a house of 
straw that cannot stand the fire, but is 
immediately burnt and consumed by 
it. Only if the man preached them 
through mere ignorance, and not from 
any base and malicious design ; though 
his work, i. e. his doctrine, be con- 
demned, he may himself be saved ; but 
then he is saved just as a man is that 
is pulled out f of the fire when his 
house is in flames about his ears, i. e, 
not without great hazard and difficulty, 

16 Let your new and false teachers 
moreover consider, that the Christian 
church is the temple of God, in a much 
higher sense than the Jewish temple 
ever was ; and that the same God who 
formerly manifested himself among the 
Jewish people, and was said to dwell in 
their temple, does now, in a much more 
eminent and effectual manner, dwell in 
you as his Christian church, by the 
fuller inspirations, powers, and evi- 
dences of the Holy Spirit. 

* Ver. 13. 'H V>> the da V- Either the time ° f the destructlon 
of Jerusalem, or the day of judgment, or else both. But the latter 
seems to be principally intended. 

f See Jude 23. 





A. D. 57. 17 Now to teach a false doctrine, and 

thereby to divide and break the peace 

of the Christian church, especially if it 
be done wilfully and knowingly, is to 
defile the church of God ; a crime much 
greater than profaning- the courts or 
services of the Jewish temple. Such 
a man cannot escape a final and most 
dreadful punishment. 

18 Beware then, and let none of your 
teachers draw you or himself into so fa- 
tal a miscarriage, by their philosophy, 
eloquence, or vain traditions. If they 
pretend to wisdom above other men, 
let them shew it by embracing the 
plain and simple truths of Christianity, 
which, as mean and foolish as they are 
now apt to account them, will at last 
prove to be their highest wisdom, and 
their greatest interest and concern. 

19, 20 Since, by this Gospel dispen- 
sation, God has plainly demonstrated 
the folly and insufficiency of all human 
learning and subtlety for the salvation 
of mankind ; agreeable to those words 
of Job v. 13. and of Psalm xciv. 11. 

21, 22 Wherefore do not any longer 
divide and distinguish yourselves under 
different teachers and parties. All the 
true ministers of Christ, and all that 
concerns the salvation of mankind, be- 
longs equally to you all. Paul, and 
Apollos, and Peter are apostles to you 
all. The world * was made for you 
all, Gentiles as well as Jews. You were 
all designed by God to live and die to 
the same happy ends and purposes. 
The comforts and privileges, afflictions 
and troubles of the present life, and the 

17 If any man de- 
file the temple of God, 
him shall God destroy : 
for the temple of God 
is holy, which temple 
ye are. 

18 Let no man de- 
ceive himself. If any 
man among you seem- 
eth to be wise in this 
world, let him become 
a fool, that he may 
be wise. 

19 For the wisdom 
of this world is fool- 
ishness with God : for 
it is written, He tak- 
eth the wise in their 
own craftiness. 

20 And again, The 
Lord knoweth the 
thoughts of the wise, 
that they are vain. 

21 Therefore let 
no man glory in men : 
for all things are yours. 

22 Whether "Paul, 
or Apollos, or Ce- 
phas, or the world, 
or life, or death, or 
things present, or 
things to come 3 all 
are yours j 

ffinedfT; \Z fP *^°-' °L tf o e U ' 0rUL Note ' the Jews VKtfy ima- 
gined the work! was created for the seed and posterity of Abraham 
only. Against winch fancy this seems plainly to be levelled. 



future joys of the next, are the intended A. D. 57. 

portion of you all alike. 

23 And ye < are 23 And if so, the chief matter of 
Christ's; and Christ is your glorying ought to be, not any new 
teachers, or new opinions; but this, 
that you are members of the church of 
Christ, the common Author of all our 
blessings ; and that you are all his pe- 
culiar church and people, as he is the 
Son of God, and by him appointed to 
be the Redeemer, Saviour, and Go- 
vernor of mankind. 


The apostle again declares he aims at no peculiar respect as the head of 
a party. Desires only to be esteemed as an apostle, and faithful 
minister of the Gospel. Is not afraid of the censures cast upon him ; 
and is so far from rashly judging other men, that he will not abso- 
lutely justify himself though he be not conscious of any neglect of 
his office. Exhorts them to let Christ judge his own ministers. He 
argues with the heads of their faction. Represents their pride and 
vain-glory, and his own labours, sufferings, and patience. Recom- 
mends himself and Ids doctrine to them, for their imitation and prac- 
tice. Proposes to send Timothy to them, to give them still further 
assurances how constant he was to himself and them. And threatens 
those who suggested he dare not make his personal appearance among 

1 T^T a man so 1 \ S I discourage and discounte- 
account of us, -■£*- nance all Gospel ministers * from 
as of the ministers of setting up for leaders of parties, so do I 
Christ, and stewards ful]y pract i se t hi s lesson myself. For 
ojjhe mysteries of I desire to be called master by no peo- 
ple whatever; all I aim at is, to be 
esteemed and respected as what I really 
am, viz. an apostle of Christ, a steward 
entrusted by him to dispense and 
preach the Gospel doctrine. 
2 Moreover, it is - And as the chief good property of 
required in stewards a steward is to be faithful in his office, 
that a man be found that is the only character I desire to 
faithful. have among you. 

* Chap, iii. 




A. D. 57. 3 And though some of your ambi- 
______ tious teachers would insinuate to you, 

as if I were not so, it gives me no great 
pain what they or any other people 
judge of me, so I be but sincere and 
true in the sight of God. In the mean 
time, I shall be so far from imitating 
their practice, of rashly censuring other 
men, that I will not presume so much 
as to an absolute justification of myself. 
4 For though I am not conscious I 
have any way wilfully neglected or be- 
trayed my trust as an apostle, yet I shall 
not insist upon that, to justify myself 
to you at present, but leave it to God 
to declare my sincerity at the great day 
of accounts. 

5 Do you all then follow my ex- 
ample herein, pass sentence neither 
upon me, nor any of your spiritual mi- 
nisters, but wait for that solemn day of 
trial, in which Christ will come and lay 
us all open ; and may perhaps shew 
those to be innocent and faithful whom 
you may now esteem otherwise; and 
discover abundance of secret frauds 
and hypocritical pretences in some per- 
sons you now so highly magnify and 
extol. And as he will then set an esti- 
mate upon every one according to his 
real deserts, it is to no purpose for you 
to load them with vain applauses now. 

6 I have thus made use of my own 
name and that of Apollos *, mine and 
your friend, as the most proper instances 
in the present argument. I name no 
other of your heads and teachers, that 
I may offend and exasperate none. But 
I hope, since we disclaim all titles of 
distinction among you, others may 
well be so modest as not thus to mag- 
nify themselves any longer. 

3 But with me it 
is a very small thing 
that I should be judg- 
ed of you., or of man's 
judgment :yea,Ijudge 
not mine own self. 

4 For I know no- 
thing by myself ; yet 
am 1 not hereby justi- 
fied : but he that judg- 
eth me is the Lord. 

5 Therefore judge 
nothing before the 
time, until the Lord 
come, who both will 
bring to light the hid- 
den things of dark- 
ness, and will make 
manifest the counsels 
of the hearts : and 
then shall every man 
have praise of God. 

6 And these things, 
brethren, I have in a 
figure transferred to 
myself, and to Apol- 
los, for your sakes : 
that ye might learn in 
us not to think of 
men above that which 
is written, that no one 
of you be puffed up 
for one against an- 

* Chap. iii. 5, 6, 7, S. i. \% 13. 



7 For who maketh 
thee to differ from 
another ? and what 
hast thou that thou 
didst not receive ? now 
if thou didst receive it, 
why dost thou glory 
as if thou hadst not 
received it ? 

S Now ye are full, 
now ye are rich, ye 
have reigned as kings 
without us : and I 
would to God ye did 
reign, that we also 
might reign with you. 

9 For I think that 
God hath set forth us 
the apostles last, as 
it were appointed to 
death : for we are made 
a spectacle unto the 
world, and to angels, 
and to men. 

10 We are fools 
for Christ's sake, but 
ye are wise in Christ ; 
we are weak, but ye 
are strong ; ye are ho- 
nourable, but we are 

7 For let me ask those mighty pre- A. D. 57. 

tenders a little further. Suppose you 

really had such spiritual gifts and en- 
dowments as exceeded mine; did you 
not receive them from the same Holy 
Spirit that gave mine to me? But 
your insulting and proud behaviour 
looks as if you thought them your own, 
attained by your own parts and learn- 
ing, and that you were not beholden to 
God at all for them. 

S You abound much in your own 
wisdom ; you esteem yourselves rich in 
knowledge ; you have no need (you 
think) of my assistance in the ministry ; 
but seem to rule and reign in the ut- 
most prosperity without me. I only 
wish you were truly prosperous and 
flourishing in the concerns of true reli- 
gion, that I might come and partake of 
your happiness. 

9 But while you thus flourish and 
triumph, my portion is to be despised 
and slighted ; the true apostles of Christ 
are the marks of. the malice of evil spi- 
rits, and of evil men ; to them we are 
exposed, like those poor criminals * 
among the Romans, that were wont 
to be brought last upon the theatre, 
either to fight with wild beasts, or with 
the gladiators; or else to be thrown naked 
and disarmed to their adversaries, and 
so were sure to be destroyed by them. 

10 I am called ignorant and illiterate, 
for preaching the plain articles of the 
Christian faith ; while you, from your 
deep speculations and traditions, glory 
in the titles of wise men and philoso- 
phers, 1 am counted a mean imperfect f 
teacher, am subject to reproaches and 
f sufferings; you are esteemed consuni- 

* The gladiators, called by the Greeks ImSuvaTioi, men devoted to 
certain death upon the stage. 

f Ver. 10. 'Ao-SeveIV, weak. 'AtrSemn signifies either infirmities, or 
suffering, in St. Paul's Epistles. It not being certain which it 
means here, I have expressed both senses. 




A. D. 57. mate and happy ones; and while you 

are honoured, I am set at nought. 

11 You live in a rich and plentiful 
city, while I am forced to travel from 
place to place, and endure hardships 
and reproaches of every kind. 

12, 13 I maintain myself by my own 
labour. When I am reviled, I bless 
those that revile me ; when persecuted, 
I bear it patiently. When I am de- 
famed and slandered, I only entreat 
people to have a more charitable opi- 
nion of me; and by some I am treated 
as no better than the most vile and im- 
pure thing that can be. 

14 Now I do not mention this ill 
usage of yours so much to shame and 
vex you, as to draw and persuade you 
Jike children to treat me more like a 
spiritual father for the future. 

15 And surely I may claim a just 
respect from the generality of you Co- 
rinthian Christians. For had you ten 
thousand new teachers, never so famous 
among you, you cannot deny but I was 
the person that taught you the Gospel, 
and first made you Christians. 

16 And let me entreat you all to 
keep to the same rule of faith and doc- 
trine I at first instructed you in ; and 
particularly your new teachers, not to 
set up themselves any longer against 
others, but to imitate me in a meek and 
uniform behaviour. 

17 To convince them of which be- 
haviour of mine, I now send my be- 
loved Timothy to you, who can suffici- 
ently testify my doctrine and practice 
in every church I am concerned in. 

11 Eveu unto this 
present hour we both 
hunger, and thirst, and 
are naked, and are 
buffetted, and have no 
certain dwelling place. 

12 And labour, 
working with our own 
hands : being reviled, 
we bless : being per- 
secuted, we suffer it. 

13 Being defamed, 
we entreat : we are 
made as the filth of 
the world, and are 
the offscouring of all 
things unto this day. 

14 I write not these 
things to shame you, 
but as my beloved 
sons I warn you. 

15 For though you 
have ten thousand in- 
structors in Christ, yet 
have ye not many fa- 
thers ; for in Christ 
Jesus I have begotten 
you through the Gos- 

16 Wherefore I 
beseech you be ye fol- 
lowers of me. 

17 For this cause 
have I sent unto you 
Timotheus, who is 
my beloved son, and 
faithful in the Lord, 
who shall bring you 
into remembrance of 
my ways which be in 
Christ, as I teach 
every where in every 


18 Now some are 
puffed up as though 
I would not come to 

19 But I will come 
to you shortly, if the 
Lord will, and will 
know, not the speech 
of them which are 
puffed up, bnt the 

20 For the king- 
dom of God is not in 
word, but in power. 

21 What will ye ? 
shall I come unto you 
with a rod, or in love, 
and in the spirit of 
meekness ? 

18 Some of your new teachers per- A. D. 57. 

haps may boastingly pretend that I 

send Timothy, because I dare not come 

and vindicate myself in person. 

19 But let them be assured, T shall 
shortly be with them, by God's help; 
and shall not only clear myself, but take 
an account of them too. I shall not 
examine what eloquence and philosophy 
they are masters of, but what spiritual 
gifts and qualifications they are endowed 
withal. Those are the things that qua- 
lify a true Christian apostle. 

20 For the Christian religion is not 
to be understood, preached, and propa- 
gated by the powers of human learning, 
but by the inspiration and miraculous 
endowments of the Holy Ghost. 

21 And let them take warning, and 
choose how they will be treated by me. 
For if they will reform and correct this 
proud and insolent behaviour, I shall 
treat them with brotherly love and 
tenderness; but if not, I shall use my 
apostolical power, and inflict such se- 
vere * punishment upon them as their 
carriage deserves. 

* Ver. 21. 'Ev (d€Su, with a rod, most probably signifies such 
corporal punishments as the apostles were enabled, by a miraculous 
power, to inflict upon obstinate offenders, as in the case of Ananias 
and Sapphira. See Acts v. 4, 5. 2 Cor. xiii. 10. and 1 Tim. i. 20, 


a Paraphrase on the 



One of the faction against St. Paul had married his mother-in-law 9 
even while her husband lived. Some of the faction defend him. The 
apostle severely handles him, and expostulates with them. Warnings 
against the sin of uncleanness, and so much as antversing with any 
Christian that was notoriously guilty of it. He exhorts the Church 
to excommunicate and punish such ojf'endcrs. 

, D. 57.1 T THREATENED (chap. Iv. 19, 

A 21.) to come among you, and take 

due cognizance of your miscarriages; 
and it is time for me so to do, for I am 
certainly informed of one most scan- 
dalous crime committed among you at 
Corinth. One of you, it seems, has 
married his mother-in-law ; a thing 
that many heathens are ashamed of, if 
it be not expressly forbidden in their 
laws *. 

2 And yet some of you, because per- 
haps the man is of their party, (and a 
leading man in it,) seem to encourage 
and glory in him, instead of excommu- 
nicating and lamenting him as a lewd 
and profligate person. 

3 Now, though I am not present 
with you, I give you my positive orders 
about this man, with the same authority 
and direction of the Holy Spirit, as if I 
were actually among you, 

4, 5 That in a full assembly of your 
church, by the authority of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and under my spiritual 
direction, you immediately expel this 
man from the Christian church, and 
deliver him to Satan, till by sufficient 

mong you 

* fornication as 

1 IT is reported 
commonly that 
there is fornication a- 
and such 
is not 
so much as named a- 
mongst the Gentiles, 
that one should have 
his father's wife. 

2 And ye are puffed 
up, and have not ra- 
ther mourned, that he 
that hath done this 
daed, might be taken 
away from among 

3 For I verily, as 
absent in body, bat 
present in spirit, have 
judged already, as 
though I were pre- 
sent, concerning him 
that hath so done this 

4 In the name of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, 
when ye are gathered 
together, and my spi- 
rit, with the power of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, 

5 To deliver such 

* Ver. 1. Fornication, woptla, uncleanness; including all the seve- 
ral kinds of it. That of incest here, and the rest in the following 
chapters, are easily distinguished bv an attentive reader. See Mr. 
Locke's note on this verse. 


an one unto Satan for 
the destruction of the 
flesh, that the spirit 
may be saved in the 
day of the Lord Jesus. 

6 Your glorying is 
not good. Know ye 
not that a little leaven 
leaveneth the whole 
lump ? 

7 Purge out there- 
fore the old leaven, 
that ye may be a new 
lump, as ye are un- 
leavened. For even 
Christ our passover is 
sacrificed for us : 

8 Therefore let us 
keep the feast, not 
with old leaven, nei- 
ther with the leaven 
of malice and wick- 
edness ■ but with the 
unleavened bread of 
sincerity and truth. 

9 I wrote unto you 
in an epistle not to 
company with forni- 
cators f : 

10 Yet not alto- 
gether with the for- 
nicators of this world, 
or with the covetous, 
or extortioners, or 
with idolaters ; for 
then must ye needs go 
out of the world. 

11 But now I have 

punishment, both of mind and body*, A. D. 57. 

he is brought to a due sense of his 

crime, and by a true repentance may • See chap, 
be restored to the church, and at last 1 /'? 1 '. an 

, 1 1 Tim. 1.20, 

be saved. 

6 Certainly, to defend and boast in 
so notorious an offender, is of dreadful 
consequence. Such an example thus 
unpunished, will in a little time, like 
leaven, corrupt and spoil the principles 
of your whole church. 

7 Remember you are Christians ; 
that Christ the Son of God, the true 
Paschal Lamb, was slain for your re- 
demption from sin and misery ; and 
that it is impossible you can be his true 
church, or perform any acceptable ser- 
vice to him, unless you clear and purge 
yourselves of such wickedness and 
wicked persons as this, with as much 
care and concern as the Jews did their 
houses of all leaven, before they eat 
their passover. 

8 No religious duties, I say, but espe- 
cially that of the holy sacrament, the 
solemn commemoration of his death and 
sufferings, can be duly performed by 
you, till you free yourselves and your 
church of such open unclean practices, 
and vile pretenders; and live up to the 
Gospel purity and sincerity. 

9, 10 I was intended * to write to*"Ey^«. 
you before this, to warn you not so 
much as to converse with any people 
given to notorious uncleanness. 1 dogjj 1 ^™* 
not mean that you should renounce all 
conversation with your heathen neigh- 
bourhood, (w r hose very religion and laws 
allow them in some kinds of this vice, 
and) who are generally addicted to co- 
vetousness, extortion, or some such im- 
morality, for I know you cannot well 
avoid that; and I might as well bid you 
leave the world, as not converse with 
the people you live amongst. 

11 My meaning is, (and I now par- 




A. D. 57-ticularly charge you to observe it,) that 

you utterly refuse to converse with, or 

take any notice of, any Christian pro- 
fessor, be he who he will, that is known 
to be guilty of such notorious practices. 

12 As for heathens, I say, and the 
crimes they are guilty of, it is not mine 
nor your business to call them to an ac- 
count, or pass a judicial sentence upon 
them. But it is your business, and 
your indispensable duty too, as Chris- 
tians, to condemn and punish the scan- 
dalous members of your own religious 

13 Leaving the heathens therefore 
to the judgment of God, their just and 
proper Master, do your duty as a Chris- 
tian church, and excommunicate that 
wicked incestuous person, till he repents 
and reforms. 

written unto you, not 
to keep company, if 
any man that is called 
a brother be a fornica- 
tor, or covetous, or an 
idolater, or a railer, or 
a drunkard, or an ex- 
tortioner, with such 
an one, no not to eat. 
12 For what have 
I to do to judge them 
also that are without ? 
do not ye judge them 
that are within * ? 

13 But them that 
are without, God 
judgeth *. Therefore 
put away from among 
yourselves that wick- 
ed person. 

* Ver. 12, 13. Note, The true pointing of these two verses i?, 
most probably, that which Theophylact observes to have been in 
some copies ; and the reading should be this, For what ? Have I 
any thing to do to judge them also that are without? No; judge ye 
them that are within; them that are without God judgeth. 



It seems by this chapter, as if the case of the incestuous person had been 
tried in the heathen courts of justice, at least some other quarrels 
between the. Christians of Corinth had been so, to the great scandal 
of the religion of Christ. The apostle reprimands them for this great 
imprudence ; shews that Christians may and ought to decide their 
own differences among themselves, and not bring them into heathen 
judicatories ; exhorts them to justice, purity, and peace. Warns 
them again from the great sin of uncleanness. Uricleanness is a par- 
ticular disgrace to the body of a Christian, and an affront to Christ, 
whose members we are. Our bodies are the temples of the Holy 
Ghost. They are dedicated to the service of Christ, and are to par- 
take of the future glory and happiness. 

1 TJARE any of 
you, having a 
matter against an- 
other, go to law before 
the unjust, and not 
before the saints ? 

2 Do ye not know 
that the saints shall 
judge the world ? and 
if the world shall be 
judged by you, are 
ye unworthy to judge 
the smallest matters ? 

3 Know ye not that 
we shall judge an- 
gels ? how much more 
things that pertain to 
this life ? 

1 TF then it be your privilege and A. D. 51 

-*- your duty, as a Christian society, 

to censure and condemn the gross mis- 
carriages of your own members, how 
imprudent and foolish is it in you to 
bring this case of the incestuous person, 
or any other matter of injustice and 
quarrel among Christians, before the 
heathen courts of justice, and not de- 
cide it among yourselves ? 

2, 3 Have your new teachers taught 
you no better than this ? Have they 
quite forgot the noble privilege foretold 
by the prophets, and promised by 
Christ to all good Christians, but to us 
his apostles in particular, of appearing 
and sitting with him in judgment upon 
the whole * world, and even upon wicked 
spirits themselves ? And can you think 
that persons so highly privileged, as to 
the future state, can be any way un- 

* Ver. 2. O* ayioi tov x.oa-fxov ttptvovcrj, the saints shall judge the v)orld. 
I here give that sense of these words, which seems to me the most 
unexceptionable of any. Dr. Hammond has some Scripture in the 
paraphrase to support it; whereas those passages of Dan. vii. 18. 
and Isai. xlix. 23. quoted by Dr. Lightfoot and Dr. Whitby, to 
prove they signify Christian magistracy, are of too general a lati- 
tude to be restrained to temporal power. 

VOL. I. Y 




A. D. 57. worthy or insufficient to decide a small 

controversy of the present life; or to 

determine "the cause, and punish the 
crime of a temporal transgressor ? See 
and compare Matt. xix. 28. Luke xxii. 
SO. Dan. vii. 9, 29. Revel, xx. 4. 

4 Whenever therefore you have any 
debate about matters of right between 
man and man, that the parties them- 
selves cannot settle, if you. do not think 
fit to trust your church governors with 
it, refer it to an arbitration of two or 
three of even the meanest of your Chris- 
tian brethren, rather than bring it be- 
fore heathen judges that do not belong 
to the church at all, but are the per- 
secutors and destroyers of it. 

5, 6 But now let me, to their shame, 
ask them that pretend to so much wis* 
dom among you ; are none of your phi- 
losophical teachers wise enough, none 
of their orators powerful enough, none 
of their doctors learned enough, to de- 
cide a small case of common right be- 
tween Christian neighbours; but they 
must needs go to law, and expose one 
another in heathen courts, to the scan- 
dal and dishonour of the peaceable reli- 
gion of the Gospel ? 

7 Certainly you are much to blame 
in this proceeding. It would be much 
better for a Christian to submit to any 
tolerable injury, than to expose his bro- 
ther in the courts of infidel people. 

8 But I find many of you are so far 
from this Christian temper of bearing 
injuries with patience, that you do in- 
justice even to your Christian brethren, 
without any scruple of conscience, as 
it is evident in the case of this inces- 
tuous person and his abettors. 

9, 10 Strange ! that your admired 
teachers should suffer you to imagine, 

4 If then ye have 
judgment of things 
pertaining to this life, 
set them to judge who 
are least esteemed in 
the church. 

5 I speak to your 
shame. Is it so that 
there is not a wise 
man amongst you ? no 
not one that is able 
to judge between his 
brethren ? 

6" But brother goeth 
to law with brother, 
and that before the 
unbelievers ? 

7 Now therefore 
there is utterly a fault 
among you, because 
ye go to law one with 
another : why do ye 
not rather take wrong r 
Why do ye not ra- 
ther suffer yourselves 
to be defrauded ? 

8 Nay, ye do 
wrong, and defraud, 
and that your bre- 

9 Know ye not that 
the unrighteous shall 



not inherit the king- 
dom of God 3 Be not 
deceived ; neither for- 
nicators, nor idolaters, 
nor adulterers, nor ef- 
feminate, nor abusers 
of themselves with 

10 Nor thieves, nor 
covetous, nor drunk- 
ards, nor revilers, nor 
extortioners, shall in- 
herit the kingdom of 

11 And such were 
some of you : but ye 
are washed, but ye are 
sanctified, but ye are 
justified in the name 
of the Lord Jesus, 
and by the Spirit of 
our God. 

12 All things are 
lawful unto me, but 
all things are not ex- 
pedient ; all things 
are lawful for me, but 
I will not be brought 
under the power of 

13 Meats for the 
belly and the belly 
for meats ; but God 
shall destroy both it 
and them. Now the 
body is not for forni- 
cation, but for the 
Lord ; and the Lord 
for the bodv. 

that any unjust person can inherit the A. D. 57. 

Gospel-blessings ! If they would keep ■ 

you still in ignorance, let me assure 
you, no unclean person, nor idolater, 
nor effeminate, nor Sodomite, nor thief, 
nor greedy defrauder, nor drunkard, nor 
uncharitable railer, nor extortioner, is 
fit for heaven, or can possibly enjoy 
the happiness of it. 

11 To such vices as these, many of 
you Corinthians were subject in your 
heathen state. But by becoming Chris- 
tians, and being baptized into the faith 
of the Gospel, and by having the en- 
dowments of the Holy Ghost conferred 
on you, you were cleansed from the 
guilt, and received the pardon of them 
all, and so are indispensably obliged for 
the future to forsake the practice of 

12 And as to that particular vice of 
uncleanness, (as in the special case of 
the man that married his mother-in- 
law,) supposing it were not evidently an 
unlawful thing in itself, (as some of you 
pretend,) yet it would be very impru- 
dent, and unworthy of a Christian to 
indulge himself in a disreputable thing, 
and suffer himself to be enslaved to a 
domineering appetite. 

13 Even in the case of the promis- 
cuous use of meats and drinks ; though 
meats are made on purpose for the belly, 
and the belly to receive them for the 
nourishment of the body; yet a prudent 
Christian would never "indulge- himself 
at random, or be unwilling, for good 
reasons, to debar himself of several of 
those gratifications that belong merely 
to this perishing and animal life. If we 
use our food with prudence, temperance, 
and charity, God will bestow a better 

Y 2 




A. D. 57. life upon us, wherein there will be no 

want of meats, nor bellies to crave 

them. Fait now in the case of our bo- 
dies, in relation to women, the argument 
is more conclusive; for our bodies were 
not made on purpose for women, (much 
less for harlots,) but for far nobler pur- 
poses, viz. for the service and honour 
of Christ, to be his members, as he is 
the Redeemer, Head, and Saviour of our 
bodies, as well as of our souls. 

14 For the same divine power that 
raised up the body of Jesus Christ, our 
Head, from the grave, will one day raise 
up the bodies of all true Christians, his 
members, and will make them partake 
of the same glories. 

]5, 16 Are you that pretend to so 
much knowledge, yet ignorant, that the 
very bodies of Christians, are properly 
said to be the members of Christ, our 
glorified Head ? And is it fit or decent, 
think ye, to disparage and degrade his 
members, by making them the members 
of an harlot? God forbid ! Fortius 
would be to dishonour the state of ma- 
trimony, instituted in those words, They 
two shall he one flesh, Gen. ii. 24. 

17 In like manner, every Christian, 
by his baptismal profession, is spiri- 
tually united to Christ, by the most 
strict and solemn obligation *. 

1 8 Avoid the sin of unclean ness there- 
fore, as you value your own bodies, and 
the relation they have to Christ. No 
other sin does such an immediate indig- 
nity to our bodies as this. 

19 Do ye not consider that the Holy 
Spirit dwells in the bodies of Christian 
people, and that they as well as our 

14 And God hath 
both raised up the 
Lord, and will also 
raise up us by his own 

15 Know ye not 
that your bodies are 
the members of Christ? 
shall I then take the 
members of Christ, 
and make them the 
members of an harlot ? 
God forbid. 

16 What, know ye 
not that he which is 
joined to an harlot is 
one body ? for two 
(saith he) shall be one 

17 But he that is 
joined unto the Lord, 
is one spirit *. 

18 Flee fornication. 
Every sin that a man 
doeth is without the 
body ; but he that 
committeth fornica- 
tion, sinneth against 
his own body. 

19 What, know ye 
not that your body is 
the temple of the Holy 

* S<> 

ee and compare Enhes. v. 22, 23. to the end. 


Ghost which is in you, 
which ye have of God, 
and ye are not your 
own ? 

20 For ye are 
bought with a price : 
therefore glorify God 
in your body, and in 
your spirit which are 

souls, are dedicated to the service of A. D. W. 

God, as his own right and property ? ■ 

20 And his own they may well be, 
since he has purchased for them a glo- 
rious resurrection by the death of his 
Son. You are bound therefore to serve 
and honour him with the faculties and 
powers of both body and soul, to whom 
you entirely owe them, both by creation 
and redemption. 


The church of Corinth, consisting of converts bred up in different princi- 
ples of either Gentile philosophy, or Jewish traditions, it was but too 
natural for them, by mixing those notions with the Christian doctrine, 
to disagree among themselves, while several of their ambitious leaders 
united against the apostle. The more calm and sober part therefore 
sent several questions to him, desirous to be resolved, and fully bent 
to acquiesce in his determination. The answer to these questions 
makes up the remaining part of this Epistle. The first whereof is 
about marriage, in this chapter; some Gentile converts being educated 
in a philosophical school, that recommended the promiscuous use* of 
women; others in one that taught them wholly + to abstain from 
them; while the Jewish Christians had been used to hear their doc- 
tors make it a point of conscience for all to marry by the age of 
twenty. The apostle frames his ansiver with a just regard to the 
present state of the church in a time of persecution, and to the several 
tempers, gifts, and abilities of particular persons ; and so gives his 
proper rules, both to married and single people; to them that actually 
were, had, or had not yet been in the conjugal state. 

1 TV'OW concerning 1 X COME now to answer the seve- 

the things A ral questions proposed to me in 

whereof ye wrote un- vour i et ter. And first, Whether it be 

*?J^VAi f ?°° d u f0r & and convenient for Christians to 

marry or 7iot f I allow, in general, 

that the unmarried state, and perfect 

abstinence from women, is the freest and 

most easy state of life. 

9, Nevertheless, to 2 But then I say, where people have 

a man not to touch a 

* As Plato and his followers. 

f So Pythagoras called them, the enemies of reason and philosophy. 





A. 1). 57. not the gift of continency, single per- 

. sons ought to * marry, and the married 

to keep * to their own husbands and 
wives, to avoid the sin of uncleanness. 

3 And let all married pairs perform 
the conjugal duty to each other. 

4 For man and wife have a right and 
property in the bodies of each other, 
and claim the duties and offices of them. 

5 Wherefore, whoever of you are al- 
ready married, do not deny the duties 
of the marriage-bed to one another, un- 
less it be by mutual consent, in times 
set apart for special devotion and so- 
lemn fasting; and when those devotions 
are over, return again to your conjugal 
society, for fear the devil should take 
advantage of your inclinations, and 
tempt you to the violation of the mar- 

6 What I say, in the next verse, is 
not indeed particularly determined by 
any express command of Christ; but I 
advise you herein as his apostle, and 
agreeably to his holy religion, viz. 

7 As to marriage in general, I could 
indeed wish, for several reasons, at pre- 
sent, that every Christian among you 
could live single, or use the conjugal 
pleasures with the same temperance as 
I do. But as I know the temper and 
constitution of ail are not alike, I must 
leave each of you to consider his own 
necessities, and manage accordingly. 

avoid fornication *,let 
every man have his 
own wife, and let 
every woman have her 
own husband. 

3 Let the husband 
render unto the wife 
due benevolence : and 
likewise also the wife 
unto the husband. 

4 The wife hath 
not power of her own 
body, but the hus- 
band ; and likewise 
also the husband hath 
not power of his own 
body, but the wife. 

5 Defraud you not 
one the other, except 
it be with consent for 
a time, that ye may 
give yourselves to fast- 
ing and prayer; and 
come together again, 
that Satan tempt you 
not for your iuconti- 

6 But I speak this 
by permission, and not 
of commandment. 

7 For I would that 
all men were even as 
I myself; but every 
man hath his proper 
gift of God, one after 
this manner, and an- 
other after that. 

* Ver. 2. Tvvouko, — a'^po. e^etw, Let every man have his own wife. 
'Ex'rcu may either signify to take, or to keep and retain still ; and I 
have expressed both acceptations. See Heb. xii. 9,8. 


8 I say therefore 
to the unmarried and 
widows, It is good 
for them if they abide 
even as I. 

9 But if they can- 
not contain, let them 
marry : for it is bet- 
ter to marry than to 

10 And unto the 
married I command, 
yet not I, but the 
Lord, Let not the 
wife depart from her 
husband : 

11 But and if she 
depart, let her remain 
Unmarried, or be re- 
conciled to her hus- 
band : and let not the 
husband put away his 

12 But to the rest 
speak I, not the Lord ; 
If any brother hath 
a wife that belie veth 
not, and she be pleased 
to dwell with him, 
let him not put her 

13 And the woman 
which hath an hus- 
band that believeth 
not, and if he be 
pleased to dwell with 
her, let her not leave 

14 For the unbeliev- 
ing husband is sancti- 
fied by the wife, and 
the unbelieving wife 
is sanctified by the 
husband : else were 

8, 9 Thus I advise single men and A. D. 57. 

virgins, widowers and widows, to con 

tinue as they are, during these times of 
trouble and persecution *, because it is * Ver. n>. 
the freest and much less troublesome 
condition. But if they cannot contain, 
by all means let them marry ; for the 
greatest inconveniences of a married 
state, are infinitely preferable to the ir- 
regularity of impure and lustful incli- 

10, 11 As to married people, our 
Lord has left a plain command, (Matt. 
xix. 9.) that no woman ought to be di- 
vorced from her husband but upon ac- 
count of adultery. And if any woman 
has already left her husband upon any 
needless -j- occasion, let her endeavour 
to be reconciled to him, and not dare 
to marry any other man. And the 
same is incumbent upon husbands to- 
ward their wives. 

12, 13 Then as to those Christians, 
be they men or women, that are already 
married to heathens, though Christ has 
left no express rule relating to their 
case, yet I his apostle, who am influ- 
enced by his Spirit, (ver. 40.) do most 
earnestly advise, that if the heathen 
wife or husband will live peaceably and 
lovingly with them, the Christian spouse 
do not separate. 

H It would be a great injury to the 
children of such a couple, for the Chris- 
tian parent thus to leave them ; for the 
children being instructed in the Chris- 
tian religion, (or at least designed to be 
so,) may be reckoned as members of the 

f As the Jewish doctors taught they might. Lightfoot Exer. 
Heb. in loc. See Matt, xix, 3. 

y 4- 

3 C 28 



A. D. 57. Christian church, although one of the 

, parents continue an heathen; which 

they would not be, if the parents were 
both so. 

(1.5 But if the heathen husband or 
wife is absolutely resolved to separate, 
let it be so. A Christian in suoh a 
case is not enslaved and obliged to stay. 
Only remember that Christianity obliges 
us to do all we can to act agreeably 
to the duties of our natural and civil 
relation even with infidels.)* 

1(> And this ought to be done upon 
another account, viz. because there is a 
probability, that a peaceable and a lov- 
ing Christian may, by a pious example, 
convert the heathen husband or wife, 
to the faith of the Gospel, and so be- 
come the happy instrument of the 
spouse's salvation. 

17 But whatever the success, in this 
respect, may be, let every Christian 
continue contentedly in that state and 
relation he was in at his first conver- 
sion, and not think that Christianity 
frees him from it. And this is my rule 
to all churches that I am concerned in. 

18 If any one were a circumcised 
Jew before lie was converted, he need 
not be ashamed of his circumcision. 
If he were an uncircumcised Gentile 
convert, he has no manner of need to 
be circumcised, though the Jewish zea- 
lots would persuade him he has. 

19 The Jewish law has now nothing 
to do with men's salvation through Je- 
sus Christ. All that a Christian has to 
do is to live up to the Gospel doctrine. 

20 So again as to civil relations; let 

your children unclean ; 
but now are they ho- 


(15 But if the un- 
believing depart, let 
him depart. A bro- 
ther or a sister is not 
under bondage in such 
cases : but God hath 
called us to peace.) * 

16 For what know- 
est thou, O wife, whe- 
ther thou shalt save 
thy husband? or how 
knowest thou, O man, 
whether thou shalt 
save thy wife ? 

17 But as God 
hath distributed to 
every man, as the 
Lord hath called e- 
very one, so let him 
walk ; and so ordain 
I in all churches. 

IS Is any man call- 
ed, being circumcis- 
ed ? let him not be- 
come uncircumcised. 
Is any called in uncir- 
cumeision ? let him 
not become circum- 

19 Circumcision is 
nothing, and oncir- 
cumcision is nothing, 
but the keeping of 
the commandments of 

20 Let every man 
abide in the same call- 

* Ver. 15. Note, The connection between the 14th and 16th 
verses will be much clearer, if we suppose the 15th verse to be a 



ing* wherein he was 

21 Art thou called 
being a servant ? care 
not for it : but if thou 
mayest be made free, 
use it rather. 

22 For he that is 
called in the Lord, 
being a servant, is the 
Lord's freeman : like- 
wise also he that is 
called, being free, is 
Christ's servant. 

23 Ye are bought 
-j- with a price ; be not 
ye the servants of 

24 Brethren, let e- 
very man, wherein he 
is called, therein abide 
with God. 

25 Now concern- 
ing virgins ||, I have 
no commandment of 
the Lord ; yet I give 

every one remain in the * state wherein A. D. 57. 
Christianity found him. ^__ 

21 Thus, let him that was a slave to 
any master at the time of his conver- 
sion, be contented to remain so, till he 
can lawfully and honestly obtain his 
freedom, which indeed is the better state 
of the two. 

c 2 ( 2 But let him not be discontented 
and impatient under his present servi- 
tude ; for though he be a slave to a 
man, yet let him cheerfully consider, 
that as he is a Christian, he is Christ's 
freeman f, in the most honourable sense 
of true freedom; and the Christian that 
is no man's slave, is yet a servant, and 
owes an absolute obedience to Christ 
our common Lord and Master. 

23 Remember then that Christ with 
his own blood has purchased and made 
you his own servants ; so that though 
every one ought to discharge the duties 
of his civil relation to every man, yet 
he ought to regard no man so far as 
to violate his obligations to his divine 
Master J. 

24 But let me warn you again, dear 
brethren, not to make your conversion 
to Christianity an argument for break- 
ing through any natural or civil obliga- 
tion. Your religion and those obliga- 
tions are perfectly consistent. 

25 As for || people that were never 
yet married, Christ has indeed left no 
express command about their disposal 
of themselves. And I shall now give 

* Ver. 20. 'Ev t$ k\v<tu fjuveru, abide in the same calling, or in the 
same state and capacity. 

t Ver. 22. John viii. 36. 

$ Ver. 23. Ye are bought with a price ; in the same sense as in 
chap. vi. 20. and the connection is from the latter clause of the 
foregoing verse. 

|| Ver. 25. Tu>v wajSf'vMv, virgins. I express it as comprehending 
both sexes, the apostle's argument being equally concerned in both ; 
and the use of the word in ver. 37- shewing it to be so intended. 




A. D. 57. them my thoughts as a faithful apostle 
of his, and with just regard to the pre- 
sent state of the Christian church. 

26 Namely, that considering the per- 
secutions the church is now daily sub- 
ject to, it were safer for them still to 
continue single. 

27 But such as are already married, 
ought by all means to keep to their 
wives, let the times be what they w r ill. 
I only say, they that are single, if they 
would make the present distresses and 
troubles sit easier upon them, should 
not be forward to marry, provided they 
can live chastely without it. 

28 But if they cannot, let them marry, 
(for marriage has no manner of sin in 
it ;) all I say is, that it may be a trouble- 
some state in a time of persecution, and 
having said this, I leave them to their 
own discretion. 

29 And let me request of you all to 
remember, the present life is but short, 
and all its blessings uncertain, so that 
even a husband and wife are not such 
comforts as should make us set our 
hearts too much upon them. 

30 The blessings of the present life, 
I say, are of short continuance, and so 
are its afflictions too : wherefore let not 
them that are under affliction be discou- 
raged, nor such as are in prosperity be 
too much exalted; nor the rich and 
great over-rate their possessions. 

31 In fine, use all the enjoyments of 
life with prudence and moderation, for 
the best of them are but fading and 
transitory things. 

32, 33 The reason why I discourage 
matrimony, and give the preference to 
the single life, is wholly taken from the 
present state of things, viz. that you 

my judgment as one 
that hath obtained 
mercy of the Lord to 
be faithful. 

26 I suppose there- 
fore, that this is good 
for the present dis- 
tress, / say, that it is 
good for a man so to 

27 Art thou bound 
unto a wife ? seek not 
to be loosed. Art thou 
loosed from a wife ? 
seek not a wife. 

28 But and if thou 
marry, thou hast not 
sinned j and if a vir- 
gin marry, she hath 
not sinned. Neverthe- 
less, such shall have 
trouble in the flesh : 
but I spare you. 

29 But this I say, 
brethren, the time is 
short : it remaineth, 
that both they that 
have wives be as 
though they had none: 

30 And they that 
weep, as though they 
wept not; and they 
that rejoice, as though 
they rejoiced not ; 
and they that buy, as 
though they possessed 

31 And they that 
use this world, as not 
abusing it ; for the 
fashion of this world 
passeth away. 

32 But I would 
have you without 
carefulness. He that 
is unmarried, careth 


for the things that 
belong to the Lord, 
how he may please 
the Lord : 

33 But he that is 
married, careth for 
the things that are of 
the world, how he may 
please Ids wife. 

34 There is differ- 
ence also between a 
wife and a virgin. 
The unmarried woman 
careth for the things 
of the Lord, that she 
may be holy both in 
body and in spirit : 
but she that is mar- 
ried, careth for the 
things of the world, 
how she may please 
her husband. 

35 And this I speak 
for your own profit, 
not that I may cast a 
snare upon you, but 
for that which is come- 
ly, and that you may 
attend upon the Lord 
without distraction. 

36 But if any man 
think that he behav- 
eth himself uncome- 
ly toward his virgin, 
if she pass the flower 
of her age, and need 
so require, let him 
do what he will, he 
sinneth not : let them 

37 Nevertheless he 
that standeth stedfast 
in his heart, having 
no necessity, but hath 
power over his own 
will, and hath so de- 

may attend to the duties of your reli- A. D. 57 

gion with less hindrance and distrac 

tion; an advantage peculiar to that 
state; while the married person must 
have a great part of his time and care 
taken up by the regards due to his wife 
and family. 

34 And, in like mnnner, women will 
find a considerable difference in point 
of ease and advantage, between the two 
states. A virgin has nothing to do but . 
to attend her religious duties ; both her 
mind and body are entirely devoted to 
the service of Christ. But the married 
woman will find a great deal of inter- 
ruption from her care to please her hus- 
band, in the management of worldly 

35 My only aim therefore is, your 
safer conduct in this troublesome world. 
I would neither draw you into the least 
temptation to lust and uncleanness, by 
restraining you from marriage; nor 
have you (if it could be helped) dis- 
tracted by the cares and troubles that 
are likely to attend that estate. 

36 If any Jewish converts therefore 
think themselves bound in conscience 
to marry themselves, or their virgin- 
daughters by such an age, and that it is 
unlawful to live any longer single, (as 
their doctors * have formerly taught 
them,) there is no harm in such an opi- 
nion ; let them marry. 

37 But yet, whoever, that is at his 
own disposal, hath firmly resolved to 
live single, and can innocently and with 
chastity do it, having a perfect mastery 
over his affections, such a one has a 
great advantage above them. 

* See the contents of the chapter. 




A. D. 57. 

38 So then all I say is, that marriage 
is a lawful and good thing ; but as the 
present circumstances of Christians are, 
the single state is the most easy and 
happiest condition. But let all young 
persons, and parents that have the dis- 
posal of them in marriage, do as reason 
and the circumstances of things shall 
direct them. 

39 Remember, in the mean time, the 
husband and wife are joined together 
for life; they are not to be separated 
upon light and humoursome accounts, 
(as the Jewish converts are apt to ima- 
gine.) If either of them die, the other 
is indeed free to marry again ; but it 
ought to be to a Christian, not to a 

40 But, as I have often said in this 
chapter, it were best and easiest for 
them to remain single, if they can well 
do it. And be assured * (whatever 
your new teachers may think of me,) 
my directions are given by the special 
guidance and assistance of the Holy 

creed in his heart 
that he will keep his 
virgin, doeth well. 

38 So then, he 
that giveth her in 
marriage doeth well ; 
but he that giveth 
her not in marriage 
doeth better. 

39 The wife is 
bound by the law as 
long as her husband 
liveth : but if her 
husband be dead, she 
is at liberty to be 
married to whom she 
will ; only in the 

40 But she is hap- 
pier if she so abide, 
after my judgment : 
and I think also that 
I have the Spirit of 


* Ver. 40. Aow "x" v > I think also that I have, is to be rendered 
I have. See Luke viii. 18. Matt. xiii. 12. and in this Epist. chap. x. 
12. xi. 16. xiv. 37. Or rather thus, Surely I have. See also Luke 
xvii. 9. And see instances of the like sense of this word in Glas- 
sius Philog. de Verbo. Can. xviii. 



The next question, Whether a Christian might he present at, and par- 
take of, an idol entertainment ? The Gentile converts did it, but 
without any religious respect to the false deities or their images, to 
which those feasts were consecrated. Yet to the great scandal and 
disturbance of the Jewish converts, and with hazard of drawing 
others into it, who for want of equal understanding, might thereby 
commit idolatry. The apostle states the question, and charges them 
all to act tvith a tender and charitable regard to the weaknesses and 
prejudices of their Christian brethren. 

1 T^fOW as touch- 
ing things of- 
fered unto idols, we 
know that we all 
have knowledge. 

Knowledge puffeth 
up, but charity edifi- 

2 And if any man 
think that he know- 
eth any thing, he 
knoweth nothing yet 
as he ought to know. 

3 But if any man 
love God, the same is 
known of him. 

1 XTOUR next question is, Concern- A. D. 57. 

*■ ing the justifiableness of a Chris 

tian's partaking of the feasts made in 
honour of idols by the heathens ; and 
eating on those occasions of what has 
been offered in sacrifices unto them. 
Now, whereas some of you Gentile 
converts pretend to distinguish in reli- 
gious points so well as to eat at those 
feasts, without designing to shew any 
manner of reverence to the idols. Yet 
I must tell you, how well soever you 
understand your Christian liberty, yet 
if you take no care what offence you 
give to your fellow-Christians, your 
knowledge serves only to shew your 

2 A Christian that knows perfectly 
his liberty in such cases as these, and 
yet acts without any regard to the good 
or hurt he may do to others by his ex- 
ample, uses his knowledge to a very 
ill purpose. 

3 Your knowledge of the true God, 
and love of the religion taught by his 
Son, are then only acceptably shewn 
when you consult the welfare of your 
brethren. The man that knows God, 
and his duty toward him, rightly and 
truly, will demonstrate his love to God, 
by having regard in his behaviour to 
the edification of his fellow-Christians. 
And such a man is known of God, i. e. 




A. D. 57. owned, and approved by him, agreeably 

to Psal. i. 6. Matt. vii. 23. xxv. 12. 

(ver. 1.) 

4 As to your question then, Whether 
a Christian may eat as aforesaid, at an 
entertainment made in honour of an 
idol, having at the same time no reve- 
rence for the idol, but doing it in a 
mere civil way? I say, we know, as 
well as your new teachers, that the hea- 
then demons or their images have no 
manner of divinity in them, nor does 
any thing dedicated to them receive 
any sanctity thereby ; and that there is 
but one true God. 

5, 6 For though the heathens believe 
there are several celestial deities, and 
several inferior ones under them, as 
lords, or agents, presiding over earthly 
things, and mediators for us men ; yet 
the Christian religion has assured us 
there is but one supreme God, the Fa- 
ther, the Author of all things, to whom 
we owe our being, and are ultimately 
to direct all our services. And but one 
Lord and Mediator, even his Son Jesus 
Christ, by whom he created us, and 
conveys all his blessings to us ; and 
through whom we are to address our- 
selves to him. 

7 Trusting in this true principle, 
many of you Gentile converts go to 
these entertainments, and eat of the 
things that have been offered to idols, 
as common and ordinary meats. Grant 
now there were, in itself, no harm in 
this ; yet you should consider, there 
are several among you newly converted, 
that may not yet have shaken off all 
their heathen notions. They may be 
apt to think there may be something 
divine in these demons. And when 
by your example they are encouraged 
to partake of feasts made to their ho- 
nour, they may do it with some sort of 
reverence to them, and so commit mi 
act of idolatry by your means; 

4 As 
therefore the eating- 
of those things that 
are offered in sacri- 
fice unto idols, we 
know that an idol is 
nothing in the world, 
and that there is none 
other God but one. 

5 For though there 
be that are called 
gods, whether in hea- 
ven or in earth, ^as 
there be gods many, 
and lords many,) 

6 But to us there 
is but one God, the 
Father, of whom are 
all things, and we in 
him ; and one Lord 
Jesus Christ, by whom 
are all things, and we 
by him. 

7 Howbeit there is 
not in every man that 
knowledge : for some 
with conscience of 
the idol unto this 
hour eat it as a thing 
offered unto an idol ; 
and their conscience 
being weak is de- 


8 But meat com- 
mendeth us not to 
God : for neither if 
we eat, are we the 
better; neither if we 
eat not, are we the 

9 But take heed 
lest by any means this 
liberty of yours be- 
come a stumbling- 
block to them that 
are weak. 

10 For if any man 
see thee which hast 
knowledge sit at meat 
in the idol's temple, 
shall not the consci- 
ence of him which is 
weak be emboldened 
to eat those things 
which are offered to 
idols ; 

11 And through 
thy knowledge shall 
the weak brother pe- 
rish, for whom Christ 

12 But when ye 
sin so against the bre- 
thren, and wound 
their weak consci- 
ence, ye sin against 

13 Wherefore, if 
meat make my bro- 
ther to offend, I will 
eat no flesh while the 
world standeth, lest I 
make my brother to 

8 Now what need you give your A. D. 57, 

weaker and more ignorant brethren 

this occasion ? You have no manner of 
reason to go to those feasts ; it does 
you no good to be at them, and no 
manner of harm to keep from them. 

9 Be it ever so lawful then to go to 
these feasts, yet consider, that even in- 
nocent liberties in indifferent matters 
are not to be taken, where you see they 
are like to be occasions of drawing ig- 
norant people into any thing contrary 
to your holy religion. 

10 Thus in the present case. While 
you may eat of these entertainments in 
a mere friendly and civil way, without 
any honour paid to the false deity, the 
younger convert, not so well able to 
distinguish as you are, may take you to 
do it in a religious manner, and by 
your example do so himself, and com- 
mit idolatry. 

11 And so, by your imprudent use 
of your knowledge, your ignorant bro- 
ther is emboldened to commit a ruin- 
ous act of sin, and a soul that Christ 
died to save and redeem, put into a 
hazard of being destroyed *. 

12 Consider, your thus misleading 
the consciences, and endangering the 
estate of any Christian brother, is a very 
great sin against Christ himself their 
Master and Saviour. 

13 Wherefore it were infinitely bet- 
ter for any Christian man never to in- 
dulge himself in any of these gratifica- 
tions, than to hazard the principles and 
conscience of a fellow-Christian by his 
unwary example. 

* See Rom. xiv. upon much the same argument, especially ver. 
19, 20. 





St. Paul, upon several prudential considerations, would not receive 
maintenance from the Corinthian Christians, but lived either upon his 
own labour, or contributions from other churches. The heads of the 
faction raise reflections upon this, to the disparagement of the apostle ; 
nay, insinuated it to be a tacit confession, he was indeed no true apo- 
stle at all. The well-affected part of the church seem plainly to have 
desired some account of his conduct in this matter. The apostle's 
answer. He claims a right to a maintenance from them as much as 
any other apostle could do ; and proves it. Gives his reasons why he 
did not make use of that right in the Corinthian church. His great 
condescension to the iveakness and prejudices of all sorts of Christian 
people; illustrated by a familiar comparison , and recommended to 
their imitation. 

D. 57. 1 "V^OU desire in the next place to 

■*■ be resolved, Why I refused to 

take my maintenance from your church 

while I preached 


f Which 

instance of my conduct, among others, 
some of your factious teachers would 
insinuate to be a kind of confession, 
that I am not indeed a true apostle, and 
would persuade you not to own me as 
such. Say they so? Is not the miracu- 
lous vision of Jesus Christ # in person, 
receiving my commission actually from 
him ; nay, is not your conversion to 
Christianity by my miracles and doc- 
trine, a sufficient evidence of a true 
apostleship ? And if it be, why am not 
I at liberty to manage my own w T ay of 
maintenance f as well as any other 
apostle ? 

2 Whatever other churches may say 
of me, you, I am sure, have seen and 
had that of me that must be a sufficient 
testimony of my apostolical commission. 

3, 4 But to answer your enquiry. 

1 AM I not an a- 
postle * ? am 
I not free ? have not 
I seen Jesus Christ 
our Lord ? are not 
you mv work in the 
Lord ? " 

2 If I be not an 
apostle unto others, 
yet doubtless I am to 
you : for the seal of 
mine apostleship are 
ye in the Lord. 

3 Mine answer to 

* Ver. 1. Acts ix. xxii. and xxvi. Gal. i. 12. 1 Cor. xv. 8. 
f Ovk tip) iXwdip*; Am I not free? i. e. to maintain myself, or 
to be maintained by others. 



them that do examine 
me, is this, 

4 Have we not 
power to eat and to 
drink ? 

5 Have we not 
power to lead about a 
sister, a wife, as well 
as other apostles, and 
as the brethren of the 
Lord, and Cephas. 

6 Or I only and 
Barnabas, have not 
we power to forbear 
working } 

7 Who goeth a 
warfare any time at 
his own charges \ who 
planteth a vineyard, 
and eateth not of the 
fruit thereof ; or who 
feedeth a flock, and 
eateth not of the milk 
of his flock ? 

8 Suy I these 
things as a man ? + or 
saith not the law the 
same also ? 

Let them that raise these malicious in- A. D. 57. 

sinuations from this part of my conduct ■ 

know % that I claim the same right to 
be maintained by the people I preach 
to, as the other apostles do. 

5 And that I and my fellow-traveller 
Barnabas have the same privilege of 
carrying* along with us any necessary 
Christian attendants, be they men or 
women, wife or servants, that Peter or 
James the Lord's brother f, or any 
apostle has, and the same right to have 
them maintained along with us too. 

6 Unless you can suppose us two to 
be particularly excluded from the pri- 
vileges of the rest of Christ's apostles ; 
which you have no manner of ground 

7 For to deny us this right, would 
be as unreasonable as for a prince to 
deny his soldier his pay, a planter 
to taste of his own fruit, or a shepherd 
to eat of the milk of his own flock. 

8 Nay I need not appeal only to 
common reason: the very law of Moses 
will confute those J Jewish zealots that 
question this in terms plain enough. 

* Ver. 4. Have we not power, &;c. Note, It was one branch of 
the eastern style to assert things for truths, by way of interrogation 
of their contraries ; which in English are best answered by ajjirm- 
ative asseverations. Which I accordingly do in several passages 
of this chapter, and in the rest of the epistolary writings. 

f Ver. f>. The Lords brethren, or xh\$o\ tov Kv^lov, the Lords 
kinsmen. So James is called, Gal. i. 19. and he is here pointed at. 
And so, perhaps, a.h*<pnv ywaTxas may here signify, any Christian 
relation or kinswoman. 

X Ver. 8. Or saith not the law the same? Note, This passage 
shews the apostle's answer to be directed both to the Gentile and 
Jewish part of the Corinthian faction. And the prudence of his 
apology consists in this, viz. the Jewish zealots being of opinion, 
that no Christian apostle ought to receive maintenance from uncir- 
cumcised converts, and the Gentile Christians taking it ill that he 

VOL. I. Z 




A. D. 57. 9 It is there commanded, (Deut. 

xxv. 4.) That the very ox that labours 

in treading the corn, should be suffered 
to eat of the corn while he was at that 
labour. Now it is absurd to suppose a 
divine law should be made on purpose 
for the privilege of a beast. The law 
has a further meaning therefore, viz. 
That if a just regard ought to be had to 
the very beasts for their labours, how 
much more tv men, especially when em- 
ployed in the services of religion. 

10 So that the application of it to all 
that are Christian apostles and mi- 
nisters, is most natural, to prove that 
every one in that sacred office must 
have a right to be maintained by the 
people he preaches to, as the husband- 
man has to be from the fruits that he 
sows, and reaps, and threshes. 

11 Nor can any reasonable men 
think much to supply us with necessa- 
ries for the present life, for the kindness 
we do him by putting him into a capa- 
city of eternal life and happiness. 

■ 9 12 If therefore any other apostle may 
rtisist upon maintenance from his own 
converts, I that first converted you, 
cannot be debarred it. But, however, 
to cut off all objections from some of 
you, and to shew myself clear of all pri- 
vate interest among* you all, I have not 
made use of my privilege, and had ra- 
ther be in want of some necessaries, 
than insist upon it. 

13 But did 1 insist upon, and make 
use of it too, the Jewish converts could 
make no objection to it, if they would 
but duly consider how agreeable it is to 
their own law, by which you know the 

9 For it is written 
in the law of Moses, 
Thou shalt not muzzle 
the mouth of the ox 
that treadeth out the 
corn. Doth God take 
care for oxen ? 

10 Or saith he it 
altogether for our 
sakes ? For our sakes, 
no doubt, this is writ- 
ten : that he that 
ploweth should plow 
in hope ; and that he 
that thresheth in hope, 
should be partaker of 
his hope. 

11 If we have sown 
unto you spiritual 
things, is it a great 
thing if we shall reap 
your carnal things ? 

12 If others be par- 
takers of this power 
over you, are not we 
rather ? Nevertheless, 
we have not used this 
power, but suffer all 
things, lest we should 
hinder the Gospel of 

13 Do ye not know 
that they which mi- 
nister about holy 
things, live of the 
things of the temple ? 
and they which wait 

did not ; to satisfy the former, he wrought for his maintenance ; but 
to content the latter, he claimed it as his due ; though he did ac- 
tually make use of it. 


at the altar, are par- 
takers with the altar ? 

14 Even so hath 
the Lord also ordain- 
ed, that they which 
preach the Gospel, 
should live of the Gos- 

15 But I have used 
none of these things, 
neither have I written 
these things, that it 
should be so done un- 
to me : for it were 
better for me to die, 
than that any man 
should make my glo- 
rying void. 

16 For though I 
preach the Gospel, I 
have nothing to glory 
of: for necessity is 
laid upon me ; yea, 
woe is unto me, if I 
preach not the Gospel ! 

17 For if I do this 
thing willingly, I have 
a reward : but if a- 
gainst my will, a dis- 
pensation of the Gospel 
is committed unto me. 

IS What is my re- 
ward then } Verily that, 

priests and Levites that attended the A. D. 57. 

service and sacrifices of the temple, 

were expressly appointed to be main- 
tained out of those sacrifices and obla- 
tions of the people. 

14 In like manner in the Gospel dis- 
pensation, our Lord Chris* has as early 
given to his apostles and ministers this 
privilege, when he says, The labourer is 
worthy of his hire, Matt. x. 10. Luke 
x. 7. 

15 But though I have thus proved 
my right to it, yet I have not made use 
of it; nor do I now allege it with any 
intent to use it whenever I come amono- 
you again. Nay, I had almost rather 
die for want of necessaries, than lose the 
opportunity of doing what I may really 
value myself upon, and glory in, viz. 
preaching the Gospel of free-cost. 

16* Glory in, I say. For my bare 
preaching the Gospel, as others do, is 
nothing but my indispensable duty, 
which I cannot and dare not but per- 
form : and there is no boasting in doing 
what a man is absolutely obliged to. 

17 Indeed * if I cheerfully perform 
and execute my bare commission, I 
shall as surely be rewarded for it, as I 
shall be punished for neglecting it. But 
if, for the better promotion of the Gos- 
pel, I * freely choose to wave a privi- 
lege I have a right to, I expect a spe- 
cial reward for so free a service. 

18 And this is my aim in not using 
f my Gospel privilege of maintenance 

* Ver. 17. E* ya.% Ikvv tovio Kj^xcra-Uy Fur if I do this thing willingly. 
The tqvto, this thing, may refer either to his preaching the Gospel 
in general, or to his preaching it of free-cost ; and so may ukw, un- 
willingly, be applied to either. I think the latter sense is most 
agreeable to the tenor of the apostle's words. But I have expressed 
them both. 

•f Ver. 18. EU to fxn KOiToc^Yi-oca-^'oci, iy l^ovaiet [j.ov. So as not to 
use (not al^use) my privilege. Thus the word is sometimes taken 

z C J 




A. D. 57. among you, but excusing you of all 
charges by my own labour for my liveli- 

19 For in several cases, wherein I 
am not strictly obliged, 1 make it my 
business, upon this view, to condescend 
and comply, as much as ever I can, 
with all sorts of people, the better to 
win and gain them over to the Gospel 

g0 Thus, to silence the clamours of 
the unconverted, and to fix the minds 
of the converted Jews, I conform to the 
Mosaical law as far as is possibly con- 
sistent with the Gospel religion, to gain 
their good opinion of me and my doc- 
trine. Thus 1 circumcised Timothy for 
their sakes, Acts xvi. 3. and purified my- 
self in the temple to avoid their prejudices. 
Acts xx. c 2\— C 2G. 

21 On the other side, with the un- 
believing * Gentiles, I argue in their 
own way from principles of reason 
f owned by them. And for the con- 
verted Gentiles, who were never under 
any obligation to the Mosaical cere- 
monies, I strenuously maintain, against 
the Jews, that they are under none still, 
but bound only to the faith and practice 
of the Gospel religion ; that so by vin- 
dicating them from that load of cere- 
monies, I may keep them steady to their 
Christian profession. 

when I preach the 
Gospel, I may lake the 
Gospel of Christ with- 
out charge, that I 
abuse not my power 
in the Gospel. 

19 For though I 
be free from all men, 
yet I have made my- 
self servant unto all, 
that I might gain the 

20 And unto the 
Jews I became as a 
Jew, that I might 
gain the Jews ; to 
them that are under 
the law, as under the 
law, that I might 
gain them that are 
under the law - } 

21 To them that 
are without law, as 
without law, (being 
not without law to 
God, but under the 
law to Christ,) that I 
might gain them that 
are without law. 

in the same sense with the simple verb ^pao/xaj. As in Plato, 
Epit. 8. ovk ofiug KHTa,KsxfY!Ta, SW£e£j he did not use the gift rightly. 
Or if the word must signify abuse, then the phrase l^ovo-lx, must 
mean the power he had over himself, not over those he preached 
to, as in chap. vii. 37- 

* See Acts xvii. 22. to the end. 

f Ver. 21. To7; ahofiosfs To them that are ivithout law. "Avo/uo? may 
here signify either an unconverted Gentile living without the belief 
of any true revelation j or a converted one that lived without the 
Jewish law. I thought it requisite to express both senses. 


22 To the weak 
became I as weak, 
that I might gain the 
weak : I am made all 
things to all men, 
that I might by all 
means save some. 

23 And this I do 
for the Gospel's sake, 
that I might be par- 
takerthereof with you. 

24 Know ye not 
that they which run 
in a race run all, 
but one receiveth the 
prize ? So run, that ye 
may obtain. 

<25 And every man 
that striveth for the 
mastery, is temperate 
in all things. Now 
they do it to obtain a 
corruptiblecrown, but 
we an incorruptible *. 

22 For the sake of such Christians A. D. 57 

as are weak in understanding, or in 

danger to be prejudiced and misled, in 

the cases of indifferent things, I volun- 
tarily refrain the use of such things, for 
fear of vexing their consciences, or dis- 
couraging them in their main principles. 
Thus by a prudent and just compliance 
with all, I strive to gain upon as many 
as I possibly can. 

23 And all this I do for the better 
promotion of the Gospel religion, in 
hopes, and for a more absolute assurance, 
of enjoying the great and special pro- 
mises of its future rewards. 

24 In which practice I endeavour to 
imitate the racers in the Grecian games 
celebrated among you. For they, you 
know, run with the utmost vigour, every 
one hoping to come first at the goal, 
and win the prize. Follow you my ex- 
ample, and be as earnest in your Chris- 
tian duty, as if but one of you could 
obtain the promised reward ; though 
you are all sure of it, upon your sincere 

25 In those games, you know also, 
the wrestlers and curlers prepare their 
bodies beforehand for the combat, by 
strict diet and discipline, and at last 
get nothing but a crown of bays or 
olive, with popular applauses, for their 
pains. How much more then should 
Christians exercise all prudent self-de- 
nial and mortification, upon the motive 
of an eternal crown of glory and hap- 
piness # ? 

* Ver. 25. Seneca has a famous passage very much like this of 
St. Paul. " Athletae quantum plagarum ore, quantum toto corpore 
" excipiunt? Ferunt tamen omne tormentum gloriae cupiditate: 
" nee tantum quia pugnant, ista patiuntur, sed ut pugnent. Ex- 
" ercitatio ipsa tormentum est. Nos quoque evincamus omnia, 
" quorum praemium non corona, nee palma est, nee tubicen prae- 
" dicationi nominis nostri, silentium faciens ; sed virtus, et fir- 
" mitas animi, et pax in ceterum parta, si semel in aliqiio certa- 
" mine debellata fortuna est." Epist. 78. edit. Lipsii. 

z 3 




D. 57. 26 This is my practice : I run the 

course of my apostleship with the same 

caution and earnestness as your racers 
keep their line, and stretch toward the 
prize. Thus I fight against all opposi- 
tion, not in jest, as your combatants are 
wont to do beforehand for mere trial 
and exercise ; but I am always in 

27 Striving to master all adversaries, 
and get the entire conquest over my- 
self, that while I teach others the way 
to true happiness, I may be the more 
absolutely sure myself not to come short 
of it. 

26 I therefore so 
run, not as uncertain- 
ly : so fight I, not as 
one that beateth the 
air : 

27 But I keep un- 
der my body, and 
bring it into subjec- 
tion : lest that by any 
means when I have 
preached to others, I 
myself should be a 
cast-away *. 


The apostle returns to the question of chap. viii. about the partaking of 
idol entertainments. Answers the plea of such as frequented them, 
shewing the danger of it from the example of divine punishments 
upon the Jewish church for the like practices ; and the inconsistency 
of paying any respect to idols, with the sacrament and worship of the 
Christian religion. Meats consecrated to idols were often feasted on 
at private entertainments, and even sold in the markets. Some Jew- 
ish converts made great scruples of eating such meats. The apostle 
solves those doubts, and gives them rules of behaviour in such cases. 

1 XIUT to return to the question 
-*-^ about the lawfulness or fitness 
of Christians being present at idol en- 
tertainments. I perceive some would 
persuade you, that as you are Chris- 
tians, and are now the true church and 
peculiar people of God, God will dis- 
pense with you for it, and you need not 
fear his displeasure. Whereas you 
ought to conclude the quite contrary, 
from the very case of the ancient Israel- 
ites, who were once the true church, 


X brethren, I 
would not that ye 
should be ignorant, 
how that all our fathers 
were under the cloud, 
and all passed through 
the sea ; 

* Ver. 27. A cast-away, ^Ui^oc, not proof, not agreeable to the 
measure or standard I am to be proved by. 


2 And were all 
baptized unto Moses 
in the cloud, and in 

the sea ; 

3 And did all eat 
the same * spiritual 
meat ; 

4 And did all drink 
the same spiritual 
drink : (for they 
drank of that spiritual 
rock f that followed 
them : and that rock 
was Christ.) 

5 But with many 
of them God was not- 
well pleased : for they 
were overthrown in 
the wilderness. 

6 Now these things 
v/ere our examples, to 
the intent we should 

owned and declared by God to be so, by A. D. 57. 

their deliverance from Egypt under the 

cover of his cloud of glory, and their 
miraculous passage through the Red 

2 For that miracle of thecloud and the 
sea, as it was a token of God's receiving 
that people into his peculiar service and 
protection, and an occasion of their be- 
lieving in, and professing him as their 
God and Saviour ; was the same thing 
then to them, as our baptism now is to 

3, 4 In like manner, the water that 
came out of the rock, and the manna 
that descended from heaven, may be 
said to be * figures of Christ ; that is, 
they saved the Israelites from the perils 
of hunger and thirst, and miraculously 
confirmed and assured them of their 
being God's chosen people: as, on the 
other side, we Christians, by embracing 
the doctrine and religion of Christ, are 
said to partake of the true manna, the 
bread of life, and to drink of the living 
water, John vi. 33, 35, 48, 51. 

5 And notwithstanding they were 
thus the covenanted people of God, (and 
in some degree of Christ too,) yet had 
they no dispensation to sin. For the 
very persons thus received into the di- 
vine covenant, were, for their transgres- 
sions, destroyed in the wilderness, and 
never saw the promised land. 

6 A plain warning to us Christians, 
that if they were so severely punished 
for their sinful and ungoverned incli- 

* See the note on ver. 1 1 . 

f See John vi. where the sense in which Christ calls himself 
the bread of life, #c. is most rightly paraphrased by Dr. Clarke, ac- 
cording to the explications of the judicious Dr. Jackson, and the 
excellent Dr. Claget, who have sufficiently demonstrated, that these 
kind of expressions cannot be taken in a sacramental sense, but are 
intended to signify in general, the religion of Christ, and men's faith 
in it. 

Z 4 




A. D. 57. nations, we can never expect to be in- 
dulged in any such irregularities. 

7 Have a care then of shewing the 
least religious respect to heathen idols, 
or of drawing others into it: remember 
how the Israelites were served for eating 
of the feast of the golden calf, and then 
rising up * and dancing to the honour 
of it, (Exod. xxii.) and committing 
fornication among one another. 

8 And take heed, lest by your for- 
ward and unwary compliance, you be 
not drawn into those unclean practices 
that accompany these heathen feasts. 
Remember what betel the Israelites for 
their lewdness at the sacrifices of Baal- 
Peor, (Numb. xxv. 3, .9, 18.) when a 
thousand of them vcere slain by the 

judges f, and twenty-three thousand more 
by the revenging hand of God, 

9 Do not therefore provoke Christ, 
as they provoked the Lord, and were 
abundance of them destroyed by ser- 
pents. (Numb. xxi. 5, 6".)* 

10 Nor murmur against the true 
apostles of Christ, for debarring you 
from these needless gratifications, as 
they murmured against Moses and 
Aaron, and were many of them cut off 
by the destroying angel. (Numb, xiv.) 

11 These are sufficient examples 
from God's dealings with his former 
church of the Jews, to warn us his 
church now under the last | and great 
dispensation of the Gospel from any the 
like miscarriages. 

not lust after evil 
things, as they also 

7 Neither be ye 
idolaters, as were some 
of them : as it is writ- 
ten, The people sat 
down to eat and drink, 
and rose up to play. 

8 Neither let us 
commit fornication, 
as some of them com- 
mitted, and fell in one 
day three and twenty 

9 Neither let us 
tempt Christ as some 
of them also tempted, 
and were destroyed of 

10 Neither mur- 
mur ye, as some of 
them also murmured, 
and were destroyed of 
the destroyer. 

] 1 Now all these 
things happened unto 
them for ensamples : 
and they are written 
for our admonition, 
upon whom % the ends 
of the world are come. 

\ er. /. IW«f, And rose up to play, i. e. to dance to it 1 feasting 
and dancing being the ancient usages in idolatrous worship. But 
the word also directly signifies fornication, which was so much 
practised in idolatrous worship. 

t Ver. 8. Note, The paraphrase reconciles this verse with that 
ot JNumb. xxv 9. agreeably to the opinion of all the most judicious 
interpreters. See my paraphrase upon that place. 

X Ver. 11. Ta TiXq 

czlvwv, The ends of the world, i. e. the end 


12 Wherefore let 
him that thinketh he 
standeth, take heed 
lest he fall. 

13 There hath no 
temptation taken you, 
but such as is common 
to man : but God is 
faithful, who will not 
suffer you to he tempt- 
ed above what ye are 
able j but will with 
the temptation also 
make a way to escape, 
that ye may be able to 
bear it. 

14 Wherefore, my 
dearly beloved, flee 
from idolatry. 

15 I speak as to 
wise men : judge ye 
what I say. 



The cup 
bless, is it not 
communion of 
blood of Christ ? 
bread which we break, 
is it not the commu- 
nion of the body of 
Christ ? 


12 Wherefore let no Christian pre- A. D. 57. 

sume, that his being of the true church, — 

and in covenant with God, will secure 
him from the punishment of these sins. 
He may fall into these crimes without 
due care, and then he is sure of the 
punishment due to them, for all this 

13, 14 And though you maybe hard 
pressed, and ill treated, to make you 
comply with these heathen customs, yet 
consider it is no more than what is na- 
tural for you to expect from people 
bigotted to contrary principles, and sup- 
ported by a powerful majority. But 
stand to your profession, and keep a 
good conscience, and God will enable 
you to go through all those difficulties. 
Stand out then courageously against 
their temptations to so vile a sin. 

15 Those new teachers that encou- 
rage you to these dangerous practices, 
make great pretences to wisdom and 
reason. If then they be indeed good 
reasoners, let them weigh the following 
argument against them, viz. 

16 You all allow, that the reception 
of the bread and wine in the Christian 
sacrament is a token and profession of 
our faith in, and communion with, Jesus 
Christ, as our Lord and Saviour, whose 
body was broken, and his blood shed 
for our redemption and salvation ; and 
in commemoration of which we thus 
eat and drink. 

of the ages, the last age and dispensation ; or else the completion 
of the types and figures of former ages. The first seems the most 
natural sense. For though the things here spoken of are said to 
be two*, types, yet they are not so in the same sense as the ceremo- 
nials of the law, or many other transactions recorded in the Old 
Testament, are understood to be. They are here meant only as 
bearing some resemblance in some certain determinate point, viz. 
" That disobedient Christians under the Gospel will as surely be 
" punished, as were the disobedient Israelites under the laic" 




57. 17 And that by our eating all of one 
— loaf of bread, and drinking all of the 
same sacred cup, we own and acknow- 
ledge ourselves members of his church, 
united into one Christian society, the 
body whereof he is the head, in memo- 
rial of whom, and to whose honour, we 
perform this duty. 

18 In like manner, under the Jewish 
church, the priests and those people that 
eat of the peace-offerings that were first 
consecrated to God at the altar, did 
thereby declare themselves to be in 
communion with God, as his church 
and worshippers, whose altar it was. 
By the same reason therefore, your 
partaking of an idol feast, supposes or 
will be supposed, and interpreted by 
others, that you hold a communion 
with the false god, and with those that 
worship him. 

19, 20 Not that any of those heathen 
deities have the least divinity in them; 
for it is certain they have none, being 
only imaginary demons, or the delu- 
sions of evil spirits ; nor can any thing 
consecrated to them be, in itself, of any 
virtue to benefit their worshippers, or 
defile you. I only say, that all kind of 
feasting upon sacrifices, supposes a fel- 
lowship and communion with him they 
are consecrated to, be it a true or false 
god. And I would not for the world 
have you hold communion with demons 
or wicked spirits, nor give occasion to 
others to think that you do so. 

21 So that it is impossible you can 
be worthy communicants in the Chris- 
tian sacrament, and partake of sacrifices 
offered to heathen demons at the same 
time. For the very design of Chris- 
tianity was to abolish and destroy all 
demon and idolatrous worship. 

22 Take heed how you provoke God, 
who is jealous of his honour, and irre- 
sistible in his power. 

17 For we being 
many are one bread, 
and one body : for we 
are all partakers of 
that one bread. 

18 Behold Israel 
after the flesh : are 
not they which eat of 
the sacrifices partakers 
of the altar ? 

19 What say I then ? 
that the idol is any 
thing, or that which 
is offered in sacrifice 
to idols is any thing? 

20 But I say, that 
the things which the 
Gentiles sacrifice, they 
sacrifice to devils, and 
not to God : and I 
would not that ye 
should have fellowship 
with devils. 

21 Ye cannot drink 
the cup of the Lord, 
and the cup of devils : 
ye cannot be partakers 
of the Lord's table, 
and of the table of 

22 Do we provoke 
the Lord to jealousy ? 
are we stronger than 


23 All things are 
lawful for me, but all 
things are not expe- 
dient : all things are 
lawful for me, but all 
things edify not. 

24 Let no man seek 
his own : but every 
man another's wealth. 

25 Whatsoever is 
sold in the shambles, 
that eat, asking no 
question for consci- 
ence sake. 

26 For the earth 
is the Lord's, and the 
fulness thereof. 

27 If any of them 
that believe not bid 
you to a feast, and ye 
be disposed to go, 
whatsoever is set be- 
fore you, eat, asking 
no question for con- 
science sake. 

28 But if any man 
say unto you, This is 
offered in sacrifice un- 
to idols, eat not for 
his sake that shewed 
it, and for conscience 
sake. The earth is 

23 And as to that plea, that if you A. D. 57 

have no religious respect at all to the 

heathen idol, there can be no harm in 
it ; consider that though, with such a 
circumstance, it had no absolute evil in 
it to yourselves, yet in respect to others, 
it may be very inconvenient and danger- 
ous ; it may embolden the more igno- 
rant Gentile converts to keep their re- 
mains of veneration to idols ; and it 
may vex and prejudice the Jewish 
Christians against you, and the Chris- 
tian religion for your sakes, and so do 
mischief to the whole church. 

24 No Christians, in things never so 
indifferent, ought to consult barely their 
own humour and gratification, but to 
be tender toward the weakness, and 
consult the good of their fellow Chris- 

25, 26* Farther, it is usual, I know, 
for some of the meals that are conse- 
crated in heathen temples, to be after- 
ward sold in the markets. And the 
Jewish Christians may be very scrupu- 
lous about buying or eating them. Now, 
as they cannot know these from any 
other meats, they are not bound to ask 
scrupulous questions about them, but 
may buy and eat them as the ordinary 
food that Providence has provided for 

27 And whenever a heathen neigh- 
bour invites you to an entertainment at 
his house, never enquire, out of con- 
science, whether any part of his enter- 
tainment had been dedicated to an idol, 
but eat like others, without any scruple. 

2S But if he that invites you, gives 
you notice beforehand, that such or 
such a dish has been consecrated to 
an idol, and so expects, that if you eat 
of it, you in some measure own the 
false god, and countenance his worship; 
then you must not by any means touch 




A. D. 67. it ; your conscience is concerned to 

•• -shew him your utter aversion to all 

heathen worship. Nor need you eat of 
it, since Providence has furnished out 
sufficient to satisfy your appetite with- 
out it. 

29, 30 When I say your conscience 
is concerned, I do not mean it so much 
of your own, as that of the person that 
invited you, and of your fellow Chris- 
tians, who may be either present with 
you at the table, or may hear of your 
behaviour there. For I may allow, if 
it were not for prejudicing and offend- 
ing them, the thing itself might have 
no evil in it. For if you thankfully fed 
upon it only like other common food 
provided by Providence for us, there is 
no true reason you should be censured 
and condemned for it *. 

31 But as the case is, it is your duty 
to use your liberties in these, and all 
other matters, so prudently and ten- 
derly, as to shew you have the common 
interest and credit of your Christian 
religion always and most at heart. 

32 Endeavour not any way to vex 
and prejudice the Jewish Christians, 
who you know have so utter an aversion 
to any thing than can be possibly con- 
strued into idol worship ; and give not 
the least encouragement to the young 
Gentile converts to retain any regard 
to heathen idols ; nor, finally, do any 
thing whatever, that may be a means to 
pervert or discourage any member of 
the church from their Christian profes- 

33 But imitate my example, who, 

the Lord's, and the 
fulness thereof. 

29 Conscience, I 
say, not thine own, 
but of the others : for 
why is my liberty 
judged of another 
man's conscience ? 

30 For, if I by 
grace be a partaker, 
why am I evil spoken 
of for that, for which 
I give thanks ? 

31 Whether there- 
fore ye eat or drink, 
or whatsoever ye do, 
do all to the glory of 

32 Give none of- 
fence, neither to the 
Jews, nor to the Gen- 
tiles, nor to the church 
of God. 

33 Even as I please 

* Ver. 30. I take this to be the intended sense and connection 
of these two verses, though interpreters generally give it another 
turn, viz. For why should I use mij liberty in eating so imprudently, as 
to be liable to the censure and prejudice of others '/ Let the critical 
reader take his choice. 


all men in all things, 
not seeking mine own 
profit, but the profit 
of many, that they 
may be saved. 

as far as ever I can, restrain my own A. D. 57 

humour, and conform myself to all per- 

sons, to keep them the steadier to their 


The next question proposed to the apostle, viz. about the decent and 
modest behaviour of women that were at any time inspired to pray, 
or sing divine hymns in the public assemblies of worship. It seems 
they took the freedom at such times to appear uncovered, by laying 
aside their veils, which in those countries were worn as a token of the 
modesty and subjection of that sex. The apostle confirms the natural 
superiority of the one, and the subjection of the other sex ; and the 
fitness and decency of preserving the external signs and tokens of both ; 
but especially in the public assemblies. This chapter also contains a 
severe reproof of their partial and irreverent manner of celebrating 
their love feasts at the holy Sacrament ; by which they despised the 
poor, scandalized the church, and profaned the holy ordinance. He 
shews them the end and design of its original institution, and the 
danger of so irreverent and unworthy a manner of communicating 
in it. 

1 "13 E ye followers 
of me, even as 
I also am of Christ. 

2 Now I praise 
you, brethren, that 
you remember me in 
all things, and keep 
the ordinances, as I 
delivered them to 

3 But I would have 
you know, that the 
head of every man is 
Christ ; and the head 
of the woman is the 
man ; and the head of 
Christ is God. 

1 T^OLLOW my example * then, in 
-*- condescending to the weaknesses 
of your fellow Christians; wherein I 
imitate no less pattern than that of Jesus 
Christ himself. 

c 2 I am always ready to commend 
and praise you, dear brethren, for every 
instance in which you observe the rules 
and directions I give you, relating to 
your conduct in the public assemblies 
for divine worship. 

3 And as to your question about the 
behaviour of women that are sometimes 
inspired to pray* or sing divine hymns 
in your assemblies, Whether they ought 
to keep their veil on at those, as well as 
other times, as a token of their submission 

* Chap. x. 33. And note, that this verse plainly belongs to that 
last verse of the foregoing chapter, and ought by no means to be 
separated from it. 




D. 57. to the better sex : let me observe to you, 
that as Christ himself acts in subordi- 
nation to God the Father, and all man- 
kind is subject to Christ as their Head 
and immediate Governor ; so was it the 
original design of God, that women 
should be subject to men, and own them 
as their heads and superiors. 

4 Now, you know, the man's going 
with his head open and unveiled, and 
the woman's wearing a veil, is an ex- 
ternal sign of the subordination of the 
one to the other. So that for a man to 
perform any sacred office in public, in 
a garb that betokens subjection, would 
be a dishonour to Christ his Head, by 
whose authority he is made the chief 
creature and lord of this lower world. 

5 On the other side, for a woman to 
perform any thing in public, with her 
head unveiled, is a kind of disrespect to 
man, her proper head and lord under 
Christ, by throwing off the tokens of 
her subjection. And she might as well 
cut off her hair, or wear it short, which 
you know is the proper dress of the su- 
perior sex in your country. 

6 And as it would be a ridiculous 
and immodest thing to do that at this, 
as well as any other juncture ; for the 
same reason she ought to consider her 
sex, and be veiled. 

7 Whereas for a man to be open- 
faced, at a public performance, is need- 
ful, as a sign of his being the honour- 
able image and representative of God, 
in his dominion over this lower world ; 
and has the female sex put under him, 
as his image and representative, from 
whom she was at first derived *. 

8, 9 For man was not taken from 

4 Every man pray- 
ing or prophesying, 
having his head co- 
vered, dishonoureth 
his head. 

5 But every wo- 
man that prayeth or 
prophesieth with her 
head uncovered, dis- 
honoureth her head ; 
for that is even all 
one as if she were 

6 For if the wo- 
man be not covered, 
let her also be shorn : 
but if it be a shame 
for a woman to be 
shorn or shaven, let 
her be covered. 

7 For a man in- 
deed ought not to co- 
ver his head, foras- 
much as he is the 
image and glory of 
God : but the woman 
is the glory of the 

8 For the man is 

* Ver. 7. A&|a stv^o?, The glory of the man, i. e. his image, 
whereof man is the original. The same as &|* «»2 iUm, in the pre- 

ceding words. 


not of the woman ; 
but the woman of the 

9 Neither was the 
man created for the 
woman ; but the wo- 
man for the man. 

10 For this cause 
ought the woman to 
have power on her 
head, * because of the 

1J Nevertheless, 
neither is the man 
without the woman, 
neither the woman 
without the man, in 
the Lord. 

12 For as the wo- 
man is of the man, 
even so is the man 
also by the woman ; 
but all things of God. 

13 Judge in your- 

the rib of the woman, but she from his A. D. 5~ 

rib. Nor was he made for a help-meet • 

for her, but she for him; and so was 
intended of God to be in subjection to 

10 And beside the argument drawn 
from the original creation of both sexes, 
you know and allow that the angels, 
good and bad, are invisibly present in 
your Christian assemblies of worship; 
and therefore women ought carefully to 
preserve every part of a modest and 
humble behaviour there, out of reve- 
rence to the one, and for fear of the 
wicked suggestions and temptations of 
the other *. Moreover, the presence of 
the bishops and pastors in the congre- 
gation ought to cause the women to be 
veiled out of reverence to them ; for they 
are called the angels of the churches, 
Revel, ii. 1, 8, 12, 18. and hi. 1, 7, 14. 

11, 12 But what I have said about 
the natural reasons for subjection of 
women to men, I would not have inter- 
preted into any right of an imperious 
dominion of the one, or any slavish or 
base subjection of the other. No, by 
the wise appointment of God, they 
were both made for a mutual comfort, 
love, and blessing; as woman was first 
taken out of man, so man was ever after 
propagated by woman. God has ren- 
dered them reciprocal instruments of 
each other's production ; and they ought 
to pay their reciprocal duties and af- 
fections cheerfully and kindly. 

13 To return then to the main argu- 

* Ver. 10. Ai dyysXovc, Because of the angels. Whether of the two, 
viz. the good or wicked angels, the apostle means in this passage ; 
or whether indeed he meant angels, properly so called, as present 
at Christian assemblies, at all, is a most difficult point absolutely 
to determine. I have therefore given the two senses which are 
most commonly received by the best interpreters, and so leave it. 




A. D. 57. merit. Consider with yourselves, whe- 

ther it be any way decent for a woman, 

because God may sometimes please to 
inspire her to pray or sing in public, 
to take upon her to throw off her veil, 
and as it were to disown her subjection 
to mankind. 

14 Is there not something in the con- 
stant custom of all nations, agreeable to 
the very design of nature, for men to 
dress in a distinct manner from women ? 
And for them to do otherwise, is it not 
an effeminate and shameful thing ? 

15 As this therefore would be un- 
manly in the one sex, so for women to 
appear in the garb of men, would be 
bold and assuming. Her hair and her 
veil are the tokens of her modesty and 
subjection : nature and custom require 
the distinction, and you ought by no 
means to suffer the breach of any na- 
tural decency in your religious assem- 
blies especially. 

1 6 And if any of your new teachers 
are resolved to be contentious, and de- 
fend these practices, all I shall further 
say to them at present is, that they en- 
courage what is contrary to the practice 
of all the Christian churches that I have 
seen or heard of. 

17 To come therefore to another 
point, in which I am sorry to say I can- 
not commend, but must highly blame 
you, for a very gross irregularity ; I 
mean in your love-feasts at the holy 

18 I am informed, that at your as- 
semblies, even for this most sacred and 
solemn celebration, you fall into parties 
and distinctions. 

19 It is true, indeed, God is pleased 
for wise and good reasons to * suffer 

selves : is it comely 
that a woman pray 
unto God uncovered ? 

14 Doth not even 
nature itself tench you, 
that if a man have 
long hair, it is a shame 
unto him ? 

15 But if a woman 
have long hair, it is 
a glory to her : for 
her hair is given her 
for a covering. 

16 But if any man 
seem to be contenti- 
ous, we have no such 
custom, neither the 
churches of God. 

17 Now in this 
that I declare unto you 
I praise you not, that 
ye come together 
not for the better, but 
for the worse. 

18 For first of all, 
when ye come toge- 
ther in the church, I 
hear that there be 
divisions among you; 
and I partly believe 

19 For there must 
be also heresies among 

Ver. 19. Ae7 ya,p 0* of Soxipu, For there must be heresies, that they, 



you, that they which 
are approved, may be 
made manifest among 

20 When ye come 
together therefore in- 
to one place, this is 
not to eat the Lord's 

21 For in eating, 
every one taketh be- 
fore other his own 
supper : and one is 
hungry, and another 
is drunken. 

these effects of wicked, and designing, A. D. .*>' 
and factious men in his church: and 


is this advantage from it among 

22 What, have ye 
not houses to eat and 
to drink in ? or de- 
spise ye the church 
of God, and shame 
them that have not? 
What shall 1 say to 
you ? shall I praise 
you in this ? I praise 
you not. 

23 For I have re- 

others, that they serve as a foil to make 
the virtues of all truly pious and peace- 
able Christians to shine the brighter 
and more distinguishing. 


£0 But you ought all to consider, 
how contrary such a temper and prac- 
tice is to the design and end of this holy 

21 For whereas it is a custom among 
you, for every one, according to his 
abilities, to bring provisions along with 
him for a common entertainment ; I 
find now the richer and better sort of 
you are wont to get those of their own 
party together, and fall upon their pro- 
visions, feasting even to excess, while 
the mean and poorer sort are neglected, 
and return home hungry and thirsty as 
they came; directly contrary to the very 
design of your feast, which was chiefly 
to feed the poor ; and to the very 
nature of the Christian sacrament, 
which is to promote Christian com m u- 
nion, love, and unity. 

22 If feasting be your business, your 
private houses are the proper places 
for it. And to pretend to meet in 
public, at a feast of religious love and 
charity, and then to cabal, fall upon 
your own provisions, and neglect the 
poor, that have an equal right with your- 
selves, is a dishonour to the Christian 
church, and a profanation of its holy 
sacrament; and which 1 am bound most 
severely to reprove. 

23, 2'I, 25 And if you remember the 

Ss-c. That h: yap eW», ought to be rendered, there will be, is ch 
from abundant passages, Matt. xxiv. 6". xxvi. 54. Mark viii. 3. 
Acts i. 16. and elsewhere. And then ha must not be rend 
casually, but eventually. And so by them, they that are approve 
be made more manifest, 

VOL. I. A A 




A. D. 57- account I gave you of our Saviour's 

own institution of this sacrament, and 

compare it at the least with your pre- 
sent practice, you will soon be convinced 
how disagreeable the one is to the other. 
I told you, that he took bread and wine, 
and in a most solemn manner conse- 
crated them into the symbols and repre- 
sentations of his own body and blood 
that redeemed us, and were the seals 
and tokens of his new and gracious 
covenant with mankind ; distributing; 
them to each of his apostles, and ap- 
pointing this as a standing institution 
in his church, for a religious memorial 
of his death and sufferings for us. 

26 For as the paschal lamb was eaten 
\)V the Jews-, as a memorial and repre- 
sentation of their deliverance from 
Egyptian bondage : so by eating this 
bread, and drinking of this cup, you 
Christians do devoutly * commemorate 
your deliverance from sin and death, by 
the death and sufferings of Christ, and 
profess * your solemn belief and confi- 
dence in it; which is to continue a con- 
stant institution of his church, till his 
last appearance to the future judgment. 

27 And therefore whoever of you 
thus uses it to purposes of feasting and 
faction, abuses the very design, and is 
guilty of profaning so sacred and so- 
lemn an institution. 

28 Let every man therefore duly con- 
sider the true purposes it was intended 

ceived of the Lord 
that which also I de- 
livered unto you, 
That the Lord Jesus, 
the same night in 
which he was be- 
trayed, took bread ; 

24 And when he 
had given thanks, 
he brake it, and said, 
Take, eat ; this is 
my body, which is 
broken for you : this 
do in remembrance of 

25 After the same 
manner also Jw took 
the cup, when he 
had supped, saying, 
This cup is the new 
testamen t i n my blood : 
this do ye, as oft as 
ye drink it, in remem- 
brance of me. 

26 For as often as 
ye eat this bread, and 
drink this cup, ye do 
shew the Lord's death 
till he come. 

27 Wherefore, who- 
soever shall eat this 
bread, and drink this 
cup of the Lord un- 
worthily, shall be 
guilty of the body and 
blood of the Lord. 

28 But let a man 
examine himself, and 

* Ver. 26. Kotrayyi^Xnt, Ye do shew forth, or represent and declare, 
the Lord's death. 


so let him eat of that 
bread, and drink of 
that cup. 

29 For he that eat- 
eth and drinketh un- 
worthily, eateth and 
drinketh damnation 
to himself, not dis- 
cerning the Lord's 

30 For this cau^e 
many are weak and 
sickly among you, and 
many sleep. 

3 1 For if we would 
judge ourselves, we 
should not be judged. 

for, and compare them with his own A. D. 5' 

temper and behaviour, before he pn- 

sutnes to attend so religious a cekbra- 

32 But when we 
are judged, we are 
chastened of the Lord, 
*that we should not be 
condemned with the 

33 Wherefore, 
brethren, when 



come together to eat, 
tarry one for another. 

34 And if any man 
hunger, let him eal 
at home ; that ye 
come not together 
unto condemnation. 
And the rest will I 
set in order when I 


99 For whoever uses i; otherwise, 
deserves a severe punishment, as a con- 
temptuous profaner of the Lord's body 
and blood, by handling the holy sym- 
bols of it as common and ordinary 

30 And indeed God has already 
shewn he will punish such profaners ; 
for some of you are already struck with 
sickness for it, of whicli several have 

31 And if any of you, that are not 
yet punished in so remarkable a man* 
ner, would avoid the stroke, let them 
timely consider, and reform their prac- 

32 And let those that lie under their 
present punishment, remember that 
God lays it on them for a fatherly and 
merciful correction, touring them to a 
sense of their duty, and by their reform- 
ation to prevent their final * condemn- 
ation with obstinate unbelievers at the 
day of judgment. 

33 Let what I have said then, per- 
suade you all to eat this solemn feast, 
in a sober, unanimous, and charitable 

34 Eat for hunger, or for mere plea- 
sure, at home, but do not do thus in 
the church assemblies, for fear of a just 
judgment upon you. As to your other 
questions about this matter, 1 will decide 
them when I see you. 

* Ver. 32. "b* p$ *«t*x?*9S:^v, that we should not be condemned 
with the world. This is a demonstration, that the word Keif**, in 
the 29th verse, does not signify eternal and cetlam damnation. 

A A 9 





The next thing the Corinthians desired to be resolved in, was the case 
of spiritual gifts, and of persons extraordinarily endowed with them. 
The Jewish zealots, retaining still too great a veneration for the Mo- 
saieal law, concluded no gifts of the Holy Spirit were ever conferred 
upon any Gentile Christian, so long as he continued un circumcised. 
On the other hand, the Gentile as well as Jewish converts were too 
apt to magnify their own gifts, and despise those of others. The apo- 
stle corrects these mistakes. Lays it down as a rule, that whatever 
extraordinary gift was exercised, or miracle wrought, for a testimony 
of the true Christian religion, and for promoting and advancing its 
heavenly doctrines, was a true miracle, and a truly divine gift, be 
the Christian that exercised it Jewish or Gentile. On the contrary, 
whatever was wrought or said to invalidate the Christian faith, could 
be no better than a false and diabolical delusion. He shews all spi- 
ritual gifts to be derived from one and the same Holy Spirit, directed 
ail to one and the same end, viz. the good of the Christian church; 
all spiritual persons being useful and beneficial in their several kinds, 
and therefore none are to be undervalued or despised. This argu- 
ment is illustrated from an apt comparison taken from the human 
bod i/, and its members. 

l. D. 57. 1 "\7^0UR next enquiry is about the 

— ■*■ true nature of spiritual gifts, 

and the clue behaviour of such persons 
as are endowed with them. In which, 
because I find there are great debates 
among your Jewish and Gentile con- 
verts, I shall lay down some rules for 
your right information in that point. 

2 That the Gentile Christians then 
may have a just and modest esteem of the 
gifts they are qualified withal, they 
ought to remember themselves but just 
recovered from their state of heathen 
ignorance and idolatry, newly made the 
people of God, and so ought by no 
means to undervalue the Jewish Chris- 
tians, who have all along been his pecu- 
liar church. 

3 And whereas the Jewish zealots are 
wont to assume all spiritual gifts to 
themselves, and would conclude, no 
Christian, while he remains uncircum- 
cised, to be worthy of any such endow- 

1 "TV'OW concerning 
spiritual gifts, 
brethren, I would not 
have you ignorant. 

2 Ye know that ye 
were Gentiles, car- 
ried away unto these 
dumb idols, even as 
ye were led. 

3 Wherefore I give 
you to understand, 
that no man speaking 
by the Spirit of God 
calleth Jesus accursed : 


and that no man can 
say that Jesus is the 
Lord, but by the Holy 

4 Now there are 
diversities of gifts, 
but the same Spirit. 

5 And there are 
differences of admini- 
strations,, but the same 

6 And there are di- 
versities of operations, 
but it is the same God, 
which worketh all in 

7 But the mani- 
festation of the Spirit 
is given to every man 
to profit withal. 

8 For to one is 
given by the Spirit 
the word of wisdom ; 

ment, I now assure you, that whatever A. D. 57 

Jew denies Christ to be the true Mes 

siah, and would denounce him a false 
prophet, let him pretend to what gifts 
and miracles he will, they arc no better 
than diabolical delusions * and conjura- 
tions. And whatever Gentile convert 
truly embraces the Christian faith, and 
confirms it by miracles, those miracles 
could never be wrought but by the 
Spirit of God, whose true religion it is ; 
it being absolutely inconsistent to ima- 
gine the devil would lend his power 
toward confirming a religion so oppo- 
site to his own kingdom f. 

4 Then as to the prudent anil modest 
behaviour of all gifted persons, for pre- 
venting all disorder and divisions, let 
them consider, that though some en- 
dowments may be greater than others, 
yet they are all equally derived from 
the same original, viz. the Holy Spirit. 

5 And though there be a variety of 
"offices in the church, whereof some are 
superior to others, yet all officers act 
under one and the same Lord Jesus 
Christ, and receive their commissions 
equally from him only. 

G And so again, all the several de- 
grees of endowments that qualify them 
for their several functions, are owing to 
the same God, for whose service they 
are bestowed. 

7 For none of these extraordinary 
gifts are conferred upon any of you for 
his own private advantage, honour, or 
applause, but for the good and benefit 
of the whole church. 

8, 9, 10 Thus, for instance, some are 
endowed with an exact understanding 
of the true nature and design of the 

* He speaks of the exorcists or conjurors among the Jews, of 
which see Acts xix. 13. and Dr. Lightfoot, Heb. et Talmud. Exerc. 
on this place. 

f See Matt. xii. 25, 2(5. See also and compare 1 John iv. 1, 2, 3. 

A A 3 




A. D. 57. Christian religion * in general; others 

with the true sense of several particular 

prophecies of the Old Testament, for 
explaining that religion. Some are 
blest with a very high degree of faith, 
as a qualification for performing several 
extraordinary things at particular junc- 
tures, or such a full and firm persuasion 
of mind, as to the truth of what they 
preached, as to enable them to deliver 
it with authority, and without hesita- 
tion ; others with the special power of 
miraculously curing diseases. Some 
are enabled to work miracles of several 
kinds ; others are inspired to foretel 
future j things, to explain Scripture 
f doctrines, and sing divine f hymns. 
Some are empowered to discern the very 
hearts of other men, and to distinguish 
between true and false prophets ; others 
to speak languages they never learned ; 
and others to interpret those languages 
to the people, as fast, and as readily as 
they speak them. 

11 And thus these various endow- 
ments come all from the same Holy 
Spirit, given to such persons, and in 
such measures as he sees them best ca- 
pable to improve to the church's bene- 
fit ; and therefore are not to be used as 
arguments of pride, and self-esteem, by 
either Jewish or Gentile Christians. 

12 For the church of Christ, like the 
body natural, is composed of divers 
members, all useful and necessary in 
their kinds. 

13 And as the several members of 

to another the word 
of knowledge by the 
same Spirit : 

9 To another faith 
by the same Spirit ; 
to another the gifts of 
healing by the same 
Spirit : 

10 To another the 
working of miracles j 
to another prophecy j 
to another discerning 
of spirits ; to an- 
other divers kinds of 
tongues ; to another 
the interpretation of 

11 But all these 
worketh that one and 
the self-same Spirit, 
dividing to every man 
severally as he will. 

12 For as the bo- 
dy is one, and hath 
many members, and 
all the members of 
that one body, being 
many, are one body : 
so also is Christ. 

13 For by one Spi- 

* As the apostles especially were, ver. 28, 29. and are therefore 
placed in the first order of spiritual officers. 

f Which are the three several notions of the word prophecy in 
the Scripture writings. 


lit are we all baptized 
into one body, whe- 
ther we be Jews or 
Gentiles, whether we 
be bond or free ; and 
have been all made to 
drink into one Spirit. 

14 For the body 
is not one member, 
but many. 

15 If the foot shall 
say, Because I am not 
the hand, I am not of 
the body j is it there- 
fore not of the body ? 

16 And if the ear 
shall say, Because I 
am not the eye, I am 
not of the body ; is 
it therefore not of the 

17 If the whole 
body were an eye, 
where were the hear- 
ing ? if the whole 
were hearing;, where 
were the smelling } 

IS But now hath 
<3od set the members, 
every one of them in 
the body, as it hath 
pleased him. 

19 And if they were 
all one member, where 
were the body ? 

20 But now are they 
many members, yet 
but one body. 

the body natural, are all actuated by a. D. 57 

one and the same soul, which makes up 

the man, so by our baptismal profession 
we are all united into one Christian 
church; and, whoever of us have any 
extraordinary gifts and graces, arc en- 
dowed and actuated by one and the 
same divine Spirit, as waters flow from 
a fountain ; nourished by the same doc- 
trine ; and both Jews and Gentiles, 
master and servant, all ranks and de- 
grees of Christians, made into one spi- 
ritual body under Christ our common 

14, 15, 16 For some of us therefore 
to distinguish themselves, and despise 
and undervalue their otherwise gifted 
brethren, looks as if they thought there 
was but one member (at least but 
one valuable one) in the church's body. 
And it is as absurd, as if because the hand 
cannot walk, nor the ear see, that there- 
fore neither hand nor ear had their usi j s 
and functions as good and necessary to 
the body of man, as either the foot or 
the eye. 

17, 18 As therefore the natural body 
would have been very defective, had it 
but one of the senses instead of the five ; 
so were there no other spiritual gifts, 
but those particular ones upon which 
some of your teachers so magnify and 
extol themselves, the Christian church 
would be a very lame and imperfect so- 
ciety. Against which God has now 
most wisely provided, by such a proper 
and perfect variety of his spiritual en- 

19, 20 So that it is variety that com- 
pletes the human body, and so it does 
the Christian church; one member can 
claim its usefulness and due respect as 
well as another, because there is none 
but would be defective without it. 

a a 4 




A. D. 57. 2\ And as there is no one member 

of the human body, but what receives 

benefit and support from every one of 
the rest ; so none of your teachers, with 
their particular gifts, could ever keep 
up and promote the Christian church, 
without others to act in consort with 

c 22 And, to make the parallel per- 
fectly complete; as in the human body 
there is not the least vein, muscle, ves- 
sel, or ligament, but is in its proper 
place as useful as the biggest limb we 
have ; 

23 Nay, though some of its parts be 
called less honourable, as not being fit 
to be exposed, as the rest are, to com- 
mon view; yet even that is abundantly 
supplied by the care we take to cover 
them ; and so indeed they may be sfiid 
to have more regard and respect paid 
them than any others. 

24, 25 [Nature and Providence hav- 
ing thus provided for them all with an 
equal care, by a just supply given to 
some, of what others have no want, so 
as to leave no disagreement or partiality 
between them.] 

26 Then again, as no member of our 
bodies can be afflicted with pain, but 
the whole is out of order, the harm or 
dishonour of the one affecting the whole 
frame : 

27 So in like manner is it with you 
and your several gifts and graces. You 
all make up one church, the mystical 
body of Christ; you grow or decay, 
prosper or suffer with one another. 

21 And the eye 
cannot say unto the 
hand, I have no need 
of thee : nor again, 
the head to the feet, 
I have no need of 

22 Nay, much more 
those members of the 
body which seem to 
he more feehle, are 


23 And those mem- 
bers of the body which 
we think to be less 
honourable, upon 
these we bestow more 
abundant honour, and 
our uncomely parts 
have more abundant 

24 For our comely 
parts have no need : 
but God hath tem- 
pered the body toge- 
ther, having given 
more abundant ho- 
nour to that part 
which lacked : 

25 That there should 
be no schism in the 
body ; but that the 
members should have 
the same care one for 

26 And whether 
one member suffer, all 
the members suffer 
with it : or one mem- 
ber be honoured, all 
the members rejoice 
with it. 

27 Now ye are the 
body of Christ, and 
members in particular. 


28 And God hath 
set some in the 
church, first apostles, 
secondarily prophets, 
thirdly teachers, after 
that miracles, then 
gifts of healing, helps, 
governments, diversi- 
ties of tongues. 

29 Are all apostles ? 
are all prophets ? are 
all teachers ? are all 
workers of miracles ? 

30 Have all the 
gifts of healing? do all 
speak with tongues ? 
do all interpret ? 

31 But covet ear- 
nestly the best gifts : 
and yet shew I unto 
you a more excellent 

28 This body Christ has composed A. D. 57 

of variety of members, officers, and 

ministers,as apostles, prophets, teachers, 
workers of miracles, healers of diseases, 
governors of several kinds, with assist- 
ants under them for distribution of cha- 
rities to the poor, or for helping them 
in the work of the Gospel by any spe- 
cial gifts or peculiar talents for which 
they are remarkable, and speakers of 
divers languages. (See ver. S, 9, 10.) 

29, 30 Now, it would be no way 
proper to the nature of such a body for 
all these to exercise the same functions; 
some are fitted for one, some for an- 
other; some to govern, others to be 
governed ; and these are all excellent 
and useful in their way ; and for any to 
neglect or despise another, is to act 
against the interest and constitution of 
this body of Christ. 

31 Wherefore although you may * en- 
deavour each of you to be qualified for 
the highest degrees of these spiritual 
gifts and offices of the church ; yet re- 
member the only true way of improving 
them to their most worthy and proper 
purposes, is not to value yourselves 
upon them, but to use them to the be- 
nefit and advantage of your fellow 
Christians; as I shall now further shew 

* Ver. 31. ZuAoute h 9 But covet earnestly, or ye do covet or affect 





Charity recommended. Its excellent acts and properties, which render 
it the true end and life of all spiritual endowments, and shews it to 
be, in itself, preferable to them; and even to excel the graces of faith 
and hope. 

A. D. 57. 1 HPHE true way * then to render 

' •*■ your spiritual endowments good 

and valuable, is to use them with cha- 
rity, i. e. with a constant and sincere 
regard to God the giver of them, and 
the good of your fellow Christians, and 
the benefit of the church. For if for 
instance, I could speak all the languages 
of the earth, nay, could speak like an 
angel, and yet had no regard to God, 
and to the good of others in these im- 
provements, they would be nothing but 
empty noise and ostentation. 

2 And if I had never so clear a know- 
ledge in the Scripture-prophecies, and 
in the doctrines of the Christian reli- 
gion, and could work never so many 
miracles f to confirm the truth of them; 
yet if I improve these to my own pri- 
vate applause, without a main eye to 
the church's benefit, and the good of 
others, pursuant to the ends for which 
God bestowed his power upon me ; I 
become an insignificant person. 

3 Nay, though I should perform 
never so many external acts of charity 
to the poor, and even become a martyr 
for my religion, yet if these be done out 
of vanity and ostentation, and not from 
a pure principle of the love of God and 
of mankind^ I shall receive no advantage 
from them. 

4 This Christian charity is a most 
comprehensive and fruitful principle. It 

speak with the 
tongues of men and 
of angels, and have 
not charity, I am 
become as sounding 
brass, or a tinkling 

2 And though I 
have the gift of pro- 
phecy, and under- 
stand all mysteries, 
and all knowledge ; 
and though I have all 
faith, so that I could 
remove mountains, 
and have not charity, 
I am nothing. 

3 And though I 
bestow all my goods 
to feed the poor, and 
give my body to be 
burned, and have not 
charity, it profiteth 
me nothing. 

4 Charity suffereth 
long, and is kind : 

Chap. xii. 31. 

t Matt. vii. 22, 23. 


charity envieth not: 
charity vaunteth not 

itself, is not puffed 

5 Doth not behave 
itself unseemly, seek- 
eth not her own, is 
not easily provoked, 
thinketh no evil j 

6 Rejoiceth not in 
iniquity, but rejoiceth 
in the truth ; 

7 Beareth all things, 
believeth all things, 
hopeth all things, en- 
dureth all things. 

8 Charity never 
faileth : but whether 
there be prophecies, 
they shall fail : whe- 
ther there be tongues, 
they shall cease; whe- 
ther there be know- 
ledge, it shall vanish 

9 For we know in 
part, and we pro- 
phesy in part j 

10 Rut when that 
which is perfect is 
come, then that which 

takes in all our duty towards men, A. I). 57. 
founded in a conscientious regard to 

God, whose image man is. It obliges 
us to be gentle and benign, without all 
emulation or uneasiness at one another's 
advantages and perfections ; without 
pride, or ambition of dignity and pre- 

5 It suffers us not to insult, or be 
sharp upon the weaknesses of our bre- 
thren, or to seek our own credit at the 
expence of another man's ; keeps us 
from disgust and violent resentments at 
ill usage, and from putting the worst 
construction upon words or actions. 

G It permits us not to take pleasure 
in the slips and failings, the vices and 
frauds of our neighbours ; but makes 
us rejoice in all their good and sincere 

7 It teaches us to bear injuries, to 
cover rather than expose fillings; to 
believe and hope the best of every one, 
as long as there is any room left for a 
favourable opinion. 

8 And as this virtue thus gives life 
and efficacy to all your spiritual gifts, so 
consider how much it excels them in 
point of duration. Your inspired know- 
ledge of the Scriptures, your talents of 
speaking unlearned languages, and such 
like present endowments, will one day 
be laid aside and cease, as no further 
useful. But the love of doing good 
will be a grace that will adorn you to 
all eternity. 

9 For these present gifts of the 
Spirit are only suited and adapted to 
the present imperfect state of the church, 
and of mankind. Our best knowledge 
and abilities are but short and tem- 

10 "Whereas, in the future state of 
happiness and perfection, there will be 
an end of these more imperfect ways of 




A. D. 57- information, and gradual means of know- 
• ledge. 

1 1 And there is as much difference 
between the present and future accom- 
plishments of the mind, as there is be- 
tween the notions and behaviour of a 
child and a man. 

12 Our very best attainments and 
gifts here, being but a narrow and 
cloudy apprehension of things : but that 
of the heavenly state will be direct, 
clear, and full, like that of the angels 
and blessed spirits. 

13 Nay, and when those two admir- 
able graces of faith and hope (which are 
indeed needful for us while we continue 
in this imperfect state) shall then cease ; 
the one being turned into perfect vision, 
the other into enjoyment ; this love of 
God, and of our fellow saints, being, 
indeed, the sum and substance of all 
real virtue, of essential obligation, and 
of eternal usefulness, will continue for 
ever even in heaven itself. 

is in part shall be done 

11 When 1 was a 
child, I spake as a 
child, I understood as 
a child, I thought as 
a child : but when I 
became a man, I put 
away childish things. 

12 For now we see 
through a glass dark- 
ly ; but then face to 
face : now I know in 
part ; but then shall 
I know even as I am 

13 And now abid- 
eth faith, hope, cha- 
rity, these three ; 
but the greatest of 
these is charity. 



The apostle continues his advice to the gifted persons in their church, 
particularly with respect to their inspired performances in the public 
assemblies of divine worship. He instances in such as prayed, sung, 
or prophesied in strange languages. Orders all parts of public wor- 
ship or teaching, to be performed in a language known to the congre- 
gation, or else interpreted to them. Shews the vanity of speaking a 
strange language for mere ostentation. Gives rules for the more 
edifying and orderly management of their public performances. For- 
bids women to teach in the public assemblies, and exhorts them all to 
observe his directions. 

1 pOLLOW after 
charity, and de- 
sire spiritual gifts, but 
rather that ye may 

2 For he that speak - 
eth in an unknown 
tongue, speaketh not 
unto men, but unto 
God : for no man un- 
derstandethta ,• how- 
beit, in the spirit he 
speaketh mysteries. 

3 But \\e that pro- 
phesieth, speaketh un- 
to men to edification 
and exhortation, and 

4 He that speak- 
eth in an unknown 
tongue, edifieth him- 
self: but he that pro- 
phesieth, edifieth the 

5 I would that ye 
all spake with tongues, 
but rather that ye pro- 
phesied : for greater 
is he that prophesieth, 

1 " " ET the good and edification of A. D. 57. 

-*-^ the church then * be your chief 

aim in the exercise of your spiritual • chap.xiii. 
gifts ; and be not forward to use them 
in your public assemblies of worship, 
but in such a manner as the people may 
understand and profit by them. 

2 I shall instance particularly in the 
gift of speaking strange languages, 
which some of your new teachers are 
apt to do for mere ostentation, and 
without any good effect. For though 
such people may speak very good and 
great things, yet it is all between God 
and themselves ; for the people, that 
do not understand them, are not a whit 
the better for it. 

3, 4 Whereas to speak or pray in a 
known language, is to do some good 
toward the further instruction of some, 
and the confirmation and comfort of 
others: but to speak in an unknown 
tongue, is to instruct nobody but your- 

5 To be able to speak divers lan- 
guages, is a gift very desirable and use- 
ful to the church, for spreading the 
Gospel doctrine the farther and wider. 
But in a particular congregation, the 




A. D. 57. most useful speaker is he that speaks so 
as to be understood by the people. 

6 For suppose I myself, or any other 
teacher whatever, were to come among 
you, to declare something to you that 
God had specially revealed to me, or 
to explain any prophecies of the Old 
Testament relating to the Christian re- 
ligion, or to teach any doctrine of* faith 
and manners, would it do you any ser- 
vice, unless I delivered it so as you 
could understand me? 

7 S 8 Certainly it would signify no 
more to you, than a confused noise of 
a musical instrument would direct a 
dancer, or the trumpet a soldier, when 
it sounded no point of war. 

9 And thus, if your teachers, that 
are gifted with divers languages, take 
not care that the people they speak 
amongst understand what they say, 
their prayers or discourses are nothing 
but empty air and sound to them. 

10, 11 There are, indeed, great va- 
riety of languages in the world, and 
each of them have their proper signifi- 
cation. But for any tw r o strangers to 
converse together, and know nothing 
of one another's meaning, is to talk 
gibberish to no purpose. 

12 Wherefore, let not any of you 

than he that speaketh 
with tongues, except 
he interpret, that the 
church may receive 

6 Now, brethren, 
if 1 come unto you, 
speaking with tongues, 
what shall I profit you, 
except I shall speak to 
you either by revela- 
tion, or by know- 
ledge, or bv prophesy- 
ing, or by doctrine ? 

7 And even things 
without life giving 
sound, whether pipe 
or harp, except they 
give a distinction in 
the sounds, how shall 
it be known what is 
piped or harped ? 

8 For if the trum- 
pet give an uncertain 
sound, who shall pre- 
pare himself to the 
battle ? 

9 So likewise you, 
except ye utter by the 
tongue words easy to 
be understood, how 
shall it be known what 
is spoken ? for ye shall 
speak into the air. 

10 There are, it 
may be, so many kinds 
of voices in the world, 
and none of them are 
without signification. 

1 1 Therefore if I 
know not the meaning 
of the voice, 1 shall 
be unto him that 
speaketh a barbarian, 
and he that speaketh 
shall be a barbarian 
unto me. 

12 Even so ye, 


forasmuch as ye are 
zealous of spiritual 
gifts, seek that ye 
may excel, to the edi- 
fying of the church. 

13 Wherefore let 
him that speaketh in 
an unknown tongue, 
pray that he may in- 

14 For if I pray in 
an unknown tongue, 
my spirit prayeth, but 
my understanding is 

15 What is it then? 
I will pray with the 
spirit, and I will pray 
with the understand- 
ing also : I will sing 
with the spirit, and I 
will sing with the un- 
derstanding also. 

16 Else, when thou 
shalt bless with the 
spirit, how shall he 
that occupieth the 
room of the unlearn- 
ed, say Amen at thy 
giving of thanks, see- 
ing he understandeth 
not what thou sayest ? 

17 For thou verily 
gives t thanks well, 
but the other is not 

18 I thank my God, 
I speak with tongues 
more than you all : 

19 Yet in the 
church I had rather 
speak five words witli 
my understanding, 
that by my voice 1 
might teach others al- 
so, than ten thousand 
words in an unknown 

20 Brethren, be 
not children in under- 

affect to shew and display his gifts with A. D. 57. 

any other design but to inform the un- 

derstandings of the people. Desire 
not to excel, but in endeavours after 
the church's benefit. 

13 Let none pray in a strange lan- 
guage, unless he be sure what he says 
will be interpreted to the assembly. 

14- For to pray unintelligibly to 
others, may indeed be to exercise your 
gift, and perform your own devotion, 
but nobody else can be the better for it. 

15 The sum is this then. All pub- 
lic prayers, preaching, and divine hymns, 
composed by inspiration, ought to be 
performed in a language known or in- 
terpreted to the congregation ; 

16, 17 Because otherwise, whatever 
petitions or thanksgivings any inspired 
man may offer up to God, the people 
that know nothing of the language he 
speaks in can never join with him in 
them. The man may pray very well 
as to himself, but the auditory is no- 
thing the better for such prayers. 

18, 19 I bless God I have the gift 
of languages beyond any of your teach- 
ers ; but I am so far from valuing my- 
self upon mere talking, and shewing 
my talent ; that I think it much more 
credit and advantage, to speak five 
words that are intelligible and useful, 
than to make a thousand fine discourses 
that nobody understands but myself. 

20 Brethren, be not like children, 
affected with novelties, and valuing 




A. D. 57. things that appear great, but are worth 

little. Act like men of understanding, 

and imitate children in nothing but 
their innocent, undesigning, and harm- 
less disposition. 

21 You remember those prophetic 
words of the Old Testament, (Isa. xxviii. 
11? 12-) foretelling the Jewish nation, 
That God would one day send prophets 
to them, inspired with variety of languages 
for their conviction and reformation, but 
all to little purpose. 

22 Where you cannot but observe, 
that the natural design of God's bestow- 
ing the gift of languages upon any per- 
son, is to be a miraculous evidence for 
converting unbelievers: but those that 
are already Christians, are to be in- 
structed and edified in languages they 
do understand. 

23 And verily, you ought to be cau- 
tious how you exercise these gifts in 
public, for your own and the church's 
credit. For suppose a heathen stranger 
should come into any of your congre- 
gations, and hear you teaching and 
praying, what neither he nor your own 
people understand a word of; would 
not the man take you to be mad, and 
think your religion ridiculous and en- 

24, 25 Whereas if you took care to 
have all such inspired discourses un- 
derstood or interpreted, the man might 
be so affected and struck by the power 
and prevalence of them, as to be con- 
verted, and own and declare your roli 
gion to be undoubtedly true. * 

standing : howbeit, in 
malice be ye children, 
but in understanding 
be men. 

21 In the law it is 
written, with men of 
other tongues and o- 
ther lips, will. I speak 
unto this people; and 
yet for all that will 
they not hear me, 
saith the Lord. 
22 Wherefore tongues 
are for a sign not to 
them that believe, 
but to them that be- 
lieve not : but pro- 
phesying serveth not 
for them that believe 
not, but for them that 

23 If therefore the 
whole church be come 
together into one 
place, and all speak 
with tongues, and 
there come in those 
that are unlearned, 
or unbelievers, will 
they not say that ye 
are mad ? 

26 In fine, therefore, to prevent all 

24 But if all pro- 
phesy, and there 
come in one that be- 
lieveth not, or one 
unlearned, he is con- 
vinced of all, he is 
judged of all. 

25 And thus are 
the secrets of his 
heart made manifest; 
and so falling down 
on his face, he will 
worship God, and re- 
port that God is in 
von of a truth. 

26 How is it then, 


brethren ? when ye 
come together, every 
one of you hath a 
psalm, hath a doe- 
trine, hath a tongue, 
hath a revelation, 
hath an interpretation. 
Let all things be done 
to edifying. 

27 If any man 
speak in an unknown 
tongue, let it be by 
two, or at the most 
by three, and that by 
course ; and let one 

2S But if there be 
no interpreter, let 
him keep silence in 
the church ; and let 
him speak to himself, 
and to God. 

<29 Let the pro- 
phets speak two or 
three, and let the 
other judge. 

30 If any thing be 
revealed to another 
that sitteth by, let 
the first hold his 

31 For ye may all 
prophesy one by one, 
that all may learn, and 
all may be comforted. 

32 And the spirits 
of the prophets are 
subject to the pro- 

inconveniences, and to attain the true A. D. 57. 

ends of your spiritual endowments, 1 

advise you, that when you assemble to- 
gether, one prepared with one kind of 
gift, another with another, you do not 
exercise them in a confused or vain- 
glorious manner; bat observe thepap*- 
ticular rules I now give you. viz. 

27 Let not above two or three per- 
sons speak in an unknown language at 
one inciting; let them speak each in 
his turn, and cocb have an interpreter 
to explain bis meaning to the congre- 

28 And he that has nobody present 
able to interpret bis language for him, 
ought to be silent for that time; let 
him utter himself privately between 
God and himself. 

91) Of such as are inspired to expound 
any prophetical passages, let not above 
two or three expound atone meeting; 
and let the rest that are so inspired, sit 
to judge and examine what they say. 

30 And if any of them be inspired 
with a still more full and complete sense 
of the passage the preacher is speaking 
upon, yet let him stay * till the other 
has finished his discourse. 

31 And thus you may all regular^ 
take your turns, and the church will lose 
none of your instructions and exhorta- 

32 A method you may easily conform 
to; for the inspirations of the Holy 
Ghost are not like those diabolical pos- 
sessions of the heathen priests, raging, 
enthusiastic, and ungovernable; but 
calm and sober, and capable of a regu- 

* Ver 30 'O nfros nyd™, Let the first hold his peace, i. e. Let 
him finish before the new prophet begin, which seems a much more 
agreeable sense than what our translation seems to suggest t 
reader. And the following verse confirms it. 

VOL. I. B B 



chap, xir. 


D. 57. lar restraint by such as are actuated by 

33 (For the Spirit that inspires you 
is the Spirit of that God who is the 
God of peace and order, but never the 
author of confusion ;) and that you may 
exercise his gifts in this orderly manner, 
is plain from the like exercise of them 
in all other * Christian churches, as I 
have accordingly appointed them to do. 

34 Let your women be permitted 
only to f sing inspired hymns, or utter 
inspired prayers in the assemblies of 
worship, and not preach or dispute with 
any body there by way of instruction ; 
for that is not agreeable to their state 

len. iii. of subjection by the laws of J God and 

35 And if they have a mind to argue 
upon any thing that is spoken in public, 
for their further information, let them 
do it with their husbands or teachers at 
home, for it is very indecent for a wo- 
man to usurp the office of men in the 
public congregation. 

36' And I would have those among 
you that practise contrary to these my 
injunctions, and to the methods of other 
churches, remember they are no stand- 
ards to the rest of the Christian world ; 
the rest of the churches were not be- 
holden to Corinthian teachers for their 
Christianity, but they to some of them, 
viz. to the churches of Judea. 

37 Let all your teachers therefore 
that pretend to spiritual gifts, and would 

83 For God is not 
the author of confu- 
sion, but of peace, a* 
in all churches of the 

34 Let your women 
keep silence in the 
churches : for it is 
not permitted unto 
them to speak ; but 
they are commanded 
to be under obedience, 
as also saith the law. 

35 And if they 
will learn any thing, 
let them ask their 
husbands at home : 
for it is a shame for 
women to speak in 
the church. 

36 What ? came 
the word of God out 
from you ? or came it 
unto you only ? 

37 If any man think 
himself to be a pro- 

* Ver. 33. 'Ctc h wpiereug ruTg Ex*X*o-*a£, As in all churches of the 
saints, i. e. as may be seen (viz. That God is the God of order) in all 
churches ; or else, Thus I appoint in all other churches. I choose 
the second rather than the first; but I choose to express both in 
the paraphrase. And if the former be the sense, it is most natural 
to refer it to the 32d verse, and include the first branch of this 
verse in a parenthesis. 

f Ver. 34. See chap. xi. 5, 13. which is reconciled to this place 
by the paraphrase. 


phet, or spiritual, let prefer themselves to others, be tried by A. D. 57, 

him acknowledge that this rule, Whether or no they will own my ' 

the things that I a d v ice to be the true will of Christ. 
write unto you are 
the commandments 
of the Lord. 

38 But if any man 3S He that will not, I have no more 
be ignorant, let him 4 to say to him ; let him take the etfects of 
be ignorant. his obst Jnate and wilful ignorance. 

39 Wherefore, bre- 39 To conclude my argument then, 
thren, covet to pro- Remember that though 1 value all spiri- 
phesy, and forbid not tual gifts very much, ami this of speak- 
to speak with tongues, ing divers languages among the rest ; 

yet, I say, the only way to make it use- 
ful is, to explain and interpret your dis- 
courses to the people. 

40 Let all things 40 "lake my advice, and perform all 
be done decently and y°" r public offices with decency, order, 
in order. and regularity. 


The next query, concerning the absolute certainty of the future state, 
and of the resurrection of the body. Some Jewish converts were per- 
plexed with objections against the former by their teachers, that had 
been of the Sadducaical part. The Gentile converts were attacked 
with difficulties about the latter, by the speculations of their philoso- 
phical teachers. The apostle establishes the truth of both these points 
upon the fact of Christ's resurrectio)i, laying down the evidences that 
prove it. The disbelief of a future state, utterly inconsistent with 
the belief of Christ's resurrection, and with the nature and design 
of our baptismal profession; and disannuls the faith, and frustrates 
all the sufferings of Christian people. This against the Sadducaical 
Christians, to verse 35. Then he answers the philosophical objections 
against the resurrection of the body, to verse 45. where he turns to 
the Jewish objectors again, shewing the necessity of believing this 
point, from the analogy between the first and second Adam, to verse 
5J. Then declares the glorious change the bodies of good Christians 
shall undergo at the resurrection, in order to qualify them for the 
heavenly and immortal state. 

1 MOREOVER, 1 4 S to the disputes among you about 

■*■ brethren, I de- -^*- the certainty of the future state, 

clare unto you the and the resurrection of the body, I must 

Gospel which I preach- desire you to recollect and consider the 

B b2 




A. D. 57- main points of Christianity I first in- 
structed you in, on the proof whereof 

you were at first converted, and must 

yet rely upon for salvation. 

2 Which if you have forgotten, or 

now disbelieve, you have lost the chief 

foundation of your Christian faith. 

3, 4 Now those chief f articles were 
those of the death of Christ for our 
redemption from sin and death; his 
burial and resurrection according to 
the Scripture prophecies concerning the 
Messiah J. 

5, f> For demonstration of which last 
article, I appealed to those eye-witnesses 
that saw him after his resurrection. 
First Peter, (Luke xxiv. 34.) then the 
whole college of apostles, (John xx. 19, 
26.) and then the five hundred disciples 
in a body, in Galilee, before his ascen- 
sion, (Matt. xxvi. 32.) of whom the ma- 
jor part are still alive to testify it, though 
some of them be dead. 

7 That moreover he was seen by 
James (the Lord's brother, called James 
the Just), and by all his disciples again, 
at his ascension into heaven at the 
Mount of Olives. 

8, 9 And lastly, that about two |j 
years after his ascension, (and several 

ed unto you, which 
also ye have received, 
and wherein ye stand - 7 

2 By which also ye 
are saved, if ye keep 
in memory what I 
preached unto you, 
unless * ye have be- 
lieved in vain. 

3 For I delivered 
unto you first f of all, 
that which I also 
received, how that 
Christ died for our 
sins according to the 
Scriptures ; 

4 And that he was 
buried, and that he 
rose again the third 
day according to the 
Scriptures : 

5 And that he was 
seen of Cephas, then 
of the twelve : 

6 After that, he 
was seen of above five 
hundred brethren at 
once : of whom the 
greater part remain 
unto this present, but 
some are fallen asleep. 

7 After that, he 
was seen of James, 
then of all the apo- 

8 And last of all 
he was seen of me 

* Ver. c i. Unless ye have believed in vain. 'Ektoj e? (*■$, but if not, 
ye have believed in vain. 

f 'Ev Trproi,-, First of all, or as the chief and principal povits. 

X Ver. 4. The third day according to the Scriptures. See Bishop 
Chandler's Defence of Christianity, &c. p. 370. 

|| Ver. 8. Acts ix. and afterward in Acts xxii. which was about 
five years after the ascension. 


also, as of one born 
out of due time. 

9 For I am the 
least of the apostles, 
that am not meet to 
be called an apostle, 
because I persecuted 
the church of God. 

10 But by the grace 
of God 1 am what I 
am ; and his grace 
which was bestowed 
upon me was not in 
vain ; but I laboured 
more abundantly than 
they all ; yet not I, 
but the grace of God 
which was with me. 

11 Therefore whe- 
ther it were I or they, 
so we preach, and so 
ve believed. 

12 Now if Christ 
be preached that he 
rose from the dead, 
how say some among 
you that there is no 
resurrection of the 
dead ? 

13 But if there be 
no resurrection of the 
dead, then is Christ 
not risen. 

times after that,) he appeared in a mira-A. 1). 57. 

culous manner to me also; a person, 

by the fury of my former prejudices and 
passions, not fit for an earlier discovery 
of him ; and, like an abortive, am, in 
* that respect, below the dimensions of 
the rest of the apostles, and scarce wor- 
thy of that honourable name. 

10 But by the divine f favour [ am 
called to this great office; and as J was 
the least worthy of it, of all the other 
apostles, so I have strived to make up 
that defect by uncommon labour and 
diligence in the execution of it; the 
success whereof I do no way ascribe to 
myself, but all to the gifts of his Holy 
Spirit bestowed on me for that purpose. 

11 Now whether J you were eon- 
verted by me or Peter, or any other 
apostle whatever, the doctrine taught 
you, and on which you are to depend 
for salvation, is the same, viz. that of 
a crucified and a risen Saviour. 

l c 2 But I find some of your new 
teachers have endeavoured to persuade 
you, that a future state, and a |j resur- 
rection of the body, are weak and ab- 
surd notions. But if their suggestions 
be of any weight, what becomes of that 
fundamental article of your Christian 
faith, viz. the resurrection of Christ f 

13 For, to say there can be no re- 
surrection, and yet to hold that Christ 
is actually risen, is a contradiction. 

* See 2 Cor. ii. 5. which is reconciled to this verse by the para- 

f Ver. 10. See Rom. xv. 17, 18, 19. 

+ Ver. 11. Whether it were I or they, i. e. who converted you : or 

Though the word *»*■ 

else, whether I or they laboured most. 

|| Ver. 12. No resurrection of the dead.'] 
rcuris does indeed in the New Testament mostly signify the future 
state, yet by attending to the method and turns of this chapter, 
the judicious reader will find the apostle here uses it in both its 
acceptations, viz. that of the future state in general, against the Sad- 
ducaical objectors, and that of the resurrection of the body against 
the Gentile philosophers. See the contents of this chapter. 





A. D. 57. 14 And, on the other side, to deny 
that Christ is actually risen, is to de- 
stroy the main * evidence of our Chris- 
tian religion ; so I have preached, and 
you have believed it without anv "round 
and foundation : 

15 Nay, we his apostles in particular, 
who pretend to give a divine evidence, 
and appeal to the truth of God, that he 
did raise up Jesus from the dead, must 
be guilty of the most impious forgery 
and falsehood. 

16, 17 Considertherefcre the wretched 
consequences of such an opinion; it 
destroys the possibility of Christ's re- 
surrection, which is the main proof of 
the truth of your whole religion ; it dis- 
annuls all the benefits of his death and 
sufferings, by virtue of which alone a 
Christian can hope for the pardon of 
his sins. For if he be dead for ever 
himself, it is impossible his death can 
avail any thing to our pardon and fu- 
ture happiness. (See Rom. iv. 21.) 

18 So that all that have died in the 
Christian faith, are lost, and disap- 
pointed of all their hopes and promises. 

19 For, if all our prospect of happi- 
ness were terminated in the present life, 
a Christian, and especially an apostle of 
Christ, who is thus exposed to suffer- 
ings and persecution, would have the 
worst and hardest condition of all man- 

20 But be not misled with specula- 
tive and vain notions. The fact is cer- 
tain and absolute, that Christ our Sa- 
viour is risen ; and our resurrection is 
as certain a consequence of our blessed 
Master's^ as the whole Jewish harvest 

14 And if Christ 
be not risen, then is 
our preaching vain*, 
and your faith is also 

15 Yea, and we 
are found false wit- 
nesses of God ; be- 
cause we have testified 
of God that he raised 
up Christ : whom he 
raised not up, if so be 
that the dead rise not. 

16 For if the dead 
rise not, then is not 
Christ raised : 

17 And if Christ 
be not raised, your 
faith is vain ; ye are 
yet in your sins. 

18 Then they also 
which are fallen a- 
sleep in Christ, are 

19 If in this life 
only we have hope in 
Christ, we are of all 
men most miserable. 

20 But now is Christ 
risen from the dead, 
and become the first- 
fruits of them that 

* Ver. 14. See Acts i. 29. Rom. i. 3. iv. 25. Acts xvii. 31. 1 Pet. 
hi. 21. Rom. vi. 4. 


21 Forsinceby man 
name death, by man 
came also the resurrec- 
tion of the dead. 

22 For as in Adam 
all die, even so in 
Christ shall all be 
made alive. 

23 But every man 
in his own order : 
Christ the first-fruits, 
afterwards they that 
are Christ's, at his 

24 Then cometh the 
end, when he shall 
have delivered up the 
kingdom to God, even 
the^Father j when he 
shall have put down 
all rule and all autho- 
rity and power. 

25 For he must 
reign till he hath put 
all enemies under his 
feet +• 

was of being accepted and blessed by the A. D. 57 

offering of the first-fruits. 

21, 22 Nor can your Jewish object- 
ors, viz. of the Sadducaical party, deny 
this great truth without destroying all 
that analogy between the first and * se- 
cond Adam, which themselves allow 
from their own Scriptures. For if all 
true believers are not restored to life 
by the Messiah, the second Adam, as 
all * mankind were male subject to 
death by the sin of the first Adam, the 
main instance of the analogy is lost. 
Whereas, by supposing this contrary 
truth, the agreement is kept whole and 

23 And thus Christ's resurrection is 
an assurance and pledge of the resur- 
rection of all good and sincere Chris- 
tians at the last day f <> f nis appearance 
to judgment. 

21 At that day, I say, which shall 
put an end to the' mediatorial kingdom 
and government of Christ, and finish 
the whole dispensation of God with 
mankind, in this world; when Christ 
shall have gained a complete conquest 
over sin and death, wicked angels and 
wicked men, and shall resign the go- 
vernment of all things to God the la- 

25 For the dispensation and govern- 
ment of mankind in. this world must 
continue immediately under Christ the 
Messiah, till all the enemies of God and 
his church be subdued. 

* Ver 21 22 See Rom. v. where the apostle uses the same ar- 

gume^t^^purpose, and both ^-£j ^«£ 

Argument ad hominem V^^'^^^^^mmm 
Sadducees. Without supposal whereof, neitherot the pass g 

'^Te^sT^elTie. The dead in Christ (i.e. good Chris- 
tians) shall rise first. ^ 

tians) shall rise first- 

4 Ver. 25. Till he hath put 

See note on Rom. v. 13. 
BB 4 

376 A PARAPHRASE ON THE chap, xv- 

A. D. 57. *26 Now death being one and the last 26 The last enemy 

of those enemies, it is absolutely neees- that shall be destroyed 

sary for completing this divine andglo- ^ death, 
rious conquest, to have that also de- 
stroyed, which can never be but by a 
resurrection to a future life. 

27 When I say, Christ has the go- • 27 For he hath put 
vernment and superiority over all things all things under his 
given to him, you must naturally sup- feet. But when he 
pose I except God the Father, who saith,Allthingsareput 

committed this government to him. under hl , m > ? *f ma ~ 

nifest that he is ex- 
cepted which did put 
all things under him. 

28 And thus even when Christ shall -2S And when all 

have subdued all the enemies of God, things shall be sub- 

and finished the whole dispensation with dued unto him, then 

mankind upon earth, and his mediato- snaU tne Son also 

rial government, shall cease, he will himself be subject un- 

resign himself, his church, and all its \?. him tha f l ,ut u . a11 

°, r* a *u r> *i i thing's under him, 

members, to God the rather; who ,, -> , . , n 

,,,,'., . . irI ., , that God may be all 

shall then cither himselt be for ever the j n a y 

immediate Governor, Lord, and Dis- 
poser of all things ; or else will continue 
Christ, his Son, the glorious and tri- 
umphant Lord over the church he has 
so graciously redeemed ; though still 
in subordination to himself the supreme 
Father, who first committed all powei' 
unto him. [Compare Dan. vii. 1.4, 27-] 

29 But to return to the main * ar- 29 Else what shall 

gument. The denial of the future state they do which are 

and resurrection disannuls all the pur- baptized for the dead, 

poses and effects of your Christian bap- ^ the (lead rise no [ at 

tism. It is the belief of the resurrec- f 1? 7*?. ™% ^ 
, • i • i . then baptized tor the 

tion you are baptized into; ana to say . , i . ? * 

that Christians die andf live no more, is 

to make your baptismal profession an 

the 20th, as Mr. Locke and others, by a plain mistake, suppose. 

t Ver. 29. 'Tm§ twv vik^v, baptized for the dead; i. e. who would 
be .so weak as to be baptized into the faith of -a. resurrection, that give 
themselves up for eternally dead after this life? I have given the 
undoubted sense and design of the phrase ; but how the Greek of it 
is precisely to be construed, must still be left to the critics. See 
Dr. Mills upon this place. 


30 And why stand 
we in jeopardy every 
hour t 

31 * I protest by 
your rejoicing- which 
I have in Christ Jesus 
our Lord, I die daily. 

32 If after the 
manner of men f I 
have fought with 
beasts at Ephesus, 
what advantageth it 
me, if the dead rise not? 
Let us eat and drink, 
for to-morrow we die. 

33 Be not deceiv- 
ed : evil communica- 
tions corrupt good 

34 Awake to righte- 
ousness, and sin not ; 

insignificant and fruitless thing ; a thing A. D. 57. 

that involves them in present miseries 

and inconveniences, without the least 
prospect of recompence or advantage. 

30 And then, what a weak thing is 
it for Christian people to expose 
themselyes to such dangers and perse- 
cutions, in defence of a religion that 
leaves them at last without all hopes of 
any future recompence ! 

31 Especially J * that am an apostle *'h y L, I, 
of this religion, must then be still more era P*"»tfcal- 
foolish and unaccountable; for 1 may *' 
safely protest by all that joyous hope 

which you and I have in our Christian 
profession, that [ hardly pass a day but 
in danger of death lor the sake of it. 

3 ( 2 And should not I have acted a 
wise part, think you f, in exposing my- 
self to the wild beasts upon the theatre 
at Ephesus, if it be true, that death 
makes a final end of us ? Verily, if it 
be so, the Epicureans are in the right, 
whose maxim is, Life is short, let us take 
as much of the pleasures of it as ever we 

33 Take heed then of being misled 
by such insinuations as these, that tend 
to the corruption of all Christian morals 
and practices. 

34- Rouse up your faculties to a more 
just and exact way J of reason and con- 

f Ver. 32. 'ES^io^a'^wa, I h<ive fought with Leasts at Lphesus. 
A latitude of the tense so natural to the Hebrew and Hellenistic 
languages ; and making the construction if I had fought, saves the 
critics all their needless pains of recurring to another fight and 
miraculous deliverance of St. Paul at Ephesus, grounded only on 
uncertain traditions; and shews this passage plainly to refer to 
Acts xix. 30, 31. See abundant instances of this change of tensei 
in Glassius, lib. iii. tract. 3. de Verbo, page 64*2, Sec. 

X Ver. 34. Awake to righteousness, and sin not: Ai^ux,- here is 
very hardly to be construed to righteousness; and though pti «fyi*p- 
TavET= may be rendered sin not, that is but the secondary sense of 
that word. Awake to right reason, and do not so grossly mistata , I 
seems to be the natural construction. And as the 33d verse coun- 




A ' D - 5 ~ "deration, and avoid such principles as 
- tend only to a sensual and debauched 

life. For I must tell these your new 
teachers, to their shame, they argue as 
if they knew nothing of God * a*nd re- 

35 Your philosophical teachers, I 
know, have been used to think the re- 
surrection of the body an absurd, need- 
less, and impossible thing; and are apt 
to ask, how a corrupted, perished, and 
scattered mass of matter, can ever be 
raised into a body fine and beauteous 
enough for a glorified soul ? Or what 
sort of bodies (say they) is it that we 
can expect at the resurrection ? 

36 Thou fool of a philosopher, that 
canst argue thus ! Is this so absurd 
and incomprehensible a thing, which 
the very appearances of nature are able 
to account for? The grain you sow in 
the earth is rotten, and putrified soon 
after it comes there, and yet it after- 
wards springs up into perfect corn. 

37 ? 38 You throw in nothing but 
naked grain, suppose wheat or barley. 
But out of that very corrupted little 
mass, doth the divine power produce a 
full-grown corn, with stalk, and ear, and 
seeds ; and so from every other seed, a 
plant in its proper size and figure. 
Though you are no more able to know 
how, than how God can raise the dead. 

for some have not the 
knowledge of God : 
I speak this to your 

35 But some man 
will say, How are 
the dead raised up ? 
and with what body 
do they come ? 

36 Thou fool ! that 
which thou sowest is 
not quickened, except 
it die : 

39 Look into the make and contex- 
ture of animals ; that of men, fishes, 
beasts, and birds, what a vast variety 
there is in them ; and yet they all pro- 
ceed from one and the same original 
matter f. 

37 And that which 
thou sowest, thou 
sowest not that body 
that shall be, but bare 
grain, it may chance 
of wheat, or of some 
other grain. 

38 But God giveth 
it a body as it hath 
pleased him, and to 
every seed his own 

39 All flesh is not 
the same flesh : but 
there is one kind of 
flesh of men, another 
flesh of beasts, an- 
other of fishes, and 
another of birds. 

f^vnnrl 0l i r + ! ranSl ^° -' SO the latter l 3art of this ^se seems to 
favour this latter rendering of the whole period 

* See Matt. xxii. 29. f See Gen. i. 2. 


40 There are also 
celestial bodies, and 
bodies terrestial : but 
the glory of the ce- 
lestial is one, and the 
glory of the terrestrial 
is another. 

41 There is one 
glory of the sun, and 
another glory of the 
moon, and another 
glory of the stars ; 
for one star differeth 
from another star in 

42 So also is the 
resurrection of the 
dead. It is sown in 
corruption, it is raised 
in incorruption ; 

43 It is sown in 
dishonour, it is raised 
in glory : it is sown 
in weakness, it is 
raised in power : 

44 It is sown a 
natural body, it is rais- 
ed a spiritual body. 
There is a natural bo- 
dy, and there is a spi- 
ritual body. 

45 And so it is 
written, The first man 
Adam was made a 

40 Look and compare the heavenly A. D. 57. 

and earthly bodies with each other. 

There is as much difference between a 

clod of earth, and the glorious body of 
the sun and stars, as there can be be- 
tween the corruptible and the glorified 
bodies of men. 

41 Nay, there is as much difference 
in some of the heavenly bodies from 
one another, the sun and moon, planets, 
and fixed stars ; some whereof shine by 
a borrowed and reflexed light, others 
by an innate light of their own ; and 
are of as different a kind as can be, yet 
out of the same original matter did God 
compose them all. 

49, 43 Now, apply this to the resur- 
rection, and see if the same divine power 
that could thus bring flesh, fish, plants, 
sun, earth, planets, and fixed stars, out 
of one and the same mass, and all ori- 
ginally out of nothing, cannot be able 
to raise an incorruptible out of a cor- 
ruptible body, and turn a weak and de- 
caying one into one that shall be glo- 
rious and powerful # . 

44 The bodies indeed w r e now live 
in, and die here, are mere animal 
bodies, subject to decays, sickness, and 
death ; and this makes your philosophi- 
cal teachers conclude, that when we have 
thrown them off, and once got rid of 
them, we shall never be joined to bodies 
more. But this conclusion proceeds 
from their ignorance of this great truth, 
that the God who has invested us at 
present with these animal bodies, will 
one day clothe us with spiritual and 
heavenly ones. 

45 t And as we read, (Gen. ii. 7-) 
that Adam the first man, from whom 
we all received our weak and animal. 

* See Philip, iii. 21. 

f See ver. 31,22, &c. 




A. D 57. bodies, was made a living soul; so is it 

—as true that Christ the second Adam, 

has not only life, but life in himself, 
and a power to raise others to life. 
(See John i. 4. and verse 21, 26.) 

46 As therefore the first man Adam 
was made before Christ was sent to be 
our Saviour, so must we, in order of 
time, be clothed with our animal and 
mortal bodies derived from the one, 
before we can be invested with our spi- 
ritual and immortal ones from the other. 
47, 48, 4D Weak and mortal we 
must needs be here, being extracted 
from one that was himself so. But 
when we shall be begotten again from 
the dead by Christ, the second Adam, 
our heavenly Saviour, our bodies shall 
also partake of the heavenly and im- 
mortal qualities of his, and live eternally 
without sickness, decay, or death. 

50 To those then who scoffingly de- 
mand what sort of bodies good Chris- 
tians shall have at the resurrection? 
the sum of my answer is, that I allow 
they cannot be such mortal and crazy 
carcases as we now carry about with 
us ; for a corruptible body can no way 
suit with an incorruptible state. 

51 But the bodies of all true Chris- 
tians, whether of such as are alive at 
Christ's coming to judgment, (as some 
will be,) or of such as are dead before 
it, shall undergo, at that time, a glori- 
ous change; which is a thing you seem 
to have had yet no notion at all of. 

52 A change, I say, at this grand 
summons, that will be as sudden and 
quick, as it will be great and happy; 
when the dead bodies of the saints shall 
be raised up to a glorious and immortal 


soul, the last 
was made a 
quickening spirit. 

46 Howbeit, that 
was not first which is 
spiritual, but that 
which is natural ; and 
afterward that which 
is spiritual. 

47 The first man is 
of the earth, earthy : 
the second man is the 
Lord from heaven. 

48 As is the earthy, 
such are they also that 
are earthy : and as is 
the heavenly, such are 
they also that are hea- 

49 And as we have 
borne the image of the 
earthy, we shall also 
bear the image of the 

50 Now this I say, 
brethren, that flesh 
and blood cannot in- 
herit the kingdom of 
God ; neither doth 
corruption inherit in- 

51 Behold, I shew 
you a mystery ; We 
shall not all sleep, 
but we shall all be 

52 In a moment, in 
the twinkling of an 
eye, at the last trump : 
for the trumpet shall 
sound, and the dead 



shall be raised incor- 
ruptible, and we shall 
be changed. 

53 For this cor- 
ruptible must put on 
incorruption, and this 
mortal must put on 

54 So when this 
corruptible shall have 
put on incorruption, 
and this mortal shall 
have put on immor- 
tality, then shall be 
brought to pass the 
saying that is written, 
Death is swallowedup 
in victory. 

55 O death, where 
is thy sting } O grave, 
where is thy victory ? 

56 The sting of 
death is sin ; and the 
strength of sin is the 

57 But thanks be 
to God, which giveth 
us the victory through 
our Lord Jesus Christ. 

58 Therefore, my 
beloved brethren, be 
ye stedfast, immove- 
able, always abound- 
ing in the work of the 
Lord, forasmuch as 
ye know that your 
labour is not in vain 
in the Lord. 

constitution ; and those that are then A. D. 57, 

alive, shall be transformed into the same- 

brightness and immortality. 

53 For, as I before observed, it is ab- 
solutely necessary that these * corrupti- 
ble and mortal bodies should be changed 
for incorruptible and immortal ones, 
before they can be fit to be joined again 
to our glorified and happy souls. 

54- And thus by our attainment to 
this happy and immortal state, will those 
prophetical words be fulfilled in their 
most eminent acceptation, Death shall 
be sir a (l< need up of life, and conquered 
J or ever, (Isai. xxv. 8.) 

55 Then may every good Christian 
sing his triumph over death in the lan- 
guage of another prophet, (Hos. xiii. 
H«.) O death, where is thy sting to hurt 
us ! O grave, where is thy victory over 
us ! 

56 Sin wa« the first and baneful 
cause, and is the only terror of death ; 
and the malignancy of sin is from this, 
that it is the transgression of a just and 
righteous law of God. 

57 But, blessed be God! our Chris- 
tian religion sets us eternally free from 
them both. 

58 Wherefore, dear brethren, be sted- 
fast in this grand article; strive to ex- 
cel in your faith in it; and live so as to 
enjoy the blessings of it; remembering 
what a glorious recompence it will be 
for all your Christian labours and en- 
deavours f . 

* Vcr. 53. This corruptible must put on incorruption. To <p§a,$iov 
touto, 8<c. And so Justin Martyr, in Epist. ii. §. 10. K%\ pj XeytT* 

Ti£ vum oTi avTri acto^ ov xpivtrtzi, ovob cc)iira.Tcu — ov Tpo7Tov yci(> iv tyi cra^JU 

, J /cT i * ~ V'» ' Q " \ ' ~ ' ' ~ \ ' 

*K\riVn7£, xaJ ev tt, o-oc^ki iXivata-Jt — ovtu; koh n^nq iv 7avT*i tm crccy>u %'Jto- 

t Ver. 58. Alu-ays abounding ; vnp<r<rivonis, always excelling. 



chap. xvr. 


Their last enquiry about collecting contributions for the poor Christians 
of Judea. He gives directions how to do it. Promises again to come 
and see them. Recommends Timothy to them. Repeats his exhort- 
ations to unity and peaceableness. Recommends Stephanas, Fortu- 
natusj and Achaicus, to them. Concludes with salutations. 

A. D. 57-1 AS to your last enquiry about the 

-£*- collection desired of you for the 

poor Christians of Judea, I would have 
you observe the same method I pre- 
scribed to the Galatian churches, viz. 

2 That every Sunday, each of you 
put what he can spare into a common 
Z**"^ * stock, that so when I come I may 
find it altogether. 

3, 4 And when I am with you, I shall 
send such persons with it as you shall 
recommend, and will write letters by 
them to Jerusalem ; and, if it be requi- 
site, I will go with them myself, to make 
your liberality the more acceptable. 

5 In the mean while, assure your- 
selves I shall certainly see you, when I 
am arrived at Macedonia, which place 
I must take in my way. 

6 And it is very probable I may not 
only just call upon you, but stay out 
the winter with you, and accept of pro- 
visions and assistance from you for my 
further travels. 

7, 8 Intending you therefore a good 
long visit, I would not have you think 
me tedious, if I stay here at Ephesus till 
Pentecost, L e. Whitsuntide. 

1 7VOW concerning 
the collection 
for the saints, as I 
have given order to 
the churches of Ga- 
latia, even so do ye. 
2 Upon the first 
day of the week, let 
every one of you lay 
hy him in store, as 
God hath prospered 
him, that there be no 
gatherings when I 

3 And when I come, 
whomsoever ye shall 
approve by your let- 
ters, them will I send 
to bring your libe- 
rality unto Jerusalem. 

4 And if it be meet 
that I go also, they 
shall go with me. 

5 Now I will come 
unto you, when I shall 
pass through Mace- 
donia : for I do pass 
through Macedonia. 

6 And it may be 
that I will abide, yea, 
and winter with you, 
that ye may bring me 
on my journey, whi- 
thersoever I go. 

7 For 1 will not 
see you now by the 
way, but I trust to 
tarry a while with 
you, if the Lord per- 


8 But I will tarry at 
Ephesus until Pente- 

9 For a great door 
and effectual is open- 
ed unto me, and there 
are many adversaries. 

10 Now if Timo- 
theus come, see that 
he may be with you 
without fear : for he 
worketh the work of 
the Lord, as I also do. 

11 Let no man 
therefore despise him : 
but conduct him forth 
in peace, that he may 
come unto me : for I 
look for him with the 

12 As touching our 
brother Apollos, I 
greatly desired him to 
come unto you with 
the brethren : but his 
will was not at all to 
come at this time; but 
he will come when he 
shall have convenient 

13 Watch ye, stand 
fast in the faith, quit 
you like men, be 

A. D. 57- 

9 For I find I am likely to have a 
good large (and I hope a successful) 
work * of preaching, and converting 
here, though my adversaries (especially 
those of the Jewish party) are very nu- 

10 If Timothy comes to you before- 
hand, pray treat him respectfully, and 
make him easy. Let him have no dis- 
turbance from your factions; for he 
comes upon the same work, and with 
the same authority as myself. 

11 Let none of your new teachers 
despise him for his f youth ; but be + Tim «i v ° 
you all ready to supply him with neces- l2 ' 
saries for his return back to me; for I, 

and all my % company, shall earnestly 
expect him, and those that are to come 
with him hither. 

12 We would fain have had brother 
Apollos come with this letter to you ; 
but he excused himself at this juncture, 
and promises to see you at a more 
proper season. 

13 And now to conclude my advices 
to you : Be upon your guard against 
all the designing heads of your factions ; 
stand firm to the doctrines at first de- 

* Ver. 9. ©y§« oivsuys, xai amxEi/xsvot vroXXol, a door opened, and 
many adversaries. He seems plainly to allude to the ostia circi 
maximi, from whence the race-horses and chariots were wont to 
be started. And this is very much countenanced by the phrase 
aVnxEtjusvot, those adversaries answering to the antagonists in the 
races, against whom the apostle was to run, as it were, and strive 
to outdo. This is not taken notice of by Faber or Dr. Hammond, 
but is handsomely explained by Jacobus Lydius, in his Agonistica 
Sacra, cap. 30. 

X Ver. II. 'Ek$sxpiaou aiJrov ^etcc iwv *h\Quv, or, I and the brethren 
expect him. So in ver. 12. 




A. D. 57. livered to you, and behave yourselves 
with manly courage and resolution. 

14 Let all your behaviour, both in 
your public assemblies, and in private 
conversation, be with a constant eye to 
the good of your brethren, and the 
church's peace. 

15 I desire you to pay a particular 
* regard to Stephanas and his family. 
They were (you know) the first f con- 
verts I made in Greece, and have ever 
since been industrious in instructing 
X and managing your church, and in 
supporting and maintaining its minis- 

16 Wherefore hearken to, and be 
guided by them ; and instead of new 
teachers, let them, and all my fellow- 
preachers, be your Christian leaders. 

17 5 IS I am very glad you sent him, 
and Fortunatus, and Achaicus, with 
your letter of enquiries to me; for they 
have given me a much fuller account of 
the state and disposition of your church, 
than I should otherwise have had ; and 
prevented a great many jealousies and 
suspicions between you and me, to the 
satisfaction of us both : respect and 
value such men therefore as give so fa- 
vourable a character of you. 

19 The churches of the lesser Asia 
salute you ; so dot's Aquila, his wile, 
and Christian family, with all good 
Christian wishes. 

14 Let all your 
things be done with 

15 I beseech you, 
brethren, (ye know 
the house of Stepha- 
nas, that it is the first- 
fruits of Achaia, and 
that they have addict- 
ed themselves to the 
ministry of the saints,) 

16 That ye submit 
yourselves unto such, 
arid to every one that 
helpeth with its?, and 

17 I am glad of the 
coming of Stephanas, 
and Fortunatus, and 
Achaicus : for that 
which was lacking on 
your part, they have 

IS For they have 
refreshed my spirit 
and yours : therefore 
acknowledge ye them 
that are such. 

19 The churches 
of Asia salute you. 
Aquila and Priscilla 
salute you much in 
the Lord, with the 

* Ver. 15. Oi'^aTf, ye know, or rather, know, 1. e. respect the house 
of Stephanas. 

f Chap. i. 15. 

I Elg huKonxv to7$ cvyioig, to the ministry of tJie saints. I should 
choose to interpret this of teaching and governing, rather than in 
any other sense of ministering, because the following words seem 
plainly to favour it, verse 16". But indeed hoexoua. to?c dyioic, is pro- 
perly supplying the saints by way of charity, as hvKovla, rm dylwv, 
is doing it by way of teaching. However, I thought it not inconve- 
nient to express both senses. 


church that is in their 

20 All the brethren 
greet you. Greet ye 
one another with an 
holy kiss. 

21 The salutation 
of me Paul with mine 
own hand. 

22 If any man love 
not the Lord Jesus 
Christ, let him be 
Anathema Maranatha. 

A. D. 57. 

All the Christians here salute 

Salute each other, for my sake, 

with the kiss of love in your assemblies. 


21 I here salute you 
hand-writing *. 

with my own 

22 Whoever among you maliciously 
and obstinately breaks the peace and 
credit of* the Christian church, by wicked 
factions, or scandalous vices, let him be 
excommunicated, and left to the terrible 
judgment of God f , till he repents and 
reforms. (See chap. v. 5. and 2 Cor. ii. 
6, 7, 8.) 

23, 24? May the love and favour of 
our Lord Jesus Christ be ever with you. 
My own hearty love and Christian good 
wishes to you all. Amen. 

sus. Amen. 

*fi The first Epistle to the Corinthians was written from Phi- 
lippic by Stephanas, and Fortunatus, and Achaicus, and 

23 The grace of 
our Lord Jesus Christ 
be with you. 

24 My love be with 
you all in Christ Je- 

* Ver. 21. With my own hand. The rest of the Epistle being 
written by his amanuensis. See Rom. xvi. 26. 2 Thess. iii. 17. 

f Ver. 22. Maranatha is a Syriac phrase, and signifies as much 
as The Lord cometh, i. e. to punish him. 

VOL, I. 

C G 








A HIS Epistle was written upon the same occasion, 
and follows the same argument with the former. A 
considerable part of it refers to the success his first 
Epistle had in the Corinthian church ; which appears 
to be different according to the tempers of the persons 
concerned in it. The more sound and well-affected 
were duly moved by it, and shewed a ready compli- 
ance to the apostle's directions, which he here glo- 
ries in and commends them for ; while several both 
.of the Gentile and Jewish faction remained stiff in 
their opposition to him, both in doctrines and prac- 
tices. With these latter the apostle renews his ar- 
gument, most prudently mixed up of calm reason- 
ings, kind persuasions, and threatenings of severity 
toward the perverse and incurable. Whatever inci- 
dental arguments or exhortations are interspersed 
with these, the reader shall be methodically adver- 
tised of at the entrance of the several chapters. 

c c 3 







The apostle presents himself to them as a despised and suffering apostle- 
He blesseth God for his support under, and deliverance from, his af- 
flictions, as being of great benefit both to himself and them. Comforts 
himself under the Divine protection, and his own sincerity. Returns 
upon their factious teachers for misinterpreting his not coming to 
Corinth so soon as he proposed. Shews himself consistent in what he 
said and taught, and gives the true reason of his not seeing them at 
the time appointed. 

1 T1AUL an apostle 
of Jesus Christ 
by the will of God, 
and Timothy our bro- 
ther, unto the church 
of God which is at 
Corinth, with all the 
saints which are in all 
Achaia : 

2 Grace be to you, 
and peace from God 
our Father, and from 
the Lord Jesus Christ. 

3 Blessed be God, 
even the Father of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Father of mercies, 

1, 2 T3AUL an apostle of Jesus Christ, Written 
-*■ called to that great office by A - 1 ?- 57 * 

• flip latter 

an express and * particular revelation end of the 
of God ; and Timothy my Christian yem. 

brother; to the Corinthian church, and — 

to all the Christians of Achaia; wishing* Acts ix. 
you all divine favours and blessings from andxxvi. 
God our Father, and Jesus Christ our 
Lord and Saviour. 

3, 4< First expressing my hearty 

thanks to God the Father of our Lord 

Jesus Christ, the supreme Author of all 

our mercies and comforts, for so assist- 

C c 4 




A. D. and supporting me under all my 

sufferings and distresses, that I am 

enabled to make others partake of the 
comforts he bestows on me. 

5 For I must thankfully acknowledge 
that Christ has never laid any sufferings 
upon me for the sake of his religion, 
but what he has given some proportion- 
able blessing to sweeten and counter- 

6 Whereof your church is a very 
satisfactory instance : for my sufferings 
and afflictions have had this good effect 
upon you, to encourage you to suffer 
patiently after my example ; and my 
blessings and comforts are so many 
arguments to you to depend steadily 
and joyfully upon the same infinite 
Power and Wisdom as I do. 

7 Being fully assured, that as you 
partake with me in the sufferings for 
your religion, you shall not fail of a 
proportionable share in its present and 
future blessings. 

8 My own sufferings I speak of are 
those 1 lately underwent in the lesser 
* Asia, where I was so sore and so 
hardly used, that I had scarce any ex- 
pectation to outlive them. 

and the God of all 
comfort : 

4 Who comforteih 
us in all our tribula- 
tion, that we may be 
able to comfort them 
which are in any 
trouble, by the com- 
fort wherewith we 
ourselves are comfort- 
ed of God. 

5 For as the suffer- 
ings of Christ abound 
in us, so our consola- 
tion also aboundeth by 

6 And whether we 
be afflicted, it is for 
your consolation and 
salvation, Vhich is ef- 
fectual in the enduring 
of the same sufferings 
which we also suffer : 
or whether we be 
comforted, it is for 
your consolation and 

7 And our hope of 
you is stedfast, know- 
ing that as you are 
partakers of the suf- 
ferings, so shall ye be 
also of the consola- 

8 For we would 
not, brethren, have 
you ignorant of our 
trouble which came 
to us in Asia, that we 
were pressed out 

* Ver. 8, 10. *Ev t» 'A<x/a, in Asia, and I*. tyiXmovtov vava-rou, from 
so great a death. See Acts xiv. xvi. and xix. chapters. To which 
of these conflicts the apostle particularly refers, is not certain ; 
most probably he respects them all, for several good Greek and 
Latin copies read it, em tkXixovtuv SaiaT^v, and Ik tr,XtK0V7UJv x.kv&vvuiv f 
a tantis periculis. From such and so many deaths or dangers. 


of measure, above 
strength, insomuch 
that we despaired even 
of life : 

9 But we had the 
sentence of death in 
ourselves, that we 
should not trust in 
ourselves, but in God 
which raiseth the 

10 Who delivered 
us from so great a 
death, and doth deli- 
ver : in whom we 
trust that he will yet 
deliver us. 

11 You also helping 
together by prayer for 
us, that for the gift 
bestowed upon us by 
the means of many 
persons, thanks may 
be given by many on 
our behalf. 

12 For our rejoic- 
ing is this, the testi- 
mony of our consci- 
ence, that in simpli- 
city and godly since- 
rity, not with fleshly 
wisdom, but by the 
grace of God, we 
have had our conver- 
sation in the world, 
and more abundantly 
to vou-wards. 

13 For we write 

A.D. 57. 

9 But I make use of the desperate 
condition I was then in, as an argument 
for an entire confidence in God, with- 
out whom no human strength can avail 
any thing; but by whose power even 
the dead shall be raised to life again. 

10 And I rest fully satisfied, that the 
same good Providence that has already 
delivered me from such and so many 
distresses, will not fail to p?'otect me in 
the future course of my ministry in his 

11 For which I have had, and trust 
shall still have, the concurrence of your 
prayers with my own ; and then as you 
all contribute toward my safety and 
protection, you may all have the plea- 
sure of rejoicing and giving thanks for 
it along with me. 

12 As to myself, whatever the dis- 
pensations of Providence toward me, 
or the ill opinion some men may have 
of me, be, this inward comfort I always 
enjoy, and will glory in, that I have 
performed my Christian ministry in 
every place, agreeably to the abilities 
God has bestowed on me, preaching the 
Gospel-doctrine * free of any sinister or 
private designs; and exercising my 
spiritual f gifts without any mixture of 
ostentation or human artifices to set 
them off. And especially among you 

13 And this sincerity of mine is 

* Ver. 12. In simplicity, not with fleshly wisdom, #c. He plainly 
strikes at the cunning insinuations of their philosophical and rheto- 
rical teachers. Oux. h xoiKovgytcx,, cv$\ ■voovnzia,, ov$\ Iv Swotyiti Xoym, n h 
crvpirXoKy cro^ia-jxclrtjov. Chrysost. 

^ t Ibid. But by the grace of God, i. e. by exercising his spiritual 
gifts. 'AXX' Iv tq7$ cviuHOic kccI r^ctatv, a. x^i^ wrotf. Theophylact. 




A. D. 57. what you have always read in my writ- 
ings, and heard from me in my preach- 
ing ; you were all very sensible of, and 
free to acknowledge it when I was with 
you; and I hope you are so still, and 
always will be. 

14 A great many of you, I can safely 
and gladly say, have owned and gloried 
in me as your true apostle and teacher ; 
and I will accordingly glory and rejoice 
in them at the great day of Christ's 
judgment, as disciples converted and 
saved by my doctrine and ministry. 

15 And with this full confidence and 
satisfaction in such of you as do thus 
respect and esteem me, was I fully in- 

* Acts xx. tended to come * and visit your church 
a second time, for your further instruc- 
tion and confirmation in the Christian 

16 Designing not f to call upon you 
in my way to Macedonia, but to come 
to you from thence, and to take provi- 
sions of you for my voyage to Jerusa- 

17 And what if I did not actually 
come according to my first purpose ? 
Have any of your new factions any rea- 
son from thence to say I am an uncer- 
tain, fickle, and deceitful man f , acted 
purely by self-interest, and have no re- 
gard to my word ? 

18 God can testify my preaching and 
conversation among you has shewn me 

f See 1 Cor 
xvi. 6, 7. 

none other things un- 
to you, than what you 
read or acknowledge, 
and I trust you shall 
acknowledge even to 
the end. 

14 As also you have 
acknowledged us in 
part, that we are your 
rejoicing, even as ye 
also are ours in the 
day of the Lord Jesus. 

15 And in this con- 
fidence I was minded 
to come unto you be- 
fore, that you might 
have a second benefit : 

16 And to pass by 
t you into Macedonia, 
and to come again out 
of Macedonia unto 
you, and of you to be 
brought on my way 
toward Judea. 

17 When I there- 
fore was thus minded, 
did 1 use lightness ? or 
the things that I pur- 
pose, do I purpose ac- 
cording to the flesh, 
that with me there 
should be yea, yea, 
and nay, nay ? 

18 But as God is 
true, our word to- 

t Ver. 17. In the Hebrew and Hellenistic languages yea is as 
much as to affirm, nay to deny. For a man to have his yea, yea, 
and his nay, nay, is to be true and faithful ; but to be yea and nay 
at the same time, is to be false and contradictious. Wherefore the 
Rev. Dr. Mills has well observed the true reading of this place to 
be to vai koc\ to qv, yea and nay, according to the ancient copy of Beza. 
For to double the phrases, makes the sense directly contrary to the 
scope of the apostle. 


ward you was not yea 
and nay. 

10 For the Son of 
God, Jesus Christ/who 
was preached among 
you by us, even by me, 
and Silvanus, and Ti- 
motheus, was not yea 
and nay, but in him 
was yea. 

20 For all the pro- 
mises of God in him 
are yea, and in him 
Amen, unlo the glory 
of God by us. 

21 Now he which 
stablisheth us with 
you in Christ, and 
hath anointed us, is 

22 Who hath also 
sealed us, and given 
the earnest of the Spi- 
rit in our hearts. 

23 Moreover, I 
call God for a record 
X upon my soul, that 
to spare you I came 
not as yet unto Co- 

to be quite another sort of person, al- A. D. 57. 

ways uniform in my conduct, and con . 

sistent with myself. 

19 As to the Christian doctrine de-* 
livered to you by myself and by Timo- 
thy*, and Silvanus under me, (especially * Acts 
that principal point of Christ's being a xvm * D * 
crucified f and risen Saviour,) you know 

it was one and the same from us all. 

20 For I founded the certainty of all 
the gracious promises in the dispensa- 
tion of the Gospel preached by us the 
apostles of Christ, on his being a cru- 
cified f Redeemer, and a risen Saviour. 

21 The truth of which Christian 
doctrine God has sufficiently demon- 
strated both to you and me, and con- 
firmed us in the belief of it, by the mi- 
raculous gifts of his Holy Spirit. 

2 C 2 Which gifts are as perfect a ratifi- 
cation of his promises in Christ, as the 
seal is to a deed or covenant ; and are 
a pledge of our future enjoyment of 
them, if we perform the conditions an- 
nexed to them. It is very unjust there- 
fore, for a person thus qualified with all 
the marks of a true apostle, and so con- 
stant and consistent in his doctrine as I 
am, to be accounted an inconstant and 
a selfish man. 

23 But to tell you the true reason of 
my not coming at the time appointed, 
I call God to witness, it was neither out 
of disregard to my friends, nor fear of 
my enemies, but purely out of tender- 
ness to the obstinate and offending part 
of you ; to suspend for a while the 
punishment I threatened, in a charitable 
hope of their amendment. 

f Ver. 19, 20. See 1 Cor. i. 23. ii. 2. v. 1, 2, &c. 
X Ver. 23. Upon my soul. Yvx*h upon my life. As much as to 
say, May I die if it be not true. 




A. D. 57. 24 When I speak of threatening and 
. sparing offenders, I would not be under- 
stood to challenge any absolute power 
over you or your religious principles ; 
no, I am only your assistant in Chris- 
tianity ; it is Jesus Christ *, not I, in 
whom you believe as your Lord and 

24 Not for that 
we have dominion 
over your faith, but 
are helpers of your 
joy: for by faith ye 


He proceeds to shew the reason of his not coming to Corinth so soon as 
he intended, to be his clemency towards the scandalous offenders. 
Expresseth his tenderness toward theni all. Desires that even the 
incestuous person should be received into the church again upon his 
repentance. Declares his own sincerity, and the difficult charge of 
the apostolical office: with a reflection upon their new teachers that 
opposed him. 

1 raiHE love I have for you, was in- 
•*• deed the reason why I came not 
to Corinth at the appointed time, when 
I found my presence would be a matter 
of grief to your church on account of 
the severities I should have been obliged 
to exercise. 

9 And had I done it, what comfort 
could I have had among a people I so 
much love, and yet am forced to punish 
some in so severe a degree ? Nothing 
but their repentance could have alle- 
viated my grief. 

3 I have therefore written to you and 
told you my mind beforehand, that by 
a timely reformation of the disorders in 
your church, I might not have the vex- 
ation of punishing instead of the plea- 
sure of congratulating, when I come to 
visit you. And I hope you have a re- 
gard to my peace and satisfaction, as if 
it were your own. 

4 When I wrote to you such severe 

1 fjUT I; determin- 
ed this with my- 
self, that I would not 
come again to you in 

2 For if I make 
you sorry, who is he 
then that maketh me 
glad, but the same 
which is made sorry 
by me ? 

3 And I wrote this 
same unto you, lest 
when I came, I should 
have sorrow from them 
of whom I ought to 
rejoice, having con- 
fidence in you all, that 
my joy is the joy of 
you all. 

4 For out of much 

* Ver. 24. T* yu§ tsW^ ermvt» for ye have stood in the faith, 
of Jesus Christ, not of me. 


affliction and anguish 
of heart, I wrote unto 
you with many tears ; 
not that you should 
be grieved, but that 
ye might know the 
love which I have 
more abundantly unto 

5 But if any have 
caused grief, he hath 
not grieved me, but 
in part : that I may 
not overcharge you 

6 Sufficient to such 
a man is this punish- 
ment, which was in- 
flicted of many. 

7 So that contrari- 
wise, ye ought rather 
to forgive him, and 
comfort him, lest per- 
haps such a one should 
be swallowed up with" 
overmuch sorrow. 

8 Wherefore I be- 
seech you, that ye 
would confirm your 
love toward him. 

9 For to this end 
also did I write, that I 
might know the proof 
of you, whether ye be 
obedient in all things. 

10 To whom ye 
forgive any thing, 1 
forgive also; for if I 
forgave any thing, to 
whom I forgave it, for 
your sakes forgave I 

orders for the excommunicating # your A. D. Sf. 

obstinate transgressors, I was so far 

from having any delight in punishing, 
that on the contrary, that direction 
came from me with the deepest sorrow 
and arose from the necessary regard 1 
have to the good of your whole church, 
by procuring their reformation. 

5 If the incestuous person in particu- 
lar has, by his crime and punishment, 
become a scandal and an occasion ot 
grief, you have your share in it as well 
as I. I will not take it to myself m 
particular, because I am unwilling any 
way to bear too hard upon you or him. 

6 And since I find you have, pursuant 
to my direction, unanimously excom- 
municated him, that is enough; if he 
will repent, we will no further aggra- 
vate either his sin or punishment. 

7 On the contrary, upon his giving 
sions of true reformation, I advise you 
to & be tender to him, and restore him 
again to the communion of the church, 
lest by excluding him too long, you 
cause him to despair. 

8 Wherefore I earnestly desire of you 
to shew him, that the punishment ot 
him proceeded from a hatred of his 
crime, not of his person, and was only 
intended for his benefit. 

9 And then when I shall have re- 
formed and restored the offender to the 
church, and at the same time proved 
your obedient temper toward me, 1 shall 
have attained the main purpose of my 
first Epistle. 

10 11 Be assured therefore that 
whatever notorious offender you shall, 
upon his repentance, unanimously re- 
ceive again into communion, he has my 
pardon? which I give him by my apo- 

* See 1 Cor. v. 4, 5. and xvi. 23. 



A.D. 57. stolical authority derived from Jesus 

Christ, and out of a tender regard to 

you; lest the devil should take occasion 
from the severity wherewith such a one 
hath been treated, to drive him to de- 
spair. For I am well aware, that it is 
one of his devices for the ruin of man- 
kind. It was he that hurried Judas 
into despair, after having first tempted 
him to be treacherous and dishonest. 

12, 13 And to give you a further 
instance of the real concern I have for 
you, to shew you that my not coming 
to you at the time prefixed was not the 
effect of any disrespect ; I tell you, that 
as soon as I came to Troas, in my way 
to you, and found there sufficient work 
to detain me, and Titus not being there 
to give me an account of the success of 
my last letter, and of your welfare, I 
was under the utmost uneasiness, left 
the place, and went immediately into 
Macedonia in search of him. 

14 At which place I found him, and 
received of him a very comfortable ac- 
count of your church in general; where- 
fore I bless God for the success he is 
pleased to bestow on my labours, in 
propagating the comfortable knowledge 
of the Christian religion. 

15 And, indeed, whatever the success 
of my ministry be, though some (nay 
the greater part of) men refuse to 
hearken to the evidence offered for the 
truth of the Gospel, and perish by their 
obstinacy, while others embraced it and 
are saved ; yet are my sincere endea- 
vours acceptable to God in respect to 

16 It is true, some people are of in- 
genuous and well-disposed minds, capa- 
ble of being easily led into the true faith 
and means of salvation ; while the ma- 
jority are so obstinate and corrupt, that 
our utmost endeavours, and the clearest 


it in the person of 
Christ ; 

11 Lest Satan 
should get an advan- 
tage of us ; for we 
are not ignorant of 
his devices. 

12 Furthermore, 
when I came to Troas 
to preach Christ's Gos- 
pel, and a door was 
opened unto me of the 

13 I had no rest in 
my spirit, because I 
found not Titus my 
brother : but taking 
my leave of them, I 
went from thence into 

14 Now thanks be 
unto God, which al- 
ways causeth us to 
triumph in Christ, and 
maketh manifest the 
favour of his know- 
ledge by us in every 

1 5 For we are unto 
God a sweet savour 
of Christ, in them that 
are saved, and in them 
that perish. 

16 To the one we 
are the savour of death 
unto death ; and to 
the other the savour 
of life unto life. And 
who is sufficient for 
these things ? 


17 For fwe are not 
as many, which cor- 
rupt the word of God : 
but as of sincerity, but 
as of God, in the sight 
of God speak we in 

evidences we can lay before them, will A. D. 57, 

not prevail with them to love truth, or 

keep them from destruction. The Gos- 
pel ministry is therefore a difficult and 
laborious charge ; take heed what 
leaders you follow, for it is not every 
pretender that is equal to so great a 
work *. 

17 But rely upon me and my fellow 
apostles, who do not, like f your new 
teachers, adulterate and pervert the 
Gospel-doctrines to make ourselves 
heads of parties, regarding private 
J gain and applause ; but preach them 
in the same plainness and purity, in 
which Christ himself delivered them to 
us ; always remembering, that God's 
all-seeing eye is upon all our ways ; and 
that to him we must give an account of 
our behaviour in our Christian ministry. 

* Ver. 16. And who is sufficient for these things f Beside the pa- 
raphrase, which I take to be most agreeable to the main scope of 
the apostle, there is another way of supplying the sense of this 
clause, viz. None can answer all the ends and desired effects of his 
preaching ; but still our sincerity of endeavours renders us acceptable to 
God, as if we had attained them with all men alike. 

+ Ver. 17. For we are not as many, 'ft? ol woXXo*, the many, the 
generality, the major part. Which shews that the principles of these 
factions St. Paul wrote against, had spread themselves to a very 
formidable degree. Note, The word <gtq*\o) is used with the article 
but four or five times in the New Testament, and is then very 
emphatical, always denoting, the many, the major part, or all man- 

% KccMXtvonts, mixing, selli?ig, bartering for gain. See note upon 
chap. iv. 2. 





What the apostle says of himself and his own sincerity, is to be only 
taken as a vindication from the aspersion of their false teachers, and 
not as any needful recommendation of himself to theirs, or any other 
churches. Their conversion to Christianity by his preaching and 
miracles, was a sufficient recommendation. Plain and undisguised 
preaching best becomes the Gospel dispensation ; sliewn from a com- 
parison between it and the Jewish law, in respect of the obscurity and 
figurative nature of the one, and the plainness and perspicuity of the 
other. The Gospel ministry more honourable than that of the Law. 

D. 57. 1 

~[3Y thus insisting upon my own 
-*-* sincerity, (chap. ii. 17-) I would 
not have any of you imagine I wanted 
any recommendations to your church, 
or needed your good word to set me off 
to any other Christian churches; as I 
find some of your new teachers get 
themselves recommended to you. 

2 My own mind satisfies me, and I 
appeal to the world, whether your con- 
version to the Christian religion, by 
my doctrine and miracles, be not a suf- 
ficient recommendation of me as a true 

3 Those evidences, by which you 
were fully convinced of the truth of 
Christ's religion, are beyond the ap- 
plause of any tongue or pen ; and are 
as clear a demonstration of a divine 
hand, as that of the Ten Command- 
ments written upon the tables of stone *, 
(Exod. xxxi. 18.) And the efficacy of 
the Gospel is as much greater than that 
of the Law, as can be expressed by 
comparing that which is written in a 
book, with that which is imprinted in- 
wardly in the very heart and soul itself. 

1 JTJO we begin a- 
gain to com- 
mend ourselves } or 
need we, as some 
others, epistles of com- 
mendation to you, or 
letters of commenda- 
tion from you ? 

2 Ye are our epistle 
written in our hearts, 
know and read of all 

3 Forasmuch as ye 
are manifestly declar- 
ed to be the epistle of 
Christ, ministered by 
us, written not with 
ink, but with the Spirit 
of the living God j 
not * i n tables of stone, 
but in fleshly tables of 
the heart. 

* Ver. 3. Not in tables of stone. By the comparison here made 
use of between the legal and Gospel dispensation, it appears that 
the apostle's argument for vindicating his apostolical ministry in 
this chapter, was levelled at their teachers of the Judaizing faction, 
and is continued on through the fourth and fifth chapters. 


4 And such trust 
have we through 
Christ to God-ward : 

5 Not that we are 
sufficient of ourselves 
to think any thing as 
of ourselves ; but our 
sufficiency is of God. 

6 Who also hath 
made us able mini- 
sters of the New Tes- 
tament; not of the let- 
ter, but of the spirit : 
for the letter killeth, 
but the spirit giveth 

7 But f if the mini- 
stration of death, writ- 
ten and engraven in 
stones, was glorious, 
so that the children 
of Israel could not 
stedfastly behold the 
face of Moses for the 
glory of his counte- 
nance; which glory was 
to be done away: 

S How shall not 
the ministration of the 
spirit be rather glo- 
rious } 

9 For if the mini- 
stration of condemna- 
tion be glory, much 
more doth the t mini- 

4 And I am assured from thence, A. IX 57. 

that God will not only justify my sin — 

cerity, but will constantly assist me, and 

still give success to my Christian mi- 

5 it is upon him, and the power of 
bis Spirit, and the doctrines of bis re- 
velation, that I rely ; not upon any suf- 
ficiency of my own reasoning and abili- 
ties, for converting mankind to the 
belief of the Gospel religion. 

6 His help vouchsafed to me, not 
my own qualifications, enables me to 
propagate the doctrines of the new 
covenant with success; a covenant far 
exceeding the Mosaic in its doctrines 
and privileges. For while our breaches 
of the moral *, and the natural insuffi- 
ciency of the ceremonial law, leave us 
still sinners, and obnoxious to death 
and punishment, the spiritual and 
powerful religion of the Gospel restores 
us to divine favour, life, and happiness. 

7, 8 f And as the dispensation itself + But ? /> " 
is more excellent, so the Christian mi- £ ' "* 
nistry is proportion ably moye honour- 
able than the Mosaical priesthood. For 
if God was pleased to shew a testimony 
of respect to Moses, the minister of an 
imperfect and temporary dispensation, 
by giving a supernatural brightness to 
his face, at its first delivery at Mount 
Sinai ; (which brightness, like the law 
he gave, lasted but for a while ;) how 
much more honourable do you think 
God intends Christ and bis apostles to 
be esteemed, who deliver a dispensation 
essentially good, pure, and spiritual ? 

9 If, I say, such tokens of divine re- 
gard attended that law which was de- 
fective, and but preparatory to a future 
and perfect method of salvation ; much 

* See Jer. xxxi. 31, &c. Heb. viii. Rom. vi.. 4, 15. 

% Ver. 9. The ministration of rigliieoiwiess. tUs ^Wicctv^c, of ju \t\r. 

Jication, as opposed to condemnation. 

VOt. I. D D 




A- D. 57- more honourably must the Christian 

religion and its ministry be esteemed, 

which supplies all the defects of the 
other, and gives full pardon, life, and 
happiness, to all true believers; while 
the Jewish law left all that were subject 
to it under guilt, and liable to punish^ 

10, 11 Indeed the difference is so 
great as to admit of no comparison be- 
tween a religion and a ministry that is 
short and temporary, and one that car- 
ries such internal excellency, as to 
make it constant and unchangeable to 
the end of the world. 

12 Now this superior excellency of 
the Gospel" religion, and assurance I 
have of successfully preaching it, by the 
divine assistance, is sufficient to justify- 
that plainness and unaffected freedom 
of speech, with which I deliver its doc- 
trines, and vindicate the honour of its 
true ministers. And you ought, upon 
this account, to be so far from under- 
valuing, as to respect me the more. 

13 For we Christian apostles have 
no occasion to cover the sense of our 
doctrines, as Moses did his face. His 
covering his face, the full lustre whereof 
the Israelites could not bear, signified 
the obscure and typical nature of the 
law he was about to deliver : the ulti- 
mate design and meaning of which was 
not understood by that people*. 

stration of righteous- 
ness exceed in glory. 

10 For even that 
which was made glo- 
rious, had no glory 
in this respect, by 
reason of the glory 
that excelleth. 

11 For if that 
which is done away 
was glorious, much 
more that which re- 
maineth is glorious. 

12 Seeing then that 
we have such hope, 
we use great plain- 
ness of speech. 

13 And not as Mo- 
ses, which put a veil 
over his face, that 
* the children of Israel 
could not stedfastly 
look to the end of 
that which is abo- 

* Ver. 13. That the children of Israel could not stedfastly look unto, 
8)-c. vTfog to fxri armani, &;c. For that (or to denote that) the children of 
Israel did not attend to, or understand, the ultimate design of the law, 
that was designed to be, and is now, abolished. The expression is 
plainly intended to denote the effect itself, not the cause of their ig- 
norance. Moses was veiled to denote their ignorance ; not that 
they were made ignorant by his putting on the veil. 


14 But their minds 
were blinded : for 
until this day re- 
maineth the same vail 
untaken away in the 
reading- of the Old 
Testament; whichvail 
is done away in 

15 But even unto 
this day, when Moses 
is read, the vail is 
upon their heart. 

16 Nevertheless, 
when it shall turn to 
the Lord, the vail 
shall be taken away. 

17 Now the Lord 
is that Spirit : and 
where the Spirit of 
the Lord is, there is 

14, 15 Nor indeed do their posterity A. D. S7 

yet understand those types and pro-— 

phecies of the Old Testament, which 
are no way perfectly to be apprehended 
and fulfilled, but as they relate to Jesus 
Christ. And by their obstinate disbe- 
lief in him as their Messiah, the vail is, 
as it were, still upon their minds; and 
they can no more understand the true 
intent of their law and of the books of 
the prophets that are read every sab- 
bath-day to them, than they could see 
the face of Moses, when he gave them 
the law. 

16' But as when Moses upon the 
Mount turned his face from the people 
towards God, he then took off his vail : 
so whenever the Jewish nation shall be 
converted to the Christian faith, by duly 
and impartially comparing their law 
and prophecies with Christ and his reli- 
gion, they will then perfectly see and 
understand the true intent and spiritual 
meaning of them. 

17 For Jesus Christ is that Messiah 
described and foretold by the Jewish 
prophets, and his religion and doctrine 
the full spiritual accomplishment and 
ultimate signification of the ceremonial 
law. From which yoke of bondage this 
spiritual religion of Christ has set us 
free: giving us also liberty or deliver- 
ance from the slavery of sin ; from the 
rigour and terror of the law, (the mi- 
nistration of condemnation, and of 
death, ver. 7> 9.) and withdrawing 
that veil of ignorance which has covered 

* Ver. 17. There is liberty. This liberty, fAsvSfp'a, is either the 
same with wappW/a, ver. 12. freedom and plainness of speech ; or 
else freedom from the Jewish ceremonies. The latter is the sense 
of the judicious Dr. Clarke, (Serm. vol. iii. and both senses in vol. 
v. serm. 17.) to which excellent sermon upon this text, I may 
safely refer the reader for the clearest and best explication of this 
whole chapter. See also his Comment, on 40 texts, No. 40. 

D d c 2 



chap, rn, 

A. D. 57. the hearts of the Jewish nation for so 

__long a time. Well therefore may such 

a religion set its ministers above the 
vain flourishes of Gentile orators, and 
the obscure traditions of Jewish doc- 
tors, and make them preach it with a 
noble freedom and undisguised plain- 
ness of speech. 

1 8 And thus by a clear understand- 
ing of the religion of the Gospel, we 
preach it to the world with plainness 
and simplicity ; and in so doing, we are 
the true representatives of Christ, our 
glorious Master, by whose Spirit we 
are guided and directed, and are more 
and more like him who is light and 
truth himself*. And we and all good 
Christians, guided by the plain revela- 
tion of God's Spirit, and living up to 
Christ's commands, shall gradually be- 
come like to him here in true virtue, 
and more like him hereafter in glory 
and happiness. 

18 But we all, with 
open face beholding 
as in a glass the glory 
of the Lord, are 
changed into the same 
image from glory to 
glory, even as by the 
Spirit of the Lord *. 

"* Ver. 18. KavaVjp wo Kvelov nvsJ^aroj, as by the Spirit of the 
Lord: or by the Lord, (viz. Christ, who I said, ver. 17. was) the 
Spirit. The sense either way is, That as Christ and his religion 
is the true spiritual meaning and fulfilling of the Mosaical law, so 
his apostles and ministers are in their preaching and office more 
clear and illustrious, in proportion to the excellency and clearness 
of Jesus Christ and his doctrine. 



The dignity of the Gospel ministry, and the divine power attending it, 
a great encouragement to the apostle's conscientious discharge of it, 
notwithstanding the reproaches of his adversaries ; with a reflection on 
their false teachers. Sufferings for religion, and divine deliverances 
from those sufferings, a plain proof of a true apostle. The future 
prospect, a support under Christian sufferings. 




seeing we have 
this ministry, as we 
have received mercy, 
we faint not ; 

2 But have re- 
nounced the hidden 
things of dishonesty, 
not walking in crafti- 
ness, nor handling the 
word of God deceit- 
fully j but by mani- 
festation of the truth 
commending our- 
selves to every man's 
conscience in the 
sight of God. 

3 But if our Gospel 
be hid, it is hid to 
them that are lost ; 

4 In whom the God 
of this world hath 
blinded the minds of 
them which believe 
not, lest the light of 
the glorious Gospel 
of Christ, who is the 
image of God, should 
shine unto them. 

5 For we preach 
not ourselves %, but 
Christ Jesus the Lord j 

1 nPHE due sense then 1 have of A. D. 57. 

-*- the honoiirableness of the Chris- 

tian # ministry, and the divine assistance 
accompanying me in my sincere dis- 
charge of it, is what gives me life and 
spirit to go through it, under all the 
reproaches of my adversaries f. 

2 In the performance of which office, 
I scorn to make use of those private 
and unwarrantable practices that some 
of your new teachers have recourse to, 
in order to exalt themselves, and depress 
me. I desire to recommend myself by 
nothing but the plainness and purity of 
my doctrine, which will be approved 
both of God, and of all well-disposed 

3, 4 Nor can what I have preached 
and written to you, be denied to be the 
pure and sincere Gospel, unless by such 
sensual and profligate men, whose affec- 
tions are so wedded to their temporal 
advantages, that they have no relish of 
the wise and glorious purposes of the 
religion of Jesus Christ the Son of 
God, the image of the Father, and the 
revealer of his will to mankind. 

5 For I have not given the least oc- 
casion to any to suspect that I set up 
myself for a head of + a party, for any 

* See chap. iii. f See note on ver. 3. ibid. 

% Ver. 5. We preach not ourselves, i. e. not ourselves as lords, 

,*\Ka, X^rov 'Ini-ovv Kvptov, but Christ Jesus as the Lord. 

D D 3 




A. D. 57. private advantage, but preach Jesus 

Christ as the common Lord and Head 

of all Christians; pretending myself to 
be, like the other apostles, nothing more 
than a minister* under him, arid ready 
to do any kind of service for your edifi- 
cation in his religion. 

6 His minister, I say, whom God 
the Father and Creator of all things, 
who by his word produced light from 
darkness; has declared to be the true 
Messiah, the last and most glorious re- 
veaier of his will to mankind; which, 
by the illumination of the Holy Spirit, 
he has enabled us his apostles truly to 
understand, and preach to the world. 

7 These endowments of the Spirit 
conferred upon us weak and mortal 
men fully prove, that the miracles we 
work, for the confirmation of the true 
religion, are effects of the divine power, 
and have no mixture of human f wis- 
dom or contrivance. 

8, 9 And i his is further confirmed 
by that wonderful Providence that at- 
tended us under all the difficulties of 
our ministry, not suffering us to despair 
under the hardest calamities ; delivering 
us even when there seems no hope of 
an escape, and raising us up from the 
very jaws of death. 

10,11 And thus, as the continual 

and ourselves your 
servants for Jesus' 
sake *. 

6 For God, who 
commanded the light 
to shine out of dark- 
ness, hath shined in 
our hearts, to give the 
light of the know ledge 
of the glory of God 
in the face of Jesus 

7 But we have this 
treasure in earthen 
vessels, that the ex- 
cellency of the power 
may be of God, and 
not of us. 

sufferings we undergo for his religion, 
are a constant resemblance of his death 
and sufferings for us, and a manifesta- 
tion of our faith in them ; so the mar- 
vellous protection and deliverance we 
have from them, are a resemblance of 
his resurrection, and a clear proof, that 
that Saviour who can thus raise us 
from dangers and death, is himself risen 
to an endless life and power. 

8 We are troubled 
on every side, yet not 
distressed ; we are per- 
plexed, but not in 
despair j 

9 Persecuted, but 
not forsaken ; cast 
down, but not de- 
stroyed ; 

10 Always bearing 
about in the body 
the dying of the Lord 
Jesus, that the life 
also of Jesus might 
be made manifest in 
our body. 

11 For we which 
live are alway deli- 
vered unto death for 
Jesus' sake, that the 
life also of Jesus might 

* Ver. 5. Am 'Uo-ovv, for Jesus' sake, or by or through Jesus 
by his commission. ■ 

t See l Cor. ii. 4, 5. 


be made manifest in 
our mortal flesh. 

12 So then death 
worketh in us, but 
life in you. 

13 We having the 
same spirit of faith, 
according as it is 
written, I believed, 
and therefore have 1 
spoken * ; we also be- 
lieve, and therefore 
speak ; 

14 Knowing that 
he which raised up 
the Lord Jesus shall 
raise up us also by 
Jesus, and shall pre- 
sent us with you. 

15 For all things 
are for your sakes, 
that the abundant 
grace might through 
the thanksgiving of 
many redound to the 
glory of God. 

16 For which cause 
we faint not ; but 
though our outward 
man perish, yet the 
inward man is f re- 
newed day by day. 

A. D. 57. 

\ c 2 So that while preaching the 
Gospel procures us, the apostles of 
Christ, persecution even unto death ; 
it gives you that embrace it a lull as- 
surance of eternal life and happiness. 

13 For our courage and constancy 
under these sufferings is founded upon 
the same principle with that of the 
Psalmist* ; (Ps. cxvi. 10.) faith in the 
truth and power of God, that in the 
midst of the sorrows of death made him 
declare, he yet hoped to walk before God 
in the land, of the living ; and makes us 
also to continue to preach the true re- 
ligion in the midst of the utmost op- 
position and distress. 

14 Being perfectly assured, that the 
God who raised up the Lord Jesus 
from the grave, will one day, in reward 
of all our sufferings for his sake, raise 
up us and all true Christians from 
death, by the power of the same Jesus, 
who will then present us to God his 
Father, as proper subjects of eternal 

15 For your sakes then, as well as 
my own, I patiently undergo these 
hardships; that the more I convert and 
bring to the means of salvation, the 
greater glory and praise may redound 
to God. 

16 And upon these accounts, I pro- 
secute my ministry with undaunted 
zeal ; and while my body labours under 
persecution, my mind is fortified with 
patience and resolution f . 

* Ver. 13. I believed, and therefore have I spoken. Note, I will 
not undertake to determine, whether these words were spoken by 
David, or by him in the person of Christ. For the latter senti- 
ment, let the reader see Mr. Pierce's Dissertation on this passage. 

f Ver. 16. Is renewed, i. e. Trf <nr<V«, t*j eXx*^, t*i -nyfoSvpa, with 
faith, hope, and courage. Chrysostom. 

D D 4 





57. 16 Being Tally assured, that the short 
afflictions of this life will be recom- 
pensed by a vast reward that bears no 
proportion to them. 

18 And having little or no regard to 
the satisfactions of the present visible 
world, or concern about either its plea- 
sures or inconveniences, its comforts or 
afflictions, my aim is fixed upon the 
invisible joys of another ; the one being 
short and momentary, the other per- 
fect and eternal. 

17 For our light 
affliction, which is 
but for a moment, 
worketh for us a far 
more exceeding and 
eternal weight of 
glory : 

18 While we look 
not at the things 
which are seen, but 
at the things which 
are not seen : for the 
things which are seen 
are temporal ; but the 
things which are not 
seen are eternal. 


The same argument continued. The prospect of future happiness, and 
Vae full assurance of it by the gifts of the Holy Spirit, animates the 
apostle in his sufferings for the Gospel ; and makes 1dm earnestly 
[though not impatiently) vnsh to be freed from the troubles of the 
present life. .Justifies his behaviour against the Judaizing faction. 
Answers their prejudices against him, for embracing the Gentile con- 
verts as equally a part of the Christian church with themselves ; and 
proves the reasonableness of his so doing. 

* Chap iv. 1 
16, 17, 18. 

rpHUS (I say *) I patiently en- 
-* dure all bodily afflictions, being 
assured, that after I have laid down this 
frail and earthy body, God will invest 
and adorn me with one that is heavenly 
and immortal. 

% 3 In this bodily state I labour 
under so many pressures and diffi- 
culties, as cannot but make me wish 
(though not impatiently) after that hea- 
venly tabernacle. Especially upon the 

1 "fOR we know 
that if our 
earthly house of this 
tabernacle were dis- 
solved, we have a 
building of God, an 
house not made with 
hands, eternal in the 

2 For in * this we 
groan, earnestly desir- 
ing to be clothed 
upon with our house 
which is from heaven : 

* Ver. 2. In this we groan, h tov-u, i. e. in this (bodily) taberna- 
cle, if it agrees with <rwov; in the first verse ; or else b rovru may 
signify now, in the mean while, at this time. So h ih signifies, Luke 
xii. 1. Acts xxiv. 18. See Noldius in Heb. Partic. Bezoth. 


3 If so be* that 
being clothed we shall 
not be found naked. 

4 For we that are 
in this tabernacle do 
groan, being burden- 
ed : not for that we 
would be unclothed, 
but clothed upon, 
that mortality might 
be swallowed up of 


5 Now he that hath 
wrought us for the 
selfsame thing is God, 
who also hath given 
unto us the earnest of 
the Spirit. 

6 Therefore we 
are always confident, 
knowing that, whilst 
we are at home in the 
body, we are absent 
from the Lord : 

7 (For we walk by 
faith, not by sight :) 

8 We are confident, 
/ say, and willing 
rather to be absent 
from the body, and to 
be present with the 

9 Wherefore we la- 
bour, that, whether 

assurance, that when I leave * this I A. D. 57, 
shall not fail of the other. . 

4 Indeed the bodily uneasinesses are 
such, that if it could be helped, I could 
wish to be translated to my heavenly 
and happy mansion, without undergoing 
the pains of dying, and be released from 
this painful life. A desire which is but 
natural to one in a mortal and trouble- 
some state, and that is sure of attaining, 
one day, to a condition of perfect ease 
and happiness. 

5 Nor can we but have our eyes and 
thoughts fixed upon that happy con- 
dition, since God, who has given us the 
promise of it, has already given us a per- 
fect earnest and pledge of our future 
enjoyment, by the gifts and graces of 
his Holy Spirit now conferred upon us. 

6 This promise and pledge fills us 
with life and spirit under the hardships 
attending our ministry, makes us look 
on this body as a tent only for present 
reception, and this world as a foreign 
country to us, and take heaven for our 
lasting and proper home. 

7 (For thus the present state is a 
state of expectation, not of enjoyment.) 

8 And while these hopes render me 
patient and zealous in my Christian 
ministry, yet they cannot but, at the 
same time, fill me with earnest desires, 
that the journey of life were over, and 
I were with Christ in a blessed and 
eternal abode. 

In the mean while, my utmost en- 
deavours are spent in so discharging my 

* Ver. 3. Ei'yt, If so be, or since that, hSwat jufvot , being clothed 
(several copies read it Ik^vju/xsvoi, being unclothed, i. e. of this body,) 
we shall not remain naked, but shall have a heavenly one in its room. 
Which indeed is the much clearer construction, it seeming plainly 
to be opposed to the Itcmo-utSou in the *2d verse. 



A. D. 57. office here, as not to fail as an accept- 
■ -ance with him hereafter. 

10 A matter this of infinite consi- 
deration to us all : for a day is coming, 
when every part of our behaviour in 
these bodies of flesh must be tried at the 
great and impartial tribunal of Christ, 
and receive a reward or a punishment 
proportionable to the good or evil of it. 

1 1 A due sense of which terrible and 
just judgment, renders me the more 
earnest in persuading men to embrace 
the Gospel religion, and to believe me 
sincere in preaching it. How truly I 
am so, is perfectly known to God ; and 
I hope I have given you such testimo- 
nies as may have inwardly convinced 
you of it too. 

] 2 Nor do I repeat * these assur- 
ances of it, as if 1 wanted recommenda- 
tion, or suspected the good opinion of 
the sound and sober part of your church, 
but only to stop the mouths of those 
boasting teachers that would undervalue 
me, while they have really nothing 
valuable in themselves. 

* Chap, i'u, 

13 Those Jewish zealots are so pre- 
judiced at my embracing the Gentile 
converts as equally members of the 
church of Christ with themselves, that 
they represent my defence of myself in 
that point, as a piece of perfect mad- 
ness and distraction. Whether it be 
so or no, God is the best judge, in whose 
cause I act. But if this part of my 
conduct be upon just and good grounds, 
you Gentile Christians have the happy 

present or absent, we 
may be accepted of 

10 For we must all 
appear before the 
judgment seat of 
Christ 3 that every 
one may receive the 
things done in his 
body, according to 
that he hath done, 
whether it be good or 

11 Knowing there- 
fore the terror of the 
Lord, we persuade 
men ; but we are 
made manifest unto 
God 3 and I trust also 
are made manifest in 
your consciences. 

12 For we commend 
not ourselves again 
unto you, but give 
you occasion to glory 
on our behalf, that 
ye may have some- 
what to answer them 
which glory in appear- 
ance, and not in heart. 
13 For whether we 
be beside ourselves, 
f it is to God : or 
whether we be sober, 
it is for your cause. 

f Ver. 13. ®w, It is to God — v^Tv, for ijour cause. The context 
in the following verses seems plainly to determine the justness of 
my paraphrase of this verse. 


14 For the love of 
Christ constraineth 
us, because we thus 
judge, that if one died 
for all, then were all 
dead : 

15 And that he died 
for all, that they 
which live, should not 
henceforth live unto 
themselves, but unto 
him which died for 
them, and rose again. 

forth know we no man 
after the flesh : yea, 
though we haveknown 
Christ after f the flesh, 
yet now henceforth 
know we him no 

17 Therefore if any 
man be in Christ, he 

advantage of it, while they shall be con- A. D. 57, 

demned for their rash and uncharitable 


14 For the death of Christ extend- 
ing to the merciful and gracious pardon 
of all true believers among all mankind, 
naturally supposes that the whole world, 
Jews as well as Gentiles, were equally 
in a state of sin and death, and conse- 
quently ought to make us and them 
conclude the one to be as capable * of 
the benefits of his sufferings as the other, 
and obliges us to preach the Gospel to 
them all without distinction. 

15 And this universal redemption of 
Christ ought to disengage all that em- 
brace his religion from all selfish and 
worldly interests ; from all notions of 
engrossing the mercies of God, and the 
privileges of his religion to themselves; 
(as the Jewish Christians are apt to do ;) 
and to promote the propagation of it 
among all nations, to the honour of that 
Saviour who died for the expiation of 
their sins, and has given them a full as- 
surance of pardon and future happiness 
by his resurrection. 

16* For this reason therefore, I look 
upon no man as the better Christian 
upon account of his birth, countiy, or 
extraction, or for his being circumcised 
or not. It is true indeed, even we the 
apostles had once a notion of Christ as 
of a temporal monarch, a Messiah born 
and circumcised a f Jew, to reign for the 
glory and splendor of our particular 
nation. But w r e have now quite other 
apprehensions of him and his religion. 

17 The main thing therefore that 
makes a true Christian, is the reform- 

* Ver. 14. Then were all dead. For the particular stress of the 
apostle's argument here against the Jewish Christians, see my 
paraphrase on Rom. v. from verse 6. to the end. 

f Ver. 16. Christ after the flesh. See Rom. ix. 5. 




A. D 57. ation of his mind and practices ac- 

— ■ cording to the rules of the Gospel. 

The old notion of being the seed of 
Abraham is not the case, but a new 
faith, and a new life. 

18, 19 This is' the condition God 
has now appointed for our obtaining 
the benefits of his sufferings for the sins 
of the whole world, Gentiles as well as 
Jews. Thus extensive is the Gospel 
covenant, and God has ordained us his 
apostles thus to declare and preach it to 
all mankind. 

20 All that we pretend to therefore 
is to be Christ's ambassadors and re- 
presentatives, to exhort and persuade 
men in the name of God, and of Jesus 
Christ, to come in and embrace these 
gracious terms of pardon and recon- 
ciliation to him. 

21 Gracious indeed beyond all ex- 
pression ! Since God has given up the 
innocent and unspotted Son of his bosom 
to be a sacrifice for our sins; by the 
atonement whereof we are put into a 
perfect capacity of eternal pardon and 

is a new creature : old 
things arepassedaway; 
behold, all things are 
become new. 

18 And all things 
are of God, who hath 
reconciled us to him- 
self by Jesus Christ, 
and hath given to us 
the ministry of recon- 
ciliation ; 

19 To wit, that 
God was in Christ, 
reconciling the world 
unto himself, not im- 
puting their trespasses 
unto them ; and hath 
committed unto us 
the word of reconci- 

20 Now then we 
are ambassadors for 
Christ, as though God 
did beseech you by 
us : we pray you in 
Christ's stead be ye 
reconciled to God * : 

21 For he hath 
made him to be sin for 
us, who knew no sin ; 
that we might be made 
the righteousness of 
God in him. 

* Ver. 20. Be ye reconciled to God. KccraXhclyrm tw ©e£, make 
your peace with God. See Matt. v. 28. 



By the warnings given in the I4lh verse, %c. the apostle plainly seems 
to address himself to the Gentile converts of the Corinthian church in 
this chapter. Wherein (having before owned and proved them to be 
true members of the Christian church as well as the Jewish ones, 
chap, v.) he now exhorts them to live worthy of their prof ession ; pro- 
posing to them the example of his own purity, constancy, and patience. 
Expresses his love and regard toward their whole church. Warns 
them to forbear the freedoms they took in partaking of idolatrous 
entertainments, from the danger and inconsistency of such practices 
with the Christian faith and worship: and from some passages of the 
Old Testament. 

1 YVE then as 
workers to- 
gether with him, be- 
seech you also, that ye 
receive not the grace 
of God in vain. 

2 (For he saith, I 
have heard thee in a 
time accepted, and in 
the day of salvation 
have I succoured thee ; 
behold, now is the 
accepted time ; be- 
hold, now is the day 
of salvation.) 

3 Giving no of- 
fence in any thing, 
that the ministry be 
not blamed. 

4 But in all things 
approving ourselves 
as the ministers of 
God, in much pa- 
tience, in afflictions, 
in necessities, in dis- 

5 In stripes, in 
imprisonments, in tu- 
mults, in labours, in 
watchings,in fastings, 

1 4 San apostle of Christ, and a mi- A. D. 57. 

-^ nister under him, I earnestly ex- — 

hort you Gentile converts, since you 
have obtained the favour of being the 
true members of his church, to take all 
care to live worthy of so holy a profes- 

2 (Remember those words of the 
prophet, (Isai. xlix. 8.) wherein God 
the Father declares his acceptance of the 
Gentile world, as his church, in Christ 
the Messiah ; and that this promise is 
now fulfilled by our preaching and con- 
verting vou to the Christian faith. Now 
is the time for your acceptance with 

3 Which office I endeavour to per- 
form with the utmost care and caution, 
so as not to give the least occasion to 
any persons to be prejudiced against it, 
or lose the good effects of it. 

4, 5 But striving to recommend my- 
self and my doctrine, as a worthy mi- 
nister of God, by patiently suffering the 
worst calamities that can befal me, and 
with the exercise of the severest morti- 
fication and self-denial. 





57. 6 By purity of conversation, by the 
— due improvement of my knowledge of 
divine mysteries, by long-suffering and 
forgiveness of all provocations ; by the 
diligent and proper use of the various 
gifts of the Holy Spirit, for the real good 
and benefit of mankind ; 

7 By preaching the pure word of 
God, and confirming it with miracles; 
arming myself, like a true soldier, with 
innocence and righteousness, as a sure 
guard from assaults on either * side, 
whether of prosperity or adversity ; 

8 By bearing, with an equal mind, 
the vile reproaches of designing and 
profane, as well as the commendations 
of sober and considerate men. Patient 
to be esteemed a deceiver by some, 
while I conscientiously dispense the 
word of truth to all. 

9 Contented to be called a mean ob- 
scure person by the unthinking pretend- 
ers to wisdom, while I perform those 
works that prove me to be divinely in- 
spired. Being daily in the very sight 
of death by my sufferings and persecu- 
tions, and yet as often miraculously or 
providentially delivered from it. 

10 By living in a condition sad and 
sorrowful to outward appearance, but 
full of the comforts of a good conscience, 
and the joyous hope of a future happi- 
ness. Being poor and strait as to 
the goods of the present life, while I 
bestow upon others the truest riches. 
Seeming, to the lovers of this world, to 
have nothing, while I am in a sure way 
of possessing all that is durable and 
eternally valuable. 

6 By pureness, by 
knowledge, by long- 
suffering, by kindness, 
by the Holy Ghost, by 
love unfeigned, 

7 By the word of 
truth, by the power 
of God, by the ar- 
mour of righteousness 
on the right hand and 
on the left, 

8 By honour and 
dishonour, by evil re- 
port and good report : 
as deceivers, and yet 
true : 

9 As unknown, and 
yet well f known ; as 
dying, and, behold, we 
live ; as chastened, 
and not killed ; 

10 As sorrowful, 
yet alway rejoicing ; 
as poor, yet making 
many rich ; as having 
nothing, and yet pos- 
sessing all things. 

* Ver. 7. On the right hand and on the left: alluding perhaps 
to that perfection of soldiery which consisted in managing the 
sword equally with right and left hand. Such a one was called 
otfj.^i'^oi and -nrs^/^oc among the Greeks. 

f Ver. 9. Yet well known. 'EmyivuaKOfxivoi, celebrated, remarkable. 



11 O ye Corinthi- 
ans, our mouth is open 
unto you, our heart is 

12 Ye are not strait- 
ened in us, but ye are 
straitened in your own 

13 Now for a re- 
compence in the same, 
(I speak as unto my 
children,) be ye also 

14 Be ye not un- 
equally yoked together 
with unbelievers 5 for 
what fellowship hath 
righteousness with 
unrighteousness? and 
light with darkness? 

15 And what con- 
cord hath Christ with 
Belial? or what part 
hath he that believeth, 
with an infidel ? 

16 And what agree- 
ment hath the temple 
of God with idols ? 
for ye are the temple 
of the living God ; as 
God hath said, I will 
dwell in them, and 
walk in them, and I 
will be their God, and 
they shall be my peo- 

17 Wherefore come 

111 express myself thus freely and A. D. 57. 

largely, to encourage you to imitate my 

example. Nor do I speak thus well of 
myself only; but, my dear Corinthian 
brethren, I think and speak well of you 
too, with a heart full of good and kind 
affections toward you. 

12 You have a large room in my 
heart ; but what I have in yours, I fear, 
is much narrower. 

13 Now I entreat you with the ten- 
derness of a spiritual Father, be just in 
your returns to me, and treat me with 
filial respect and love. 

14 Particularly let the Gentile con- 
verts testify this respect by complying 
with the advices I have given them, not 
to frequent the idolatrous feasts * of 
the heathens, nor do any thing that has 
the least shadow of a participation in 
their superstitious rites ; nor intermarry 
# with any infidels. For what consist- 
ency can there be between a holy and 
pure religion, and an impious and ido- 
latrous worship? 

15 The kingdom of Christ and that 
of the devil are directly opposite and 
destructive of each other; and therefore 
there can be no religious communion 
between a Christian and a heathen. 

16 The Christian church is the temple 
of God, in the most eminent and proper 
acceptation. And those promises of 
God, of his living and dwelling among 
his people, hearing their prayers, and giv- 
ing his blessing upon their services, are 
now applicable to you as Christians. 

17, 18 And those promises of God 

* Ver. 14. See 1 Cor. viii. and x. and 1 Cor. vii. 39. 



chap, vi r. 

A. D. 57. to his church, wherein he calls himself 

• the Father * and Governor of his people, 

and them his peculiar children * and 
servants, though immediately spoken 
to the Jewish church, are yet much 
more completely and truly intended to 
you the church of Christ the Messiah. 
Wherefore as this privilege obliged the 
Jews to preserve themselves from all 
heathen conversation, and from the 
pollution of every unclean thing; much 
more highly must it now oblige Chris- 
tian people to separate from all impure 
and false worship, and cleave to him 
only as the sole of object of their adora- 
tion and happiness. 

out from amongthem, 
and be ye separate, 
saith the Lord, and 
touch not the unclean 
tiling ; and I will re- 
ceive you, 

is' And will be a 
Father unto you, and 
ye shall be my sons 
and daughters, saith 
the Lord Almighty. 


The first verse concludes the argument of the latter part of the fore- 
going chapter. He then desires the good opinion of their whole 
church. Expresses his favourable thoughts and love toward them. 
Rejoiceth at their ready compliance icith the orders of his former 
Epistle, and in the good effects it had on many of them ,• as he under- 
stood by Titus, whose honourable reception among them, gave him 
great satisfaction. 

1 T1THEREFORE having such full 

" assurance of your being the 

t Chap. vi. true f church and people of God, and 

16, 17, 18. en titled to all the blessings and promises 

of Christ's religion ; consider, dear 

brethren, how much it concerns you to 

keep yourselves perfectly clear of all 

heathenish vices and impurities, and to 

improve in all the duties of your most 

holy profession. 

2 Let me again J request of all par- 
ties among you, to entertain and con- 
tinue an opinion of me as your true 
apostle. I have given no occasion for 

1 MAYING there- 
fore these pro- 
mises, dearly beloved, 
let us cleanse our- 
selves from all filthi- 
ness of the flesh and 
spirit, perfecting ho- 
liness in the fear of 

2 Receive us ; we 
have wronged no man, 
we have corrupted no 
man, we have de- 
frauded no man. 

* Ver. 17, 18. See Exod. xxix. 45, 46. Lev. xxvi. 11,12. Ezek. 
xi. 20. xxxvi. 28. xxxvii. 27. Tsa. lii. 11. 

I Ver. 2. JSee chap. iii. 1, &c. and chap. iv. 1, &C. 


any to do otherwise. I have wronged A. D. 

and over-reached none of you in my 

dealings; nor corrupted and imposed 
upon any, in principles of doctrine, as 
some of your false * teachers have done. 

3 1 do not repent this anew as if I 
condemned or suspected you, the well- 
affected part of the Corinthian church, 
of any ill thoughts of me. For as I 
have all along f professed, I have so 
just a sense of* your respect for me, that 
I could live and die with you. 

4 It is this esteem of you that makes 
me express myself thus plainly and 
roundly to your whole church. In 
you I glory, and under all my reproaches 
and afflictions, comfort myself with the 
thoughts and hopes of you. 

3 I speak not this 
to condemn you : for 
I have said before, that 
you are in our hearts, 
to die and live with 

4 Great is my 
boldness of speech to- 
wards you, great is 
my glorying of you : 
I am filled with com- 
fort, I am exceedingly 
joyful in all our tribu- 

5 For when we 
were come into Ma- 
cedonia, our flesh had 
no rest, but we were 
troubled on every 
side ; without were 
fightings, within were 

6 Nevertheless God, 
that comforteth those 
that are cast down, 
comforted us by the 
coming of Titus. 

7 And not by his 
coming only, but by 
the consolation where- 
with he was comfort- 
ed in you, when he 
told us your earnest 
desire, your mourn- 
ing, your fervent mind 
toward me ; so that I 
rejoiced the more. 

5 My concern for you sufficiently 
discovered itself at my first arrival in 
Macedonia, when I lay under the ut- 
most uneasiness; partly from the oppo- 
sition I met with against my doctrine, 
and more especially from the dread I 
had that your false teachers should still 
pervert you, and gain credit in your 

6 But God, the Comforter of the af- 
flicted, relieved me from those fears, by 
the account that Titus gave me of you, 
at his arrival there. 

7 For it was not his presence only 
that rejoiced me, but the comfortable 
account he gave of your pious concern 
at the disorders committed among you, 
and the earnest regard you had to my 
advices and representations. 

* Ver. 2. We have wronged no man, &c. cthirtrrcu tow\ ^et>WoreXov( ? 
Here he flings at their false teachers. Chrysost. in loc. 
f Ver. 3. See chap. hi. 1, 12. 
vol. I. E E 



chap. vir. 

AD. 57. 8 Though it might regret me to write 

. such a severe epistle to you as I did, 

yet the effects of it are so happy, that 
notwithstanding the present concern it 
put you into, I have no reason to re- 
pent the severities of it. 

9 Nay, I heartily rejoice that it so 
troubled you, as to make several of your 
factious members repent and reform 
their irregularities. Indeed, I desire to 
raise none but such kind of trouble in 
your minds; and you have no reason 
to think so pious a concern could do 
you any harm. 

10 For while an anxious and im- 
moderate grief, at the loss of worldly 
things, is a most foolish and hurtful 
passion ; this sorrow for our miscar- 
riages, that brings us to repentance as 
the means and condition of salvation, 
is a trouble a man can never repent him 
of, but will feel an eternal good and be- 
nefit from it. 

11 And of this kind of grief is that 
which the reproofs of my letter have 
wrought in you ; as appears by your 
diligent conformity to my directions; 
the earnest endeavours of the sound and 
sober part of you, to clear yourselves of 
all guilt, by the censures I prescribed 

* See i Cor. upon the guilty person * ; by your zea- 
T * lous desire of rectifying what was amiss, 

and fear of such notorious offences for 
the future ; whereby you have vindi- 
cated yourselves, and appear to be a 
well-disposed people. 

12 I am soon reconciled. For the 
severity I expressed in my epistle, pro- 
ceeded not from any delight I took in 
punishing the incestuous * offender, nor 
any partial kindness for the person in- 
jured by him ; but from my sincere 
concern for the credit and good of your 
whole church. 

8 For though I made 
you sorry with a letter, 
1 do not repent,though 
I did repent : for I 
perceive that the same 
epistle hath made you 
sorry, though it were 
but for a season. 

9 Now I rejoice, not 
that ye were made 
sorry, but that ye sor- 
rowed to repentance : 
for ye were made 
sorry after a godly 
manner, that ye might 
receive damage by us 
in nothing. 

10 For godly sorrow 
worketh repentance to 
salvation not to be 
repented of : but the 
sorrow of the world 
worketh death. 

11 For behold this 
self-same thing, that 
ye sorrowed after a 
godly sort, what care- 
fulness it wrought in 
yQU,yea.,ivhat clearing 
of yourselves, yea, 
what indignation, yea, 
what fear, yea, what 
vehement desire, yea, 
what zeal, yea, what 
revenge ! In all things 
ye have approved your- 
selves to be clear in 
this matter. 

12 Wherefore, 
though I wrote unto 
you, / did it not for 
his cause that had done 
the wrong, nor for his 
cause that suffered 
wrong, but that our 
care for you in the 


sight of God might 
appear unto you. 

13 Therefore we 
were comforted in 
your comfort : yea, 
and exceedingly the 
more joyed we for the 
joy of Titus, because 
his spirit was refresh- 
ed by you all. 

14 For if I have 
boasted any thing to 
him of you, I am not 
ashamed -, but as we 
spake all things to you 
in truth, even so our 
boasting, which / 
made before Titus, is 
found a truth. 

15 And his inward 
affection is more abun- 
dant toward you, 
whilst he remember- 
eth the obedience of 
you all, how with fear 
and trembling ye re- 
ceived him. 

16 I rejoice, there- 
fore, that I have con- 
fidence in you in all 

A. D. 57. 

13 This it was that made the account 
Titus gave me of the reformation my 
epistle had made among you, so ex- 
ceeding comfortable to me, as indeed 
it was to him to find it so, and acquaint 
me with it. 

14 Whatever commendations there- 
fore I have formerly given of you to 
Titus, I find are now verified. And 
as I have always preached the truth to 
you, so I am glad to say I have said no- 
thing but truth of you. 

15 And I must tell you, the respect- 
ful manner you received him in, and 
the regard you paid to the orders he 
brought from me, have very much en- 
deared you to him. 

16 Thus the assurance I give my- 
self from this instance, how much re- 
spect I shall alway find from you, is 
matter of unspeakable satisfaction to me. 



chap. vnr. 


He exhorts them to a large and speedy contribution for the poor Chris- 
tians ofJudea, and excites them to it from the generous example of 
the Macedonian churches. Commends the bearers of this Epistle to 

A D - 57<1 T MUST now desire you, brethren, 
~ x to hasten your charitable * collec- 

tions for the poor and suffering Chris- 
tians of Judea. And to render them 
the more large and speedy, I think it 
proper to acquaint you with the great 
tand exemplary liberality lately shewn 
to them by the Christians of Macedonia, 
and the neighbouring J parts. 

% 3 Namely that, under the most 
afflicting and narrow circumstances, 
they have been most bountiful to their 
fellow-suffering brethren ; indeed be- 
yond what they could well spare, and 
with the utmost freedom and heartiness. 

4 They did it without any solicita- 
tions ; and instead of my entreating 
them, they begged of me very earnestly 
to receive their collections, and be one 
of them that should take care to convey 
them to those poor Christians. 

5 They have perfectly outdone my 

1 m| ORE OVER, 

brethren, we 
do you to wit of the 
grace of God bestow- 
ed on the churches of 
Macedonia : 

2 How that in a 
great trial of af- 
fliction the abundance 
of their joy and their 
deep poverty abound- 
ed unto the riches of 
their liberality. 

3 For to their pow- 
er, I bear record, yea. 
and beyond their 
power, they were will- 
ing of themselves; 

4 Praying us with 
much entreaty, that 
we would receive the 
gift, and take upon us 
the fellowship of the 
ministering to the 

5 And this they did, 

* Ver. 1. See 1 Cor. xvi. 1, &c. 

r» t Ib j ( l; T* **> ™ @ ^'> the grace of God. The liberality, rov 
®sov of God i. e. tiie great liberality. The name of God joined to 
ffiwT m th \ Ue * r ™ kn ^e, is put to magnify it To the 

1 J« in g v r r ee ' 8 ° th * cedars ° f God are the to"*** ™ l «rs, Psalm 
ixxx. 10. Moses was fair before God, i. e. exceeding fair, Acts vii. 
20. and chap. x. 4. of this Epistle, the weapons of our warfare are 
Jb»n^ xu ©s*, powerful to God, i. e. most powerful 
% Viz. Phllippi, Thessalonica, Bersea, &c. 


not as we hoped, but 
first gave their own 
selves to the Lord, 
and unto us by the 
will of God, 

6 Insomuch that 
we desired Titus, that 
as he had begun, so 
he would also finish in 
you the same grace 

7 Therefore as ye 
abound in every thing, 
in faith, in utterance, 
and knowledge, and 
in all diligence, and 
in your love to us : 
see that ye abound in 
this. grace also. 

8 I speak not by 
commandment, but by 
occasion of the for- 
wardness of others, 
and to prove the sin- 
cerity of your love. 

9 For ye know the 
grace of our Lord Je- 
sus Christ, that though 
he was rich, yet for 
your sakes he became 
poor, that ye through 
his poverty might be 

10 And herein I 
give vnj advice : for 
this is expedient for 
you who have begun 
before, not only to 
do, but also to be for- 
ward a year ago. 

expectation, not only in so readily em- A. D. 57. 

bracing the Gospel at first, but in so 

generously resigning themselves to my 
direction ever since their conversion, 
to do whatever I judged to be weil- 
pleasing to God. 

6 This noble example of theirs, put 
me upon ordering Titus, during his stay 
with you, to use it as a proper argu- 
ment to quicken and enlarge your col- 
lections for the same purpose. 

7 And I now accordingly entreat of 
you, since you are become so eminent 
in all other Gospel-virtues, and spiri- 
tual endowments # , and in other things 
have shewn me so much regard, not to 
fail in this admirable virtue of Chris- 
tian liberality, but to be especially 
bountiful at this time. 

8 I do not indeed command it abso- 
lutely from you, nor prescribe how 
much you shall give, but only recom- 
mend it to you from the generous ex- 
amples of other churches, and out of a 
desire you should demonstrate your- 
selves to be of as bounteous a temper 
as any other Christians. 

9 Nor need you any other argument 
to excite you to it, if you well consider the 
infinite bounty and love of Jesus Christ 
our great Lord and example ; who 
though he was the Son of God, and 
Heir of all things, yet condescended to 
live the mean and poor life of man, to 
procure us the inheritance of true and 
eternal riches. 

10 I must advertise you too, that it 
concerns you now to do it effectually, 
as being expected from you, because 
last year f you professed to set about it, 
and shewed a considerable zeal and 
earnestness in it. 

* See 1 Cor. i. 4, 5, 6, 7. and xii. S, 9, 10. 
J- See 1 Cor. xvi. 2. 

E Eo 

42 c 2 




57. 1 1 By all means therefore be as good 

as your word, and answer your first 

pretences with the utmost cheerfulness 
and freedom, according to the best of 
your abilities. 

12 According to every one's abilities, 
1 say : for the least charitable benefi- 
cence, if it be but proportionable to a 
man's power, and from a hearty princi- 
ple, is accepted of God as well as the 

13, 14 And I have no design to 
straiten and oppress you in order to ease 
other people; but only desire, that 
what you can afford may keep them 
from present and absolute want; in hope 
and assurance, that, in another turn, they 
may do you the same kindness, and so 
you may be equally beholden to the 
love and bounty of each other. 

15 And may be all provided for as 
fully as the Israelites were when they 
gathered their manna, (Exod. xvi. 18.) 
when he that gathered much had nothing 
over, and he that gathered Utile had no 

16, 17 And therefore I could not 
but esteem it a blessing, and am thank- 
ful to God for it, to find Titus so ready 
and willing to come and exhort you to 
so good a work ; for I perceive I need 
not have much entreated him to under- 
take what he had so much inclination 

11 Now therefore 
perform the doing of 
it ; that as there was 
a readiness to will, so 
there may be a perform- 
ance also out of that 
which you have. 

12 For if there be 
first a willing mind, 
it is accepted accord- 
ing to that a man 
hath, and not accord- 
ing to tli at he hath 

13 For / mean not 
that other men be 
eased, and you bur- 
dened : 

14 But by an equa- 
lity, that now at this 
time your abundance 
may be a supply for 
their want, that their 
abundance also may 
be a supply for your 
want, that there may 
be equality. 

15 As it is written, 
He that had gathered 
much had nothing 
over ; and he that had 
gathered little, had no 

18, 19 With whom I have sent that 
brother * and fellow traveller of mine, 

16 But thanks be 
to God, which put 
the same earnest care 
into the heart of Ti- 
tus for you. 

17 For indeed he 
accepted the exhort- 
ation, but being more 
forward, of his own 
accord he went unto 

18 And we have 
sent with him the bro- 

Ver. 18. The brother. Whom some take to have been Mark, 


ther, whose praise is in 
the Gospel, through- 
out all the churches : 

19 And not that 
only, but who was 
also chosen of the 
churches to travel 
with us with this 
grace which is admi- 
nistered by us to the 
glory of the same 
Lord, and declaration 
o/your ready mind : 

20 Avoiding this, 
that no man should 
blame us in this abun- 
dance, which is ad- 
ministered by us : 

21 Providing for 
honest things not only 
in the sight of the 
Lord, but also in the 
sight of men. 

22 And we have 
sent with them our 
brother, whom we 
have oftentimes prov- 
ed diligent in many 
things, but now much 
more diligent, upon 
the great confidence 
which / have in you. 

28 Whether any do 
enquire of Titus, he is 
my partner, and fel- 
low helper concern- 

so much famed for his labours in the A. D. 57, 

Gospel; and one whom the churches ■ 

of Macedonia have pitched upon to ac- 
company me with their collections to 
Jerusalem ; a service I undertake purely 
for the honour of Christ and his reli- 
gion, and by it shall be able to shew my 
own * and your generous and charitable 

20 Indeed I never intended to take 
the charge of so great a sum upon my- 
self alone, but resolved to have some 
partners joined with me, to prevent my 
adversaries from all possibility of sus- 
picion, that I appropriated any of it to 
my own private advantage. 

21 It being my utmost care to give 
all testimonies of a sincere and under- 
signing behaviour, not only to God, but 
to the world too. 

22 Along with them I send my bro- 
ther Apollos, that diligent and active 
man, who though he did not think fit 
to bring my last f letter to you, yet was 
ever ready to visit and serve y ; ou; but 
especially now, upon the satisfaction I 
have given him of your more unanimous 
temper and disposition. 

23 And if any of your disaffected 
teachers make any further enquiries 
about Titus, who and what he is, let 
them know he is my partner in the mi- 

others Silas, but most Luke. Of the two latter (especially Luke) 
it is certain they attended St. Paul in this his voyage to Jerusalem, 
as appears from Acts xx. and xxi. 

* Ver. 19. My own. For some copies read it «f>St?/i**aii np£y. It 
may be also rendered, to recommend your free charity, and make it 
acceptable. And probably one of the chief reasons of St. Paul's 
going with it, might be, to obviate the prejudices of the Christians 
of Judea, who might disdain to receive alms of the Gentile Chris- 
tians that were never circumcised. 

f Ver. 22. See 1 Cor. xvi. 12. 

EE 4 




A. D. 57- nistry. And ns to the two fore-men- 

tioned brethren, they are the two 

* See ver. trustees of the Macedonian * churches, 
l?'.? n .? . and most eminent ministers of Christ. 

Phil. 11. 2d. 

24 Wherefore give the churches 
that employ them a due testimony of 
your Christian respect, and shew them 
all what just reason I had to applaud 
and commend you. 

ing you : or our bre- 
thren be enquired of, 
they are the messen- 
gers of the churches, 
and the glory of 

24 Wherefore shew 
ye to them, and be- 
fore the churches, the 
proof of your love, 
and of our boasting 
on your behalf. 


Farther exhortations and encouragements to their charitable contribu- 
tions ; again advising that they be generous, speedy, and cheerful in 

1, 9. P'l^HE exhortations I have been 
t Ch. viii. giving f you, to get your col- 

lections for the poor Christians of Ju- 
dea ready, carry no suspicion of your 
failing in it ; for I am so well satisfied 
of your forwardness to it, that I have 
boasted of it to the Macedonian 
churches, and engaged for your per- 
formance, by the assurances you gave 
me last year. And your example has 
excited many of them to be very liberal. 

3, 4 So that the design of sending 
% Seech, these brethren % to you about it now, 
iii. 18, 19, is only to advertise you of the time it 
should be ready at ; for fear, if the 
Macedonian Christians, that come along 
with me, should find yon had not 
finished it, they should say I boasted 
too soon, and it should turn to the dis- 
credit of us both. 


5 I thought it requisite therefore to 

1 IpOR as touching 
the ministering 

to the saints, it is su- 
perfluous for me to 
write to you. 

2 For I know the 
forwardness of your 
mind, for which I 
boast of you to them 
of Macedonia, that 
Achaia was ready a 
year ago ; and your 
zeal hath provoked 
very many. 

3 Yet have I sent 
the brethren, lest our 
boasting of you should 
be in vain on this be- 
half ; that, as I said, 
ye may be ready. 

4 Lest haply if they 
of Macedonia come 
with me, and find you 
unprepared, we (that 
we say not, ye) 
should be ashamed in 
this same confident 

5 Therefore I 



thought it necessary 
to exhort the bre- 
thren, that they would 
go before unto you, 
and make up before- 
hand your bounty, 
whereof ye had no- 
tice before, that the 
same might be ready 
as a matter of bounty, 
not o/covetousness. 

6 But this / say, 
He which soweth 
sparingly shall reap 
also sparingly: and he 
which soweth bounti- 
fully shall reap also 

7 Every man ac- 
cording as he pur- 
poseth in his heart, so 
let him give ; not 
grudgingly, or of ne- 
cessity : for God lov- 
eth a cheerful giver. 

8 And God is able 
to make all grace a- 
bound towards you ; 
that ye, always having 
all sufficiency in all 
things, may abound 
to every good work : 

9 As it is written, 
He hath dispersed a- 
broad, he hath given 
to the poor: his righte- 
ousness remaineth for 

10 Now he that 
ministereth seed to the 

send them with this previous notice ; A. D. 57- 

which if you carefully observe, your ■ 

* charity will the better appear to be a 
free act, and not in the least measure 
extorted from you. 

6 As to the sum every one should 
contribute, I leave that to each man's 
temper, discretion, and ability; only 
let me remember you in general, that 
Christian liberality is like the husband- 
man's harvest ; you must all expect to 
reap at God's hands, in proportion to 
what you sow. 

7 But whatever any of you give, let 
it come from a free and hearty disposi- 
tion to do good ; not extorted by shame 
and importunity; for God does not 
look upon the gift, but the generous 
mind of the giver. 

8 And, to this end, consider, that 
God is both able and willing to recom- 
pense your liberality with a greater 
abundance of temporal good things ; 
that the more you give, the more you 
may have wherewithal to exercise and 
improve in this noble virtue. 

9 According to those words of the 
Psalmist, (Psal. cxii. 9.) where he saith, 
The liberality \ of the good man is not 
lost and thrown away, but is blest with 
plenty here, and remains an eternal be- 
nefit to him hereafter. 

10 And may God, the Author of all 
our blessings and opportunities of doing 

* Ver 5. T-* N v svXoylav v^v, your bounty. This word hath this 
sense peculiarly in the sacred writings ; it answers to the Hebrew 
Beracha, which the Septuagint frequently render a gift or present, 
Gen. xxxiii. 11. 2 Kings v. 15. and elsewhere. 

f Ver. 9. His righteousness, i hxauxrivn uvtw, his liberality. 




A. D. 57. good, give you a plenteous reward for 
all your bounty and beneficence. 

11 And may he enlarge your cha- 
ritable dispositions, which cause me, 
and all that know and feel the good 
effects of them, to praise and glorify 

12 For the good of your Christian 
charity does not terminate in being a 
comfortable relief to other pious Chris- 
tians, but in becoming a great argu- 
ment of his praise and glory. 

13 Because all those pious sufferers 
that thus experience your truly Chris- 
tian spirit, cannot but look up with a 
thankful heart to him, who is the ori- 
ginal Author of your virtues, and of their 
comfort and refreshment. 

14 And you, in return, will have 
their prayers, love, and blessing, for the 
exercise of so noble and godlike a 
* bounty toward them. 

15 Blessed be God therefore, for 
these inexpressible advantages of this 
charitable temper in you, and all Chris- 
tian people endowed with it. 

* See note 
on ch. viii. 

sower, both minister 
bread for your food, 
and multiply your seed 
sown, and increase the 
fruits of your righte- 

11 Being enriched 
in every thing to all 
bountifulness, which 
causeth through us 
thanksgiving to God. 

12 For the admi- 
nistration of this ser- 
vice not only suppli- 
eth the want of the 
saints, but is abundant 
also by many thanks- 
givings unto God ; 

13 Whiles by the 
experiment of this 
ministration, they glo- 
rify God for your pro- 
fessed subjection unto 
the Gospel of Christ, 
and for your liberal 
and unto all men ;) 

14 And by their 
prayer for you, which 
long after you, for the 
exceeding grace of 
God in you. 

15 Thanks be unto 
God for his unspeak- 
able gift. 



The remaining chapters are spent in confuting the suggestions of their 
false teachers who yet stood out against the apostle ; and endeavours 
to reduce them, both by thrcatenings and persuasions. He here up- 
braids them for undervaluing kirn, on account of the meanness of his 
personal appearance, without duly weighing the strength of his doc- 
trine and writings : as also for their practice of running from one. 
church to another : not for the sake of converting more people to the 
Christian faith, but to pervert such as were already converted by the 
true apostles of Christ. 

1 ]yOW 1 Paul my- 
self beseech you 
by the meekness and 
gentleness of Christ, 
who in presence am 
base among you, but 
being absent am bold 
toward you. 

2ButI beseech you, 
that I may not be 
bold when I am pre- 
sent, with that con- 
fidence wherewith I 
think to be bold a- 
gainst some which 
think of us * as if we 
walked according to 
the flesh. 

3 For though we 
walk in the flesh, we 
do not war after the 
flesh : 

4 (For the wea- 
pons of our warfare 

1, 2 T MUST now again particularly a. D. 57. 

■*■ apply myself to your new and 

false teachers ; several of which, I find, 
are yet unreformed by my last letter to 
your church. They disparage me as a 
person of a mean presence, and a little 
aspect ; and one, who while I threaten 
and speak great, have not spirit and 
courage to execute what I pretend. Let 
such men know, that if I come, and 
find them in no better temper, I shall 
certainly do as I say ; and to their cost 
convince them they have little reason 
to call me a weak, or uncertain, or de^ 
signing man. And I beseech them, by 
the meekness and humility of Jesus 
Christ, our great example, to consider 
of it in time. 

3 For though I am but a man, and 
never so mean a one as to bodily ap- 
pearance; that is nothing to the pur- 
pose ; I do not perform my apostolical 
office by human policy and qualifica- 

4, 5 It is neither beauty or stature of 
body, nor strength of eloquence, nor 

* Ver. 2. 'fi? xara ca^xa <as§necvrwvras 3 as though we walked ac- 
cording to the flesh. O* ^Ef&XTroj-oXoi hiGaXhov clvtov Js vwoKpiT-nv, w$ civu- 
nwva,, ku\ wavT« ht^o? lw$uf;iv ■nroiouvra. The false apostles represented 
Paul as a pretender, and one that did and spoke only for shew and 
ostentation, says (Ecumenius. And see chap. i. 17. 




A. D. 57. depth of philosophy, that are the wea- 

pons I use for subduing mankind to the 

belief of the Gospel; but the miracu- 
lous evidences of the Holy Spirit, which 
are arguments far stronger * than all 
human reasonings, sufficient to destroy 
all the towering schemes and lofty 
flights of human literature; to regulate 
men's irreligious notions, and reduce 
them to the faith and obedience of the 
true religion of Christ. 

6 And let them be assured, that 
though the great number of those of- 
fenders made me suspend my coming, 
and for a while to forbear my severities ; 
yet now I have drawn the sounder and 
greater part of your church into due 
order and subjection again, I know 
how to treat them that still oppose and 
undervalue me ; and shall not fail to do 

7 Those men look upon nothing but 
the person of a man, and catch at his 
character from the bare external face 
of some particular actions. Let them 
look upon the whole course of my mi- 
nistry, and then see whether I may not 
compare with those boasters in point of 
true Christian apostleship. 

8 I must tell them, though I have 
been hitherto tender in the use of my 
apostolical power, as being more willing 
to encourage and win, than to restrain 
and fright men by my authority ; yet I 
might, without any pride or vain glory, 
magnify that authority more than ever 
I yet have done ; 

9, 10 And soon convince them I can 
punish as well as threaten ; though they 
would persuade you not to value the 

are not carnal, but 
mighty through God, 
to the pulling down 
of strong holds ;) 

5 Casting down 
imaginations, and eve- 
ry high thing that ex- 
altelh itself against 
the knowledge of God, 
and bringing into cap- 
tivity every thought 
to the obedience of 
Christ : 

6 And having in a 
readiness to revenge 
all disobedience, when 
your obedience is ful- 

7 Do ye look on 
things after the out- 
ward appearance r If 
any man trust to him- 
self that he is Christ's, 
let him of himself 
think this again, that 
as he is Christ's, even 
so are we Christ's. 

8 For though I 
should boast some- 
what more of our au- 
thority, (which the 
Lord hath given us 
for edification, and 
not for your destruc- 
tion,) I should not be 

9 That I may not 
seem as if I would ter- 
rify you by letters. 

* Ver. 4. Mighty through God, Aw*™ r* ©»£. See my note on 
chap. viii. 1. 


10 For his letters 
(say they) are weighty 
and powerful, but his 
bodily presence is 
weak, and his speech 

11 Let such an one 
think this, that such 
as we are in the word 
by letters, when we 
are absent, such will 
we be also in deed when 
we are present. 

12 For we dare 
not make ourselves of 
the number, or com- 
pare ourselves with 
some that commend 
themselves : but they 
measuring themselves 
by themselves, and 
comparing themselves 
among themselves, 
are not wise. 

13 But we will not 
boast of things with- 
out our measure, but 
according to the mea- 
sure of the rule which 
God hath distributed 
to us, a measure to 
reach even unto you. 

14 For we stretch 
not ourselves beyond 
our measure, as though 
we reached not unto 
you ; for we are come 
as far as to you also 
in preaching the Gos- 
pel of Christ : 

strength and gravity, and severity of A. D. 57. 

my epistles ; because they tell you, 

when I come in person, I have no mien 
f nor air of authority, and eloquence 
to maintain, and carry me through. 

11 But those persons shall assuredly 
find, that whatever my bodily imperfec- 
tions be, I shall verify every word of 
my letters by my actions. 

12 I shall not now stand to enter 
into a comparison between myself and 
those foolish boasters, that admire 
themselves, because they consider no- 
body's accomplishments but their own. 

13 Nor shall I insist upon the autho- 
rity and large extent of my apostolical 
commission : all I say is, that I am 
commissioned to be the apostle of the 
Gentiles ; and according to it, have 
come gradually preaching the Gospel 
to the several countries, till I reached 
you at Corinth. 

14? For it is not my method to run 
abruptly from one church to another, 
without finishing my work in any, as 
your new teachers do ; but to take them 
gradually in my travels, and perfect 
their conversion as I go along. 

* Ver. 10. But his bodily presence is weak, and his speech contempti- 
ble. The ancient writers represent St. Paul as a man of a low sta- 
ture, with mean aspect of body, a bald head, and an impediment in 
his speech. Which testimonies, added to the several expressions of 
this and the eleventh chapters, make it highly probable, that it 
was these natural and bodily defects he means by his infirmity and 
weakness, and his thorn in the flesh. See there in chap. xii. 7. 




A. D. 57. 15, 16 And not like them, to come 

» into churches that other men have 

planted, and then brag and boast upon 
other people's labours. I only hope, 
that as I converted you at first, your 
progress in Christianity will be so good 
as to enable me to keep my course on 
beyond your country, and convert still 
more people to the Gospel. 

17 If your new teachers therefore 
are for boasting, let them, if they can 
boast in a regular performance of the 
Gospel ministry, and in the successes 
wherewith God has blessed them in 
men's conversion to the Christian faith. 

18 For it is not the vain applauses 
that men give themselves, that signify 
any thing; it is God alone that can 
duly recommend a Christian apostle, 
by the gifts of his Holy Spirit, and 
his blessing upon the work of their mi- 

15 Not boasting of 
things without our 
measure, that is, of 
other men's labours; 
but having hope when 
your faith is increased, 
that we shall be en- 
larged by you ac- 
cording to our rule 

16 To preach the 
Gospel in the regions 
beyond you, and not 
to boast in another 
man's line of things 
made ready to our 

1 7 But he that glo- 
rieth, let him glory in 
the Lord. 

IS For not he that 
commendeth himself 
is approved, but whom 
the Lord commend- 



To preserve the Corinthians in a good opinion of himself, and a just 
sense of his apostolical authority, against the suggestions of the false 
teachers, the apostle enlarges upon one of their chief insinuations, 
viz. That of not taking maintenance of their church. Exposes their 
pride and suhtilty, particularly of the Judaizing part of them. Com- 
pares himself with, and justly prefers himself to them, on all ac- 
counts ; on his innumerable sufferings for Christ's religion, his unwea- 
ried labours in the church, his constant cares and fears for, and his 
compassionate tenderness to, all its members. 

1 Vy OULD to God 

you could bear 
with me a little in my 
folly ; and indeed bear 
with me. 

2 For I am jealous 
over you with godly 
jealousy : for I have 
espoused you to one 
husband, that I may 
present you as a chaste 
virgin to Christ. 

3 But I fear, lest by 
any means, as the ser- 
pent beguiled Eve 
through his subtilty, 
so your minds should 
be corrupted from the 
simplicity that is in 

4 For if he that 
cometh preacheth an- 
other Jesus, whom we 
have not preached, or 
if ye receive another 
spirit, which ye have 
not received, or an- 
other Gospel, which 
ye have not accepted, 

REQUEST therefore of your A. D. 57. 

boasting teachers, and of all that - 

still adhere to them, in my disparage- 
ment, to bear with what I am thus 
* forced to say in my own commenda- 
tion, and not interpret it as vanity and 

2 I do it purely from the pious care 
I have of your welfare, that as I have 
made you a Christian church, the 
spouse of Christ, I may keep you chaste 
and uncorrupted in the love of him, 
and his true religion. 

3 For the busy and designing temper 
of those men, makes me dread you 
should be seduced from it, by the subtle 
insinuations of the same evil Spirit that 
drew our first parents into sin. 

4 You that follow these new teachers, 
can bear their boastings patiently 
enough. And indeed, did they propose 
to you a greater and better Saviour, or 
preach a more holy and comfortable 
doctrine, or bestowed any larger gifts 
of the Holy Spirit upon you, than I 
have already done, you were in the 

* Chap. x. 




A. I). 57- right in so doing, and in esteeming 
• them as greater and more excellent apo- 
stles than I am. 

5 But this you cannot say ; for I 
have spoken and done that which gives 
me equal pretensions with any other 
apostle whatever. (See 1 Cor. xv. 8, 9.) 

6 For if I be not, in outward ac- 
complishments, the most plausible and 
fine speaker, yet have I, by my sincerity 
in preaching, and the powers by which 
I have confirmed it, sufficiently con- 
vinced you of my complete abilities in 
the Christian religion. 

7 As to the distaste they would * seem 
to take at my working for my liveli- 
hood among you, and not insisting 
upon my privilege of maintenance from 
your church, I hope it was no injury 
to teach you your Christian i-eligion of 
free-cost, and undergo the labours of a 
trade, to be the more capable of serving 

8, 9 On the contrary, it should rather 
seem a mark of kindness, that I should 
receive supplies of other churches, when 
I was in want, on purpose to excuse 
you absolutely from it. And I have 
good reason why I still keep my reso- 
lution to do so. 

10 Nay, I protest by the very truth 

ye might well bear 
with him. 

5 For I suppose I 
was not a whit behind 
the very chiefest apo- 

6 But though / be 
rude in speech, yet 
not in knowledge ; 
but we have been 
thoroughly made ma- 
nifest among you in 
all things. 

7 Have I committed 
an offence in abasing 
myself that you might 
be exalted, because I 
have preached to you 
the Gospel of God 
freely ? 

8 I robbed other 
churches, taking wages 
of them to do you ser- 

9 And when I was 
present with you, and 
wanted, I was charge- 
able to no man : for 
that which was lack- 
ingto me, the brethren 
which came from Ma- 
cedonia supplied : and 
in all things have I 
kept myself from be- 
ing burdensome unto 
you, and so will I keep 

10 As the truth of 

* Ver. 7. See 1 Cor. ix. 

Ibid. Would seem to take. For as angry as you are on one side, 

dE l\xij.Ga.vov, so-xav^aXfo-SjiTE av, yet had I actually been maintained 

by you, you would more likely have taken it ill on the other side, says 


Christ is in me, no 
man shall stop me of 
this boasting in the 
regions of Achaia. 

11 Wherefore? be- 
cause I love you not ? 
God knovveth. 

12 But what I do, 
that I will do, that I 
may cut off occasion 
from them which de- 
sire occasion, that 
wherein they glory, 
they may be found 
even as we. 

13 For such are 
false apostles, deceit- 
ful workers, trans- 
forming themselves 
into the apostles of 

14 And no marvel \ 
for Satan himself is 
transformed into an 
angel of light. 

15 Therefore it is 
no great thing if his 
ministers also be trans- 
formed as the mini- 
sters of righteousness; 
whose end shall be 
according to their 

16 I say again, Let 
no man think me a 
fool ; if otherwise, 
yet as a fool receive 
me, that I may boast 
myself a little. 

17 That which I 
speak, I speak it not 
after the Lord, but as 

of the Gospel, I will keep it, and make A. I). 5? 

it matter of glorying and valuing * my- s 

self for thus preaching freely to the 
churches of Achaia. 

U, 13 Not that I refuse maintenance 
from you out of any disgust or dislike 
to your church. Far otherwise, God 
knows. But I do it chiefly to stop the 
mouths of your Judaizing teachers, that 
pretend (and indeed only pretend +) 
to preach of free-cost, and to shew them 
I can really do what they make only a 
pretence to. 

13 Those men, while they derogate 
from my apostleship, are evidently 
themselves designing and false apostles; 
having nothing but the outside and ap- 
pearance of that sacred function. 

14, 15 And since the devil, their 
grand master, is wont to assume the 
shape of an angel of light, when he 
intends the most dangerous deceits; 
no wonder his scholars should vent 
their errors and delusions under cover 
of the truly apostolical and Gospel 
ministry ; but they shall one day receive 
the due recompence of such wickedness. 

16 While therefore such hypocrites 
as these can have the face to magnify 
themselves, you must suffer me to speak 
more of myself as a true apostle, than 
otherwise I would do. 

17 Indeed 1 have no positivecommand 
from Christ to insist thus far upon my 
own character; I do it from prudential 

* Ver. 10. See 1 Cor. ix. 15—19. 

f Wherein they glory, but had no reason to glory. For says 
Theodoret, "E$ui;£v ocvtoi)<; Xoyv ko^ttx^ovtccc, AaS^o. }\ xf r >t / - ccri ^°^ vov ^' 
The apostle means, that they boasted of it, but privately got all the 
money they could. 





A. D. 57. considerations of the just and necessary 
— _ occasion given for it ; though some per- 
haps may call it vanity and ostentation. 
18 And whereas your Judaizing 
teachers do so much exalt themselves 
upon the outward privileges of their 
birth, and extraction from Abraham 
and the patriarchs, and being members 
of the ancient church of God by cir- 
cumcision ; I can set myself upon the 
level with them in those points too. 

1.9 And I hope those proselytes they 
have gained over to them will pardon 
my folly in so doing, since, as wise as 
they are, they can bear a great deal 
more from those false and foolish pre- 

20 For it is plain they suffer them to 
impose upon their understandings and 
principles, and to insult their persons; 
they resent not the most abusive be- 
haviour from them. 

21 Thus they patiently permit the 
very * people that despise and under- 
value me, to use them * with the utmost 
pride and indignity. But as weak and 
insignificant a man as they represent 
me, what is there in which 1 am not 
able to compare with them? 

22 If they be the descendants of 
Abraham, Jews by birth, by language 
and religion, so am I. 

23 If they boast of their Christian 
ministry, you may perhaps think me 
vain, but it is true, if I say, I have far 
surpassed them in that capacity: wit- 
ness my unspeakable toils and labours, 
my innumerable stripes, the many im- 

it were foolishly in 
this confidence of 

IS Seeing that ma- 
ny glory after the flesh,, 
I will glory also. 

19 For ye suffer 
fools gladly, seeing ye 
yourselves are wise. 

20 For ye suffer 
if a man bring you 
into bondage, if a man 
devour ijou, if a man 
take of you, if a man 
exalt himself, if a man 
smite you on the face. 
21 I speak as con- 
cerning reproach, as 
though we had been 
weak: howbeit where- 
insoever any is bold (I 
speak foolishly) I am 
bold also. 

22 Are they He- 
brews? so am I: are 
they Israelites ? so am 
I : are they the seed of 
Abraham ? so am I : 

23 Are they mini- 
sters of Christ ? (I 
speak as a fool) I am 
more; in labours more 
abundant, in stripes 
above measure, in pri- 

* Ver. 21. Kxroc ccrifxlacv xiyu, I speak as concerning reproach, i. e. 
either the reproaches and insults those teachers used toward their 
followers j or such as they treated St. Paul with. I have expressed 
both senses. 


sons more frequent, 
in deaths oft. 

24 Of the Jews 
five times received I 
forty stripes save one. 

25 Thrice was I 
beaten with rods, once 
was I stoned, thrice I 
suffered shipwreck, a 
night and a day I have 
been in the deep : 

26 In journeyings 
often, in perils of wa- 
ters, in perils of rob- 
bers, in perils by mine 
own countrymen, in 
perils by the heathen, 
in perils in the city, 
in perils in the wilder- 
ness, in perils in the 
sea, in perils among 
false brethren j 

27 In weariness and 
painfulness, in watch- 
ings often, in hunger 
and thirst, in fastings 
often, in cold and na- 

28 Besides those 
things that are with- 
out, that which com- 
eth upon me daily, 
the care of all the 

29 Who is weak, 
and I am not weak ? 

prisonments, and hazards of death I A. I). 57. 

have gone through for the sake of Christ ■ 

and his Gospel ; trials that they have 
had little or no share of. 

?A, 25 I was whipped five times with 
thirty-nine * strokes at a time, by order 
of the Jewish governors. Thrice I was 
lashed by the heathen officers, (Acts xvi. 
23.) once stoned, (Acts xiv. 19.) thrice 
shipwrecked, and lor a night and a day 
was tossed upon a piece f of wreck be- 
fore I could get to land. 

26 Innumerable have been my dan- 
gers and hardships in travels by sea 
and land, in city and % country, from 
Jews and Gentiles, and from false bre- 
thren of all kinds. 

27 I have borne the labours of the 
day, and the watchings of the night ; 
the uneasiness of want, and the volun- 
tary pains of severe abstinence; and 
have sometimes not had wherewithal to 
skreen me from cold and nakedness. 

28 Nor are these outward and bodily 
inconveniences the whole of my Christian 
sufferings ; still greater and more con- 
stant are the inward cares, the jealousies 
and fears I have for all the churches I 
have planted. 

29 Not a Christian member in any 
one of them is afflicted, whether in 

* Ver. 24. See Deut. xxv. 3. Joseph. Antiq. lib. iv. chap. 8. 

f Ver. 25. So Theodoret, TotrnV* tov o-kclQov; ^aAuSsvro?, mcco-xv th 

T£ VUXTOt Xx\ T>?V VpSfOLV diSTsAsiXa TYl$S XUXtTcTE VVO TUV Xl/jUaTOIV Qcp6fJl.tV0<;, 

i. e. the ship being shattered to pieces, he lived a whole night and 
a day, tossed upon a part of its wreck. 

X Ver. 26. In perils in the wilderness. 'Ev Ipyuiu, in the country. 
For so the word signifies very often. It is here opposed to Iv woAs*, 
the city. We read of no woods or wildernesses St. Paul suffered in. 

F f 2 




A. D. 57. mind or body, but I sympathize with 

him, make his distemper my own, and 

bear part of his burden. Not a soul is 
perverted, prejudiced, or misled in his 
Christian principles, but my heart is all 
on fire with zeal to strengthen and re- 
cover him. 

30, 31 These are such mattters; such 
sufferings, and such affections as these, 
may warrant me to boast, if any boast- 
ing be at all warrantable. And for the 
truth of these facts, I appeal to the 
ever-blessed God, the Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, whose apostle I am. 

32, 33 My very entrance upon my 
apostolical ministry was an entrance 
into a suffering state. For at Damas- 
cus, the first place of my preaching, the 
Roman governor, at the instigation of 
the obstinate Jews, ordered watch and 
ward to apprehend me * ; but the Chris- 
tian converts let me down the town- 
wall in a basket, and so I escaped. 

who is offended, and 
I burn not ? 

30 If I must needs 
glory, I will glory of 
the things which con- 
cern mine infirmities. 

31 The God and 
Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, which is 
blessed for evermore, 
knoweth that I lie not. 

32 In Damascus the 
governor under Are- 
tas the king kept the 
city of the Damas- 
cenes with a garrison, 
desirous to apprehend 
me : 

33 And through a 
window in a basket 
was I let down by the 
wall, and escaped his 

* Acts ix. 23, 24, 25. 



To weigh down still more the disparagement the false teachers had cast 
upon him, the apostle further prefers himself to them, on account of 
the special revelations that God had vouchsafed to make to him. 
But instances chiefly in one. He is not puffed up into pride by these 
great favours and privileges. God hath provided him a natural re- 
medy against such an abuse of them, viz. a thorn in his flesh, his 
bodily infirmities, wherewith his wicked adversaries reproached and 
mortified him. Yet he glories in these divine revelations as manifest 
proofs of a true apostleship. Touches again upon his prudent reso- 
lution not to take maintenance from their church. Confutes the 
groundless insinuation of his adversaries, that he made private gains 
of them, though he apparently refused, to take any thing of them. 
Expresses again his tenderness toward them, and wisheih he may find 
no necessity of punishing their obstinacy at liis next visit to their 

1 TT is not expedient 
for me doubtless 
to glory : I will come 
to visions and revela- 
tions of the Lord. 

2 I knew a man in 
Christ above fourteen 
years ago, (whether in 
the body, I cannot 
tell ; or whether out 
of the body, I cannot 
tell: God knowethj) 
such an one caught up 
to the third heaven. 

3 And I knew such 
a man, (whether in the 
body, or out of the 
body, I cannot tell : 
God knoweth ;) 

1 TT is needless for me to enlarge A. D. 57 

■■" any further on what I have done 

and suffered for the Gospel, beyond any 
of your new teachers. But I shall give 
you one demonstration more of the ex- 
cellency and truth of my apostleship 
above theirs, from those special reve- 
lations God has been pleased to make 


c 2 Among several of which I shall 
choose to instance at present but in 
one. About fourteen years ago, being 
about eleven * years after my first con- 
version to Christianity, I was, me- 
thought, caught up into the third hea- 
ven, having a glorious manifestation 
of the majesty of God made to me, and 
of the habitation and society of blessed 
angels and spirits. 

3 Whether, in this manifestation, 
my soul was still joined to my body, or 
separately conveyed into that blessed 
abode, God only knows, for I am no; 
able to determine it. 

* So Dr. Whitby placeth it, A. D. 46. and to have been made 
at Lystra, Acts xiv. 

F F 3 




A. D. 57. 4 I can only say, I was in paradise, 

the seat of the blessed, and had a clear 

and certain revelation of such things 
made to me, as I am no way able to 



5 Though therefore I had waved all 
my own actions and qualifications, yet 
these are such divine favours toward 
me, and testimonies for me, that I may 
justly triumph in them. As to myself, 
I boast in nothing but the sufferings 
and reproaches for which others are 
apt to despise me. 

6 These 1 could much longer dwell 
upon, without any just imputation of 
folly and vanity, (for they are nothing 
but truth;) but I shall say no more, but 
shall refer myself to what you and other 
Christians plainly know of me. 

7 Nay, indeed, God has provided 
against my too high conceit of myself, 
upon account of these favours of divine 
revelations to me. For along with them 
I have those natural infirmities and de- 
fects f of body, which my adversaries, 

4 How that he 
was caught up into 
paradise, and heard 
unspeakable words, 
which it is not lawful 
for a man to utter. 

5 Of such an one 
will I glory : yet of 
myself I will not glo- 
ry, but in mine infir- 

6 For though I 
would desire to glory, 
I shall not be a fool : 
for I will say the 
truth : but now I for- 
bear, lest any man 
should think of me 
above that which he 
seeth me to be, or that 
he heareth of me. 

7 And lest I should 
be exalted above 
measure, through the 
abundance of the re- 
velations, there was 
given to me + a thorn 
in the flesh, the mes- 

* Ver. 4. Ot^x ifov, it is not lawful for a man to utter, or it is not 
possible, as the word often signifies ; ov v6(j.w kxI ty&x srot^ayy^ia,^ -mo? 

ovk l%ov, cwva/xEi di ccyia. a^EyKTOV ilvctt to veTov [xyvvti. Not unlawful 

by any divine command, but impossible to be expressed in human 
language, as they were perfectly divine and heavenly things. Clem. 
Alexand. Strom, v. p. 58b'. Or if, by the unspeakable words, «ppV* 
p»'/xaT«, and not lawful to be uttered, is meant forbidden to St. Paul 
to mention, or leave in writing, to Christians, it may be probably 
understood of things relating to the future events that were to fall 
out in the church, whereof this apostle had some revelation in 
part j but the full particulars were reserved to St. John, and are 
seen in his Book of Revelation. Compare 2 Cor. ii. 3 — 13. I Tim. 
iv. 1—5. with Rev. i. 1, % &c. 

f Ver. 7. -d thorn in the flesh. See note on chap. x. 10. and Dr. 
Whitby on this place. See also and compare Numb, xxxiii. 55. 
Josh, xxiii. 13. Judges ii. 3. Ezek. Kxviii. 24. 


senger * of Satan to 
buffet me, lest I 
should be exalted a- 
bove measure. 

8 For this thing I 
besought the Lord 
thrice, that it might 
depart from me. 

9 And he said unto 
me, My f grace is 
sufficient for thee : 
for my strength is 
made perfect in weak- 
ness. Most gladly 
therefore will I ra- 
ther glory in my in- 
firmities, that the 
power of Christ may 
rest upon me. 

those * emissaries of Satan, lay hold of A. D. 57. 

as occasions (though very unjust ones) ■ 

to reproach and despise me, and render 
my ministry contemptible. A thing suf- 
ficient to humble and keep me within 
due thoughts of myself. 

8 And from whence I have found 
such inconveniences, in the course of 
my ministry, that in three solemn 
prayers I begged of Jesus Christ to de- 
liver me from them, for the benefit and 
freer progress of his Gospel. 

9 But his answer was, that the mi- 
raculous f powers and abilities of the 
Holy Spirit he had conferred on me, 
were the most proper and sufficient ar- 
guments to convince men of the truth 
and excellency of my doctrine and mi- 
nistry : and that the more infirm and 
weak the instrument was, the more 
plain and illustrious was his divine 
power that wrought by it. Upon which 
consideration I am, for the future, so 
far from being ashamed of these in- 
firmities, that I glory in them, as mere 
conspicuous demonstrations of those 

* Ver. 7. The messenger of Satan to buffet me. "Ayyihoq Zarav a* [At 
xoXxQifa, so as that the messenger of Satan buffets, or might buffet, me. 
(Acts xii. 21, 22, 23.) I have paraphrased this passage according to 
the learned Dr. Whitby's interpretation, as the clearest and most 
agreeable to other passages in these Epistles. If the reader does 
not approve of it, he may choose that sense which several of the 
ancient fathers, Chrysostom and CEcumenius, &c. give of it, who, 
by the thorn in the flesh, understand his afflictions and persecutions, 
which his adversaries, the messengers of Satan, brought upon him. 
Our translation seems to make the thorn in the flesh the same 
with the messenger of Satan ; which is impossible. For the thorn was 
given or sent from God, and therefore could not be the messenger 
of Satan. The particle ?»*, therefore, is plainly transposed ; and 
should, in natural construction, come before ayytXo?. A transpo- 
sition not uncommon to that of ve, and other particles in the 

f Ver. 9. My grace, 8>c. w gag* pov. My gift, i. e. the gift of iha 
Spirit, for demonstrating the truth of his doctrine by miracles, 

F F 4 




A. D 57 divine endowments Christ has conferred 

on me. 

10 Wherefore I patiently endure all 
the scoffs and reproaches of my obsti- 
nate opposers, all the distresses and per- 
secutions raised against me for Christ's 
sake, looking upon that divine power 
and providence that supports me in, 
and carries me through, them, as the 
most absolute argument of the truth and 
excellency of my cause. 

11 Whatever lengths therefore I 
have run in my own commendation and 
defence, they are owing to you ; to stop 
the mouths of your false boasters, and 
preserve you from being seduced by 
them. It was your part indeed to have 
vindicated and commended me, and 
taken that work out of my hands; who, 
though I attribute nothing to myself, 
am yet, by the miraculous gifts and fa- 
vours of God, upon the level with any 
other apostle whatever. 

12 For the truth whereof I need 
only appeal to that patience and con- 
stancy with which I preached to your 
church, and those miraculous and suc- 
cessful performances by which I wrought 
your conversion to the Gospel. 

13 What spiritual endowments that 
any other churches have, were denied 
to you; or wherein was I wanting to 
you ? I used you in all respects as I 
did the best of them, excepting that in- 
deed I had maintenance from them, 
but none from you. And I hope I am 
to be pardoned for doing you a favour. 

14 I took none of you the first time 
I was personally preaching among you, 
nor intended it at my second coming ; 
which your continued disorders * kept 
me from ; and I shall hold the same 
resolution in my third visit intended 

10 Therefore I 
take pleasure in infir- 
mities, in reproaches, 
in necessities, in per- 
secutions, in distresses 
for Christ's sake : for 
when I am weak, then 
am I strong. 

Ill am become a 
fool in glorying; ye 
have compelled me : 
for I ought to have 
been commended of 
you : for in nothing 
am I behind the very 
chiefest apostles, 

though I be nothing. 

12 Truly the signs 
of an apostle were 
wrought among you 
in all patience, in 
signs, and wonders, 
and mighty deeds. 

13 For what is it 
wherein ye were infe- 
rior to other churches, 
except it be that I 
myself was not bur- 
densome to you ? for- 
give me this wrong. 

14 Behold, the 
third time I am rea- 
dy to come to you j 
and I will not be bur- 
densome to you ; for 
I seek not yours, but 

See chap. i. 23. to the end. 


you ; for the children 
ought not to lay up 
for the parents, but 
the parents for the 

15 And I will ve- 
ry gladly spend and 
be spent for you, 
though the more a- 
bundantly I love you, 
the less I be loved. 

16 But be it so, I 
did not burden you ; 
nevertheless, being 
crafty, I caught you 
with guile. 

17 Did I make a 
gain of you by any 
of them whom I sent 
unto you ? 

18 I desired Titus, 
and with him I sent 
a brother j did Titus 
make a gain of you ? 
walked we not in the 
same spirit r walked 
we not in the same 
steps ? 

19 Again, think 
you that we excuse 
ourselves unto you ? 
we speak before God 
in Christ : but we do 
all things, dearly be- 
loved, for your edi- 

20 For I fear, lest 
when I come, I shall 
not find you such as 
I would, and that I 
shall be found unto 
you such as ye would 
not j lest there be 

you. I look upon you as my spiritual A. D. 57. 

children, and shall provide for you, 

without expecting any thing from you. 

15 And, as such a father to you all, 
am I free to bestow all my instructions 
on you, nay, to lay out all my strength 
in labours for your good ; though the 
returns I have from some of you be 
only to be slighted and undervalued for 
my pains. 

lb' Some of your designing teachers 
indeed maliciously suggest, that though 
1 did not take any thing of you myself, 
it was only a cunning fetch to draw the 
more from you by other people. 

17 Now, whom do these malicious 
people mean? Did any one person I 
employed in your church take a farthing 
of any one of you ? 

18 I sent Titus, for instance, and 
another Christian brother with him; 
did either of them do it ? Did they not 
exactly follow my example, and main- 
tain themselves without the least pre- 
sent or contribution from your church ? 

19 And let no insinuations make you 
think I am not sincere in what I now 
say, or that I sent them, because * I 
would shift off my own journey to you. 
As God is true, and as I am an apostle 
of Christ and his Gospel, there is no 
such thing. I did that, as I do every 
thing else, to win most upon you, and 
do you the most good. 

20 I deferred my coming, in hopes 
of the reformation of your notorious of- 
fenders, by my clemency toward them : 
for I dreaded that if I came at that 
time, I should be obliged to be very se- 
vere upon several of those proud, quar- 

* Chap. i. c 23, 24. ii. 1 




A. D. 57. relsome and factious persons. An ex- 

tremity I am loth to come to, and that 

would render our meeting but very un- 
pleasant to one another. 

21 I justly feared, that God, for their 
obstinacy, had still left those unclean 
* people in their unrepented unclean- 
ness; and that I should have the sorrow 
and mortification of reducing them by 
methods of sharpness and severity. 



debates, envyings, 
wraths, strifes, back- 
bitings, whisperings, 
swellings, tumults : 

21 And lest when I 
come again, my God 
will humble me a- 
mong you, and that 
I shall bewail many 
which have sinned al- 
ready, and have not 
repented of the un- 
cleanness, atid forni- 
cation, and lascivious- 
ness which they have 


He threatens to punish his obstinate opposers, at his next coming among 
them. In the meayi time, exhorts them, earnestly to a reformation, 
and professes he should be right glad to find no occasion to shew the 
power he has to vindicate himself and punish them. The salutations 
and conclusion. 

1 T>EM£MBER then I make you a 
"*-*' third promise to come and visit 
you at Corinth; and my thus repeating 
my engagements, ought as fully to sa- 
tisfy you of the certainty of my per- 
formance, as the testimony of two or 
three witnesses carries a cause in any 

2 And let your unreformed and scan- 
dalous transgressors know, that having 
thus repeated my threats upon them, 
if 1 should come and find them in no 
better mind, I shall certainly be as good 
as my word, and be hard upon them, 
be they as many as they will. 

3 And since some of your false 
teachers have been so arrogant, as to 
challenge me to give sufficient evidences 
and characters of my apostolical com- 

1 rpHIS is the third 
time I am com- 
ing to you : in the 
mouth of two or three 
witnesses shall every 
word be established. 

2 1 told you be- 
fore, and foretel you 
as if 1 were present 
the second time, and 
being absent, now I 
write to them which 
heretofore have sin- 
ned, and to all other, 
that if Income again, 
I will not spare : 

3 Since ye seek a 
proof of Christ speak- 
ing in me, which to 
you ward is not weak, 
but is mighty in you. 


4 For though he 
was crucified through 
weakness *, yet he 
liveth by the power 
of God : for we also 
are weak in him, but 
we shall live with him 
by the power of God 
toward you. 

5 Examine your- 
selves, whether ye be 
in the faith j prove 
your own selves: 
know ye not your 
own selves, how that 
Jesus Christ is in youf, 
except ye be repro- 
bates r 

6 But I trust that 
ye shall know that we 
are not reprobates J. 

mission, they shall find, to their cost, A. D. 57. 

what power and authority Christ has 

invested me with. 

4 For as Christ himself, by the in- 
firmities of his human nature, was liable 

to sufferings, and actually suffered upon* l Pet. \\\. 
the cross; but by the divine power 18 * 
dwelling in him, was raised to an end- 
less and immortal glory ; so I that am 
his true apostle, as weak and afflicted 
as I am at present, have yet those di- 
vine powers conferred upon me that 
are abundantly sufficient to vindicate 
me, and convince them. 

5 Let those busy and factious ex- 
aminers of me and my ministry look 
into and try themselves first, whether 
they be true Christians themselves. 
They know the rule whereby to try 
themselves f and their doctrine ; or 
else they are but bad Christians indeed. 
Namely, have you the Spirit of Christ 
dwelling in you f Do you shew it forth 
by the fruits of the Spirit, in the virtues 
of your lives ? Or is the doctrine you 
teach or embrace the true doctrine of 
Christ ? And has Christ bestowed on 
you the same power of miracles to con- 
firm it, as he has upon me ? 

6* As to myself, I doubt not, but when 
I come among them, to shew my own 
apostleship to be genuine and autho- 
ritative by characters plain enough in 
the punishments I am like to inflict 
upon them. 

f Ver. 5. Know ye not that Jesus Christ is in you ? He speaks 
either to the false teachers, as in the paraphrase ; or else to the 
Corinthian Christians in general ; and then the sense is, That if 
they were not convinced he had preached the true Christian doctrine 
among them, they must be very ignorant Christians indeed, and could 
give but a bad account of their religion. 

X Ver. b, 6, 7. Reprobates, ^ok'uqi. See Tit. i. 16. Rom. i. 28. 
'2 Tim. iii. S. with the notes on these passages, shewing the true 
sense of this word, and the impropriety of our translation of it, as 
<r mostly sounds in our English language. 




A. D. 

57. 7 In the mean while I pray God 

none of them may remain so obstinate, 

as to give me the sad occasion of shew- 
ing my authority ; I had much rather 
they should reform, than I take the op- 
portunity of proving my power upon 
them. Let them live and act worthy 
of their holy profession, and I am little 
concerned how low their opinion of me 
may be. 

8 Only be it never so severe, I must 
promote the honour of the Gospel reli- 
gion, and cannot neglect it. 

9 It is a much greater pleasure to 
me, to have my hands held from pu- 
nishing, by their timely repentance. 
For it is the spiritual good and benefit 
of you all that I chiefiy aim at, and 
most heartily wish for. 

10 And therefore I give them this 
previous notice, to prevent the severe 
use of my apostolical authority upon 
them, which I always endeavoured to 
manage in so tender and prudent a 
manner, as may best answer the wise 
ends for which Christ invested me with 
it, viz. the reformation rather than the 

Chap. x. punishment * of offenders. 

11 And thus, dear brethren, I take 
my present leave of you. Regulate 
f and perfect whatever is amiss among 
you, exhort and encourage one another 
to it ; endeavour to become an uniform 
and peaceable society, and then God, 
the Author of peace and love, will not 
fail to support and bless you. 

12 Salute one another with your 
usual kiss of love and charity. 

13 All the Christians of these parts 
salute you. 

7 Now I pray to 
God that ye do no 
evil j not that we 
should appear approv- 
ed, but that ye should 
do that which is ho- 
nest, though we be 
as reprobates. 

8 For we can do 

nothing against the 
truth, but for the 

9 For we are glad, 
when we are weak, 
and ye are strong : 
and this also we wish, 
even your perfection. 

10 Therefore I 
write these things be- 
ing absent, lest being 
present I should use 
sharpness, according 
to the power which 
the Lord hath given 
me to edification, and 
not to destruction. 

11 Finally, bre- 
thren, farewel : f be 
perfect, be of good 
comfort, be of one 
mind, live in peace ; 
and the God of love 
and peace shall be 
with you. 

12 Greet one ano- 
ther with an holy kiss. 

13 All the saints 
salute you. 

f Ver. 11. KocTcc^Ti^tcr^i, be perfect, or be reformed. 'AvwrrXngovT* to, 
XsiVovTa, mend what is amiss. Chrysostom. And see Le Clerc upon 
this place. Or act suitable to your profession. Dr. Sykes on Heb. 
x. 5. 


14 The grace of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and the love of God, 
and the communion of 
the Holy * Ghost, be 
with you all. Amen. 

% The second Epis- 
tle to the Corin- 
thians was writ- 
ten from Philip- 
pi, a city of Ma- 
cedonia, by Ti- 
tus and Lucas. 

14 The favour and love of Christ A. D. 57. 

Jesus, the love of God the Father, and 

the communion of the gifts of the Holy 
* Ghost, be with you all. Amen. 

The second Epistle to the Corin- 
thians, written from Philippi, a 
city of Macedonia, by Titus and 
Luke, Anno Dom. 57, the latter 
end of the year. 

* Ver. 14. Communion of the Holy Ghost. Compare Ephes. i. 17. 
Col. i. 9. Numb. xi. 29. 



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